• Title, Summary, Keyword: Capsaicin

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Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Various Species of Red Peppers and Their Powdered Products in Market by GC-MS Analysis (GC-MS 분석에 의한 고추 품종별 및 시판고춧가루의 capsaicin 및 dihydrocapsaicin 함량조사)

  • Yu, Jong-Ok;Choi, Won-Seok;Lee, Ung-Soo
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2009
  • In this research, the contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in various species of red pepper produced in the Goesan-gun County were determined by GC-MS. Further, the contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in powdered red pepper products with very hot, hot, normal and mild taste were analyzed to present the degree of hot taste in their products based on contents of capsaicin. The contents of capsaicin in each species of red pepper were from 25.18 mg%(Daetong) to 123.62 mg%(Cheongyang). In the powdered red pepper sold in the market, the contents (mg%) of capsaicin in very hot, hot, normal and mild taste products were 101.98, 67.63, 37.74, and 14.73, respectively. Based on this result, the classification of hot taste by contents of capsaicin was presented in the 7 grades. Namely, the products currently sold in the market were classified into very hot, hot, normal and mild taste. In this research, the degree of hot taste was classified based on contents of capsaicin into 1st grade over 120 mg%, 2nd grade in 100-120 mg%, 3rd grade in 80-100 mg%, 4th grade in 60-80 mg%, 5th grade in 40-60 mg%, 6th grade in 20-40 mg% and 7th grade below 20 mg%. Thus, it is expected that the problem which arises when preparing the products such as kimchi, gochujang and seasoning sauces by using powdered red pepper, namely, the inconsistency of hot taste can be improved and maintained.

Analysis of p53-Dependency of Differentially Expressed Genes by Capsaicin in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell (인간 대장암 세포주에서 capsaicin 처리에 의한 차별적인 유전자 발현의 p53 의존성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyo-Eun;Jang, Min-Jeong;Lim, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Hyo-Rim;Kim, Soon-Young;Lee, Gun-Joo;Kim, Jong-Sik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2010
  • In the present study, we investigated anti-proliferative activities of capsaicin and gene expression changes in response to capsaicin treatment in human colorectal HCT116 cells. The results showed that capsaicin decreased cell viabilities in a dose dependent manner and induced global gene expression changes. We found that 103 genes were up-regulated more than twofold, whereas 153 genes were down-regulated more than twofold by $100\;{\mu}M$ capsaicin treatment. Among the up-regulated genes, we selected 4 genes (NAG-1, DDIT3, GADD45A and PCK2) and performed RT-PCR to confirm the microarray data. We found that $100\;{\mu}M$ of capsaicin increased tumor suppressor p53 gene expression. In addition, the results showed that NAG-1, DDIT3 and GADD45A expressions were not dependent on p53 presence, whereas PCK2 expression. The results of this study may help to increase our understandings of the molecular mechanism of anti-proliferative activity mediated by capsaicin in human colorectal cancer cells.

Fos Protein Expression in Trigeminal Nociceptive Central Pathway of the Rat Brain by Cisternal Capsaicin Injection (흰쥐에서 Capsaicin 대조(Cisterna Magna) 내 주입 후 삼차신경 유해자극수용전달로에서의 Fos 단백의 발현)

  • Chung, Sung-Woo;Kim, Yeong-In;Kim, Sung-Nyeun
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2000
  • Background: Trigeminovascular system is implicated in the pathophysiology of the headache in migraine. This study was designed to evaluate the pattern of Fos protein expression in trigeminal nociceptive central pathway after meningeal stimulation of rats by capsaicin. Methods: The expression of Fos protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in thalamus, brainstem and upper cervical cord (at three levels corresponding to obex, 0.8 mm and 2 mm below obex) 2 hours after intracisternal injection of either diluted capsaicin solution (0.1 ml, $61{\mu}g/ml$) or normal saline (0.1 ml) through a catheter placed in the cisterna magna, or following epidural instillation of diluted capsaicin solution in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: Fos immunoreactivity was strongly expressed within lamina I, II of bilateral trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) after cisternal capsaicin injection and magnitude of expression was greatest at level 2.0 mm below obex. Epidural capsaicin caused much less labelling than cisternal capsaicin. Fos positive cells were also observed in area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, medullary reticular nucleus and midline nuclear groups of the thalamus with similar intensity between capsaicin and control group. Conclusions: These results indicate that the injection of capsaicin into the cisterna magna is an effective stimulus for the induction of Fos protein within TNC through activation of trigeminovascular afferents and this animal model can be useful for the evaluation of the pathophysiology and drug development in migraine and related headache.

