• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

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Evaluation of Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Uganda: Comparison of Urban and Rural Areas (우간다 초등학생의 영양섭취 실태조사: 도심지역과 농촌지역의 비교)

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon;Park, Hye-Jung;Yu, Min;Hwang, Ha-Yeong;Sung, Jung-Rim;Kim, Hee-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.91-101
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate dietary intakes and nutritional status among Uganda primary school children from two selected schools in urban and rural areas. Methods: Data were collected from 350 pupils (6-14 years) in Mpigi district, Uganda. All participants were offered a school lunch meal (usually maize porridge and boiled beans). Dietary survey was conducted in October 2016. Data for dietary intake levels were collected by the 24-hour recall method with trained school staffs. The data were converted into nutrient intakes using the CAN-Pro 5.0 Program and compared with KDRIs to evaluate the nutritional status of the subjects. Diet quality indexes such as nutrient density, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and index of nutritional quality (INQ) and a diet diversity index such as diet diversity score (DDS) were calculated to evaluate nutritional status among subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical programs. Results: Results show that the intakes of most nutrients were significantly different by schools. The nutritional status of micro-nutrients was very low in both schools according to analysis of nutritional indexes such as NARs and INQs. Students from both schools should improve intakes of micro-nutrients related to child growth such as calcium, Vitamin B6, zinc and folate. According to the analysis of dietary diversity, there was difference in dietary patterns by schools presumably due to their locations. Conclusions: This suggests that current meals could not provide adequate nutrients for the subjects and urgent nutrition interventions for school food services are needed to improve their nutritional well-being. New foods supplements based on local cuisine are also needed to ensure dietary diversity and sustainable development plans.

Skarn Formation in Metamorphic Rocks of the Chungju Mine Area (충주광산 지역 계명산층의 텅스텐 스카른화작용)

  • Kim, Gun-Soo;Park, Maeng-Eon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.185-197
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    • 1995
  • Tungsten skarns in the Chungju mine which consists mainly of strata-bound type iron ore deposits are found in the vicinity of the contact between the age-unknown Kyemeongsan Formation and granitic rock intrusions of Mesozoic age($134{\pm}2Ma$). Tungsten skarns were formed extensively from alumina and silica-rich schistose rocks by the introduction of calcium and iron from hydrothermal solution. The skarns comprise a metasomatic column and are subdivided into four facies; garnet facies, wollastonite facies, epidote facies and chlorite facies. The skarn process in time-evolutional trend can be divided broadly into the four facies in terms of the paragenetic sequence of calc-silicates and their chemical composition. Skarn and ore minerals were formed in the following sequence; (1) garnet facies, adjacent to biotite granite, containing mainly garnet(>Ad96) and magnetite, (2) wollastonite facies containing mainly wollastonite and garnet(Ad95~60), (3) epidote facies, containing mainly epidote(Ps35~31), quartz, andradite-grossular(Ad63~50), and scheelite, (4) chlorite facies, adjacent to and replacing schist, containing mainly chrolite, muscovite, quartz, calcite, epidote(Ps31~25), hematite and sulfides. The mineral assemblage and mineral compositions. suggest that the chemical potentials of Ca and Fe increased toward the granitic rock, and the component Al, Mg, K, and Si decreased from the host rock to granitic rock. The homogenization temperature and salinity of fluid inclusion in scheelite, quartz and epidote of epidote facies skarn is $300-400^{\circ}C$ and 3-8wt.% eqiv. NaCl, respectively. ${\delta}^{34}S$ values of pyrite and galena associated with chlorite facies skarn is $9.13{\sim}9.51%_{\circ}$ and $5.85{\sim}5.96%_{\circ}$, respectively. The temperature obtained from isotopic com· position of coexisting pyrite-galena is $283{\pm}20^{\circ}C$. Mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data indicate that skarn formed at low $X_{CO_2}$, approximately 0.01. Temperature of the skarn mineralization are estimated to be in the range of $400^{\circ}C$ to $260^{\circ}C$ and pressure to be 0.5 kbar. The oxygen fugacity($fo_2$) of the skarn mineralization decreased with time. The early skarn facies would have formed at log $fo_2$ values of about -25 to -27, and late skarn facies would have formed at log $fo_2$ values of -28 to -30. The estimated physicochemical condition during skarn formation suggests that the principal causes of scheelite mineralization are reduction of the ore·forming fluid and a decrease in temperature.

