• Title, Summary, Keyword: Capsaicin

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Central Projections of Sensory Information Produced by Topical Application of Capsaicin to the Tongue in the Cat

  • Hong, Seung-Kil;Nahm, Sook-Hyun;Han, Hee-Chul;Suh, Young-Suk;Won, Ran;Lee, Bae-Hwan
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 1991
  • In order to elucidate whether capsaicin applied topically acts as a pain-producing subastance or as a tastant, neuronal activities of the chorda tympani nerve(CN), lingual nerve(LN), solitary tract nucleus(STN), and trigeminal nucleus(TGN) were recorded while thermal and taste stimuli, and capsaicin were being applied topically, and algesics intra-arterially to the tongue of cats anesthetized with ${\alpha}-chloralsoe$. In addition, the STN neurons were examined after wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase(WGA-HRP) was applied to the CN. The CN fibers responded to taste and thermal stimuli, algesics, and capsaicin. Responses to capsaicin were significantly correlated with those to taste and thermal stimuli. The LN fibers mainly responded to mechanical and thermal stimuli, algesics, and capsaicin. Responses to capsaicin were significantly correlated with those to algesics. The STN neurons responded to taste and thermal stiumli, algesics, and capsaicin. Responses to capsaicin were significantly correlated with those to taste and thermal stiumli in somewhat different fashion from those of the CN fibers. The TGN neurons mainly responded to mechanical stimuli, algesics, and capsaicin. Correlations between responses to capsaicin and any others were not significant. After WGA-HRP was applied to the CN, the STN neurons which receive input from the CN were identified largely in the medio-ventral portion to the solitary tract. These results suggest that capsaicin produce taste as well as pain sensation. Sensory information evoked by capsaicin can be conveyed to the STN, especially medio-ventral portion, via the CN as gustatory information on the one hand, and to the STN or TGN via the LN as noxious information on the other. In addiation, the noxious information may be conveyed to the STN via the CN.

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The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism (고추 추출물과 Capsaicin이 지방세포 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, Ching-Sheng;Rhim, Tae-Jin;Kim, Dong-Heui;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.149-162
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to $1mg/m{\ell}$. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to $1mg/m{\ell}$ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to $10mg/m{\ell}$ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and $0.01mg/m{\ell}$, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH) at the concentration of 0.1 and $0.01mg/m{\ell}$, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of $0.1mg/m{\ell}$. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and capsaicin at the corresponding concentration. 4. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin caused shrinkage of fat cells, resulting in cell death at the concentration of $1.0mg/m{\ell}$, although capsaicin exerted this action over wide area than hot pepper extract. Conclusions : These results suggest that hot pepper extract and capsaicin efficiently inhibited adipogenesis, increased lipolysis of adipocytes and caused to shrink fat cells. Future studies are needed to make use of hot pepper extract pharmacopuncture for the treatment of obesity.

Study on the Absorption and Excretion of Capsaicin in Rabbits (가토에 있어서 Capsaicin의 흡수 및 배설에 관한 연구)

  • 김낙두;박찬용
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 1981
  • Quantitative determination of capsaicin in biological fluid was investigated. The pharmacokinetic study of capsaicin in rabbits was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, equipped with a microparticulate reversed-phase column and a fixed wavelength detector. Elution was carried out using methanolwater(70:30). It allows the quantitative determination at 8-400 ng level. When single dose of capsaicin(4mg/kg) was given to rabbits intravenously, the elimination phase was extremely short with average half-life to 17.35 minute. Urine excretion of capsaicin itself during first 2 hours after intravenous administration (4mg/kg) was 0.004-0.04% of the administered amount. The maximum plasma concentration of capsaicin after oral administration (300mg/kg) was $4{\times}10^{-7}$g/ml at 40 minutes. The $LD_{50}$ of capsaicin in mouse was 0.40mg/kg (i.v.) and 47.2 mg/kg (p.o.) which was determined by Litchfield and Wilcoxon's method, suggesting that the gastrointestinal absorption of capsaicin is poor.