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Inhibitory Effect of Capsaicin against Carcinogen-induced Oxidative Damage in Rats

  • Yu, Ri-Na;Park, Min-Ah;Kawada, Teruo;Kim, Byung-Sam;Han, In-Seob;Yoo, Hoon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2002
  • Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenarnide), a major pungent component of hot pepper, is known to exert antioxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of capsaicin against chemical carcinogen-induced oxidative damage in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighting 230~250 g were treated with chemical carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane (2NP) or n-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) after (or before) the administration of capsaicin at doses of 0.5, 1,5 mg/kg. The level of lipid peroxidation in rat liver was estimated by measuring the amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The degree of oxidative DNA damage was evacuated by measuring a DNA adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in urine. Antioxidative activities of capsaicin and its metabolites in vitro were determined by the measurement of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), a radical quencher. Significant inhibition of 2-NP induced lipid peroxidation was observed in the liver of the rat when treated with capsaicin. MNNG-induced urinary excretion of 8-OHdG was decreased by capsaicin treatment. Capsaicin and its metabolites inhibited net only the formation of free radicals, but also lipid peroxidation in vitro. Our results show that capsaicin may function as a free radical scavenger against chemical carcinogen-induced oxidative cellular damage in vivo. The observed antioxidative activities of capsaicin may play an important role in the process of chemoprevention.

Combined Treatment with 5-Fluorouracil and Capsaicin Induces Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells (5-Fluorouracil과 Capsaicin의 병용에 의한 HT-29 대장암세포 사멸 증진 효과)

  • Lee, Yun-Seok;Lee, Jong-Suk;Kim, Jung-Ae
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 2009
  • Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients. Capsaicin (N-vanillyl-8-methyl-alpha-nonenamide), a spicy component of hot pepper, is a homovanillic acid derivative that preferentially induces cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether capsaicin enhances the anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil in HT-29 human colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, and whether PPARgamma is involved in the capsaicin action in combination treatment with 5-FU. Treatment of the cells with either 5-FU or capsaicin alone for 48 h had little effect on the cell viability up to $50{\mu}M$ concentration, whereas co-treatment of the cells with capsaicin in the presence of 5-FU for 48 h significantly decreased the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, caspase-3 activity, a marker enzyme for apoptosis, was significantly increased by the combined treatment with 5-FU and capsaicin compared to the 5-FU or capsaicin alone treatment. Also, treatment with troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) agonist, further enhanced the effect of the combination treatment on the cell viability and caspase-3 activity, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), a $PPAR{\gamma}$ antagonist, blocked the effect of the combination treatment. These results suggest that the combination treatment of HT-29 cells with 5-FU and capsaicin induces apoptotic cell death at relatively low concentration than each drug alone, and the combination treatment may be associated with the $PPAR{\gamma}$ pathway activation.

Quality Characteristics of Cookies Added with Capsaicin Powder (캡사이신 분말을 첨가한 쿠키의 품질 특성)

  • Jeong, Eun-Ja;Oh, Kyong Eun;Rhee, Moon-Soo;Kim, Kwan-Pil;Bang, Byung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.921-928
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of cookies containing capsaicin, the main source of spicy taste in pepper, which is well known for its various functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities, as well as pain-relief effect. Cookie samples were made by adding the capsaicin powder at different levels, including 40 mg% (C1), 85 mg% (C2), and 150 mg% (C3). In this study, measurement of the moisture, pH, color, spread factor, hardness, anti-oxidant activity, and sensory evaluation of the cookies was carried out. The results showed that the anti-oxidant activity increased when more capsaicin powder was added to the cookies (p<0.001). The moisture also increased with increasing capsaicin powder content (p<0.05), while the pH did not show any significant changes. As for the colors, the L value and b value decreased as more capsaicin powder was added, while the a value increased. The spread factor also increased significantly with the increase of capsaicin powder (p<0.01). Although the hardness increased with capsaicin powder content, no statistically significant differences were observed among the various cookies. In the sensory evaluation, Cookies containing 40 mg of capsaicin obtained the highest score in color, while cookies containing 150 mg of capsaicin showed the highest score in taste, texture, and overall acceptability.