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Degradation Mechanisms of TCE in Cement/Fe(II) Systems (시멘트/Fe(II) 시스템에서의 TCE 분해 기작)

  • Lee, Yun-Mo;Kang, Wan-Hyup;Choi, Won-Ho;Hwang, In-Sung;Park, Joo-Yang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.778-782
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    • 2007
  • This study investigated the dechlorination mechanisms of TCE by Fe(II) associated with cement. Batch slurry experiments were peformed to investigate the behaviors of selected ions; Fe(II), Fe(III), $Ca^{2+}$, $SO_4^{2-}$ in cement/Fe(II) system. The kinetic experiments of TCE in cement/Fe(II) systems showed that injected Fe(II) was mostly sorbed on cement within 0.5 day and 90% of injected 200 mM sulfate was sorbed on cement within 0.5 day when $[TCE]_0$ = 0.25 mM and $[Fe(II)]_0$ = 200 mM. The kinetic experiments of TCE in hematite/CaO/Fe((II) systems were conducted for simulation of cement/Fe(II) system. Calcium oxide that is one of the major components in cement hydration reactions or has a reactivity in limited conditions. Hematite assumed the ferric iron oxide component of cement. The reactivities observed in hematite/CaO/Fe(II) system were comparable to those reported for cement/Fe(II) systems containing similar molar amounts of Fe(II). The behavior of Fe(II) and $SO_4^{2-}$ sorbed on solid phase at an early stage of reaction in hematite/CaO/Fe(II) system was similar to that of cement/Fe(II) system. Ferric ion was released from hematite at an early period of reaction at low pH. The experimental evidence of kinetic test using hematite/CaO/Fe(II) system implies that the reactive reductant is a mixed-valent Fe(II)-Fe(III) mineral, which may be similar to green rust. Fe(II) sorbed on cement can be converted to new mineral phase having a reactivity such as Fe(II)-Fe(III) (hydr)oxides in cement/Fe(II) systems.

Effect of Fly Ash Fertilizer on Paddy Soil Quality and Rice Growth (비산재로 제조한 비료가 논토양 질과 벼 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Se Jin;Yun, Hyun Soo;Oh, Seung Min;Kim, Sung Chul;Kim, Rog Young;Seo, Yung Ho;Lee, Kee Suk;Ok, Yong Sik;Yang, Jae E.
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2013
  • Coal ash can be added to agricultural soils to increase the chemical properties of soil such as pH, cation exchange capacity and nutrient availability of - B, Ca, Mo etc-. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of fly ash as a soil amendment in paddy soils. Selected fly ash was mixed with bentonite and calcium hydroxide at the ratio of 80:15:5 (w/w) and manufactured as a pellet type at the size of 10 mm. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of fly ash fertilizer on the soil quality and crop growth compare to the control (no fertilizer) and, - traditional fertilizer. Results showed that soil pH and organic matter in paddy soils after applying the manufactured fly ash fertilizer were not increased compared to the other two treatments. However, the concentration of available phosphate and silicate in paddy soils were higher than those of the control and traditional fertilization. With regard to crop growth, no significant difference was observed between three different treatments. However, the content of protein in the rice grain cultivated with the fly ash fertilizer was higher than in the rice cultivated by other two treatments. Overall, fly ash fertilizer could increase the concentration of available silicate and phosphate in the paddy soil and improve the rice quality. In conclusion, fly ash can be utilized in agricultural soils as soil amendment, especially in the rice paddy soil.