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The Mechanism of Thermoregulatory Action of Capsaicin Is Different from That of Its Antinociceptive Effect in Guinea Pig

  • Yi-Sook JUNG;Tai-Soon CHO;Shin, Hwa-Sup
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.211-214
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    • 1997
  • In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect and thermoregulatory action of capsaicin in guinea pigs. The administration of capsaicin (5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a significant decrease in frequency of eye wiping, an indicative of nociceptive threshold. This antinociceptive effect of calsaicin was abolished by co-administration of capsazepine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) with capsaicin, suggesting the involvement of a vanilloid receptor in the antinociceptive action of capsaicin. The administration of capsaicin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a significant decrease in body temperature of guinea pigs. The maximum decrease in body temperature by 2 degrees was shown 1 hour after the treatment, and this decrease was not reversed by coadministration of capsazepine. In conclusion, it is suggested that the mechanism of action of capsaicin-induced thermoregulation involves different pathways from that of capsaicin-induced antinociception.

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Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, stimulates protein kinase CKII activity

  • Rho, Yun-Wha;Bae, Young-Seuk
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2010
  • Protein kinase CKII (CKII), a heterotetramer composed of two catalytic ($\alpha$ or $\alpha$') subunits and two regulatory ($\beta$) subunits, plays a critical role in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Recently, capsaicin was shown to trigger apoptosis. Therefore, we examined the effect of capsaicin on CKII activity. Although capsaicin induced apoptotic death in HeLa cells, CKII activity was increased in the cytosolic fraction of HeLa cells after treatment. Capsaicin did not change the expression of the $CKII{\alpha}$ and $CKII{\beta}$ proteins. Capsaicin stimulated the catalytic activity of recombinant CKII tetramer, but not the $CKII{\alpha}$ subunit. Moreover, capsaicin enhanced the autophosphorylation of $CKII{\alpha}$ and $CKII{\beta}$. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin stimulates the phosphotransferase activity of CKII holoenzyme by interacting with the $CKII{\beta}$ subunit.

The Changes of Capsaicin Contents in Fresh and Processed Red Peppers (생고추와 고추 가공시의 Capsaicin 함량 변화)

  • Chung, Byung-Sun;Kang, Kun-Og
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.409-418
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    • 1985
  • The contents of capicin according to the growth of fresh red peppers (Capsicum annum) and to-brewing of 'kochujang' (fermented hot peper-soybean paste) and 'kimchi' (a group of Korean seasoned pickles) were quantified by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. Colors of the peppers were evaluated by Hunter Value and quantity of capsanthin. The content and chemical structure of capsaicin after heat treatment were traced by HPLC, GCMS, UV and NMR. It was found that the capsaicin content of red peper was highest 6 to 7 weeks after flowering and that peppers with high Hunter Value contained higher level of capsanthin. The content of capsaicin of kochujang and kimchi declined by 20% and 17% respectively, as they are brewed. Capsaicin content was decreased by heating. However, change in its chemical strtcure was not occurred.

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Effect of Light, Temperature, and Shaking Speed on Production of Capsaicin in Suspension-Cultured Jalapeno Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

  • Lee, Kwon-Bok;Engler, Cady;Yang, Jae E.;Lee, Shin-Woo;Park, Yong-Ha
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.84-86
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    • 2001
  • Capsaicin synthesis by suspension cultured cells of Jalapeno pepper (Capcicum annuum L.) was assessed in vitro under various conditions including temperature (23 and $30^{\circ}C$), light intensity (with light and without light), and shaking speed (110 and 200 rpm). Capsaicin production increased, while the cell biomass growth decreased possibly due to the production of a secondary metabolite. Capsaicin synthesis was primarily affected by light condition. Cells cultivated at 110 rpm and $23^{\circ}C$ under light condition yielded the highest fresh weight, while those cultivated under the same condition, but without light resulted in the lowest cell mass. Capsaicin content in cells of 18-day-old pepper grown at 110 rpm and $23^{\circ}C$ under light was 0.125% of the cell mass. However, without light treatment, the capsaicin content in cells at the same shaking speed and temperature increased up to 169%, indicating no light is favored in the capsaicin synthesis by Jalapeno pepper. Increasing the shaking speed from 110 to 200 rpm without light enhanced the capsaicin synthesis. Results of this study demonstrate that light condition is the limiting factor in the synthesis of capsaicin in tissue-cultured Jalapeno pepper cells.