Reduction of Body Weight by Capsaicin is Associated with Inhibition of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity and Stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 mRNA Expression in Diet-induced Obese Rats

  • Ann, Ji-Young;Lee, Mak-Soon;Joo, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Chong-Tai;Kim, Yang-Ha
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2011
  • Capsaicin is a pungent component of red pepper, which is widely consumed as food adjuncts. The present study was performed to investigate anti-obesity effects of capsaicin in diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were fed with a high-fat diet (Control) or high-fat diet containing 0.016% capsaicin (w/w) (Capsaicin) for 8 weeks. The final body weight and the mass of white adipose tissue were significantly lower in capsaicin supplemented group compared to control. Dietary capsaicin ameliorated lipid profiles with decrease in the plasma concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and decrease in the levels of total lipids and triglycerides in the liver. Activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), an indicator of triglyceride biosynthesis in white adipose tissue, decreased by 35% in the group supplemented with capsaicin. However, consumption of capsaicin increased the expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in white adipose tissue, which is related to energy consumption. Our data suggests that capsaicin may reduce body weight and fat accumulation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. These effects may be mediated, at least partially, by the upregulation of UCP2 gene expression and its ability to inhibit GPDH activity.

Effect of Doses of Capsaicin on the Immune Response in Rats (Rat에 있어서 Capsaicin의 투여량이 면역반응에 미치는 영향)

  • 안영근;김주영;김정훈;노권태
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.1_2
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1989
  • Experiments were performed on rats to investigate the effect of doses of capsaicin on the immune response. Olive oil and the 0.3 mg, 1.0 mg and 3.0 mg/kg administration of capsaicin in olive oil were injected intraperitoneally every day for 4 weeks. Rats were sensitized and challenged with sheep red blood cells (S-RBC). Immune responses were evaluated by organ weight, HA and HY titer, Arthus reaction, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and Rosette froming cell. Following results have observed. 1) The weight of spleen and thymus were increased by doses of compared with control group, but the body weight of rats was decreased. 2) HA titer, Arthus reaction and DTH were significntly decreased by doses of capsaicin as compared with control group. 3) Rosette forming cell in spleen cells was decreased according to the increase of capsaicin doses. These results suggested that high dose of capsaicin decrease humoral and cellular immune response in rats.

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Electrochemical Determination of Capsaicin by Ionic Liquid Composite-Modified Electrode

  • Kim, Dong-Hwan;Nam, Sungju;Kim, Jaeyoon;Lee, Won-Yong
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2019
  • An electrochemical detection method for capsaicin has been developed using ionic liquid (IL) doped graphene-titania-Nafion composite-modified electrode. The combination of IL (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium with hexafluorophosphate counter ion) in the composite-modified electrode resulted in a significantly increased electrochemical response for capsaicin compared to that obtained at the corresponding electrode without IL. The increased electrochemical signal could be ascribed to the decreased electron transfer resistance through the composite film and also to the effective accumulation of capsaicin on the electrode surface due to ${\pi}-{\pi}$ interaction of the imidazole groups of IL with the aromatic rings of capsaicin. The present IL composite-modified electrode can detect capsaicin with a concentration range from $3.0{\times}10^{-8}M$ to $1.0{\times}10^{-5}M$ with a detection limit of $3.17{\times}10^{-9}M$ (S/N = 3). The present sensor showed good reproducibility (RSD = 3.2%).

A Method of Assaying Capsaicin in Hot Pepper Paste and Degradation of Capsaicin by Heat Treatment (고추장중(中)의 신미성분(辛味成分) Capsaicin에 대(對)한 정량법(定量法) 및 조리(調理)에 의(依)한 변화(變化)에 관(關)하여)

  • Yum, Cho-Ae
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 1969
  • A method of assaying Capsaicin in hot pepper Paste, which is the most Characteristic Korean food, was composed by making of Azodye method. Capsaicin, a hot ingredient of hot pepper. was isolated from the acetone-ether(1:3) extract of hot pepper paste with Thin layer Chromatography and analyzed quantitatively with Spectrophotometry.

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