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrase Enzyme Complex and Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Productivity and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs (탄수화물 분해 복합효소제와 미생물 파이테이즈의 첨가가 육성돈의 생산성 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim, Y.H.;Chae, B.J.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2003
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial phytase (Natuphos$^{\circledR}$) supplementation, individually and in combination with carbohydrase enzyme complex (composed of enzymes targeted to SBM dietary components such as $\alpha$-galactosides and galactomannans; ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$) to corn-soy basis diet with low nutrient levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 48 crossbred weaned pigs (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc), 29.1$\pm$0.14 kg of initial body weight, were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, based on weight and age, according to a Randomized Complete Block Design. There were three pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. The dietary treatments were 1) CON (control diet with 3,380 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, 18.96% of crude protein, 1.10% of lysine, 0.75% of calcium and 0.35% of available phosphorus), 2) LP+NTPS (CON diet with 0.15% unit lower available P levels+0.1% phytase (500 FTU/kg; Natuphos$^{\circledR}$)), 3) LEL+ENP (CON diet with 3.0% unit lower ME and lysine levels + 0.1% carbohydrase enzyme complex (ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$), and 4) LPEL+ENZ (CON diet with 0.15% unit lower available P levels and 3.0% unit lower ME and lysine levels+0.1% ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$ and 0.1% Natuphos$^{\circledR}$ (500 FTU/kg). There was no significant difference (p〉0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among dietary treatments during the whole experimental period (0 to 4 weeks). Apparent digestibility of gross energy was greater in LP+NTPS and LPEL+ENZ groups than in the LEL+ENP (p<0.05). Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was greater in LP+NTPS than in LEL+ENP (p<0.05). Dry matter excretion was lowest in LPEL+ENZ and phosphorus excretion was lowest in LP+NTPS (p<0.05). Overall, pigs fed on LPEL+ENZ group tended to have better nutrient digestibility (dry matter, gross energy, crude protein and phosphorus) than pigs fed on control group. All dietary enzyme treatment groups showed lower feed cost/body weight gain of pigs than control group. In conclusion, the results from the present study suggest that the simultaneous inclusion of phytase and carbohydrase enzyme complex to diets is advantageous with respect to reducing nutrient excretion of growing pigs and may contribute to increased economic return when added to corn-soy based growing pig diets.

Chemical characteristics of wet precipitation in urban and mountainous sites of Jeju Island

  • Bu, Jun-Oh;Song, Jung-Min;Park, Sook-Young;Kang, Hee-Ju;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2020
  • Wet precipitation samples were collected in Jeju City and Mt. Halla-1100 site (a site at an altitude of 1100 m on Mt. Halla) during 2011-2013, and their major ionic species were analyzed to examine the chemical composition and characteristics. A comparison of ion balance, electric conductivity, and acid fraction of precipitation revealed correlation coefficients in the range of r = 0.950~0.991, thereby implying the high quality of analytical data. Volume-weighted mean pH and electric conductivity corresponded to 4.86 and 25.5 µS/cm for Jeju City, and 4.98 and 15.1 µS/cm for Mt. Halla-1100 site, respectively. Ionic strengths of the wet precipitation in Jeju City and Mt. Halla-1100 site corresponded 0.3 ± 0.5 and 0.2 ± 0.2 mM, respectively, thereby indicating that more than 30 % of total precipitation was within a pure precipitation criteria. The precipitation with a pH range of 4.5 - 5.0 corresponded to 40.8 % in Jeju City, while the precipitation with a pH range of 5.0 - 5.5 corresponded to 56.9 % in Mt. Halla-1100 site, thereby indicating slightly more weak acidity than that in Jeju city. The volume-weighted mean concentration (µeq/L) of ionic species was in the order of Na+ > Cl- > nss-SO42- > NO3- > Mg2+ > NH4+ > H+ > nss-Ca2+ > PO43- > K+ > CH3COO- > HCOO- > NO2- > F- > HCO3- > CH3SO3- at Jeju City area, while it corresponded to Na+ > Cl- > nss-SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > H+ > Mg2+ > nss-Ca2+ > PO43- > CH3COO- > K+ > HCOO- > NO2- > F- > HCO3- > CH3SO3- at Mt. Halla-1100 site. The compositions of sea salts (Na+, Cl-, Mg2+) and secondary pollutants (NH4+, nss-SO42-, NO3-) corresponded to 66.1 % and 21.8 %, respectively, in Jeju City and, 49.9 % and 31.5 %, respectively, in Mt. Halla-1100 site. The acidity contributions in Jeju City and Mt. Halla-1100 site by inorganic acids, i.e., sulfuric acid and nitric acid, corresponded to 93.9 % and 91.4 %, respectively, and the acidity contributions by organic acids corresponded to 6.1 % and 8.6 %, respectively. The neutralization factors in Jeju City and Mt. Halla1100 site by ammonia corresponded to 29.8 % and 30.1 %, respectively, whereas the neutralization factors by calcium carbonate corresponded to 20.5 % and 25.2 %, respectively. From the clustered back trajectory analysis, the concentrations of most ionic components were higher when the airflow pathways were moved from the continent to Jeju area.