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Effect of Capsaicin on the Excitatory Amino Acids Neurotranmitters in Medullary Dorsal Horn (Capsaicin이 연수후각의 흥분성 아미노산 전달물질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Soo-Kyung;Yoon, Soo-Han;Lee, Jong-Heun
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.621-632
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was performed to study the effect of capsaicin on the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) neurotransmitter in medullary dorsal horn and to clarify the relationship between substance P and excitatory amino acids. Horizontal slice of rat medullary dorsal horn was prepared and perfused with modified Krebs-Ringer solution in brain slice chamber. Release of EAAs was induced by veratrine and capsaicin were added to perfusion solution to observe the changes in EAA release. Capsaicin and ruthenium red, capsaicin antagonist, were also systemically injected with 50mg/kg in first day and 100mg/kg in second day for 2 days. Medulla oblongata containing the medullary dorsal horn was isolated, homogenized and centrifused. Spernatant was freeze-dried and EAA was determined by HPLC. Release of glutamate and aspartate was significantly increased by veratrine or capsaicin, but veratrine evoked release of EAAs was blocked by capsaicin in vitro, and injected ruthenium red did not have effect on the contents of EMs in vivo. Systemically injected capsaicin evoked the slight decrease in content of glutamate and aspartate in medullary dorsal horn and this effect of capsaicin was unaffected by ruthenium red.

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Studies on the Local Irritation of DA-5018, a New Capsaicin Derivative (새로운 캅사이신 유도체 DA-5018의 국소자극성에 관한 연글)

  • 손문호;배은주;신명수;김희기;김순희;김원배;양중익
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 1997
  • Capsaicin cream has been used to attenuate the pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, rheum-atoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and postherpetic neuralgia. But its common side effect, local irritation, limits the use of it and there is still a need for a new analgesic devoid of this side effect. This study was conducted to compare the local irritant effect of DA-5018, a new capsaicin derivative, with that of capsaicin in various animal models and human beings. Capsaicin, applied topically to the mouse ear, produced dose-dependent increase of ear volume and the frequency of ear scratching behavior in mice. Neither ear volume nor scratching behavior was affected by DA-5018. In eye wiping test of rat, DA-5018 was 10 times less irritant than capsaicin. Capsaicin administered intradermally into the rat paw elicited paw lick/lift response with a potency which was three times that of DA-5018. Zostrix-HP (0.075% capsaicin cream), but not DA-50180.3% cream, increased ear volume of rat and induced thermal hyperalgesia in normal and carrageenan inflamed paws. Six day-treatment of Zostrix-HP failed to develop tolerance against this thermal hyperalgesia. In human beings, Zostrix-HP produced burning sensation and itching in more than 90% of volunteers involved and its maximum irritant effect was significantly higher than that of DA-5018 cream. These results suggest that local irritation and burning sensation produced by DA-5018 is much less than capsaicin.

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Characterization of Putative Capsaicin Synthase Promoter Activity

  • Kim, June-Sik;Park, Minkyu;Lee, Dong Ju;Kim, Byung-Dong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.331-339
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    • 2009
  • Capsaicin is a very important secondary metabolite that is unique to Capsicum. Capsaicin biosynthesis is regulated developmentally and environmentally in the placenta of hot pepper. To investigate regulation of capsaicin biosynthesis, the promoter (1,537 bp) of pepper capsaicin synthase (CS) was fused to GUS and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce CSPRO::GUS transgenic plants. The CS was specifically expressed in the placenta tissue of immature green fruit. However, the transgenic Arabidopsis showed ectopic GUS expressions in the leaves, flowers and roots, but not in the stems. The CSPRO activity was relatively high under light conditions and was induced by both heat shock and wounding, as CS transcripts were increased by wounding. Exogenous capsaicin caused strong suppression of the CSPRO activity in transgenic Arabidopsis, as demonstrated by suppression of CS expression in the placenta after capsaicin treatment. Furthermore, the differential expression levels of Kas, Pal and pAmt, which are associated with the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway, were also suppressed in the placenta by capsaicin treatment. These results support that capsaicin, a feedback inhibitor, plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression which is involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.