The Study on the Amount and Major Compositions of Excreta from Swine (돼지의 분뇨 배설량 및 분뇨 성분 조사)

  • HwangBo, Jong;Hong, Eui-Chul;Park, Hee-Du;Kim, Dong-Woon;Cho, Sung-Back
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 2010
  • This work was carried out to investigate the quantity of excreta and its composition in crossbred pigs (Yorkshire ${\times}$ Landrace ${\times}$ Duroc) at different stages of growth. Twelve young piglets (average BW weight of $19.0{\pm}0.33kg$) were used in this study. Pigs were divided into four phases during growing time and two phases during finishing time. The average excreta production for growing pig was 3.46 kg/head/day (feces: 1.07 kg, urine: 2.39 kg). The average moisture contents of feces and urine were 70.54% and 97.39%, respectively. Contents of Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Plumbum, and Arsenic were 1.00%, 0.26%, 10.47 mg/kg, 2.43 mg/kg, and 1.02 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of the water pollutants like Biochemical Oxygen Demand ($BOD_5$), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solid (SS), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP), excreted from pig were 96335, 61073, 207466, 8104 and 4209 mg/L in feces and 7364, 7149, 2715, 10110 and 613 mg/L in urine at the end of test, respectively. The daily loading amount of water pollutants ($BOD_5$, COD, SS, TN, and TP, respectively) in pig excreta were 102.1, 61.8, 221.6, 8.7, and 3.9 g/head/day in feces, and 19.3, 16.7, 8.0, 22.2, and 1.3 g/head/day in urine, respectively. The Nitrogen, $P_2O_5$, and $K_2O$ contents in the excreta of pigs were 0.96, 0.83 and 0.42% in feces, and 0.80, 0.09 and 0.53% in urine, respectively. Finally, this work was suggested to give basic information to swine farms.

Effect of Fermented Brown Seaweed Waste (FBSW) on Milk Production, Composition and Physiological Responses in Holstein Dairy Cows (발효미역부산물의 첨가가 Holstein 비유우의 비유성적 및 생리반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Zhong-Shan;Lee, Zhe-Hu;Xu, Cheng-Xiong;Yin, Jin-Long;Jin, Young-Cheng;Lee, Hyun-Jun;Lee, Sang-Bum;Choi, Yun-Jaie;Lee, Hong-Gu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine effects of fermented brown seaweed waste (FBSW) on milk production, composition and physiological responses as functional feed for 60 days in Holstein dairy cows. A total of 24 Holstein dairy cows (average age 49.33 months, average lactation days 175, Reproduction 2.0) were randomly allocated into control(basal diet), 1% FBSW (180g in basal diet) and 2% FBSW (360g in basal diet) groups with 8 replications for 60 days. Daily milk yield and composition (fat, protein, SNF, MUN) were not affected by FBSW supplementation, but Ca level in milk was significantly increased 4.29 mg/dl and 2.91 mg/dl in 1% and 2% groups compared to control group (p<0.05) at the end of the experiment, respectively. The somatic cell count (SCC) in milk was not significant. The plasma $T_4$ level (concentration) were increased in 1% and 2% FBSW compared to control group at the end of the experiment (p<0.05), but between triiodothyronine ($T_3$) and thyroxin ($T_4$) levels were not significant. Concentrations of plasma glucose in control, 1% FBSW and 2% FBSW groups were 64. 37mg/dl, 66.15mg/dl and 73.02 mg/dl and plasma NEFA level was 0.30~0.32 mEq/dl. Concentrations of BUN tended to be higher for FBSW group than control group. Although WBC, RBC, Hb, Hct, T-B, ALP, and GPT levels were not affected by FBSW supplementation, GOT level was significantly decreased in cows fed 1% FBSE diet compared to control group (P<0.05). Therefore we strongly suggest that the 1% FBSW supplementation in basal diet increases the milk yield and Ca level in Holstein dairy cows.

Interrelationship between Dopaminergic Receptors and Catecholamine Secretion from the Rat Adrenal Gland (흰쥐 부신에서 카테콜아민 분비작용과 도파민 수용체간의 상관성)

  • Lim, Dong-Yoon;Yoon, Joong-Keun;Moon, Baek
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 1994
  • It has been known for some time that dopamine-containing cells are existed in sympathetic ganglia, i.e., small, intensely fluorescent cells. However, its role and mechanism of action as a peripheral neurotransmitter are poorly understood so far. In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the effect of apomorphine, which is known to be a selective agonist of dopaminergic $D_2$. receptor on secretion of catecholamines (CA) from the isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. The perfusion of a low concentration of 10uM apomorphine into an adrenal vein for 20 min produced significant reduction in CA secretion induced by 5.32 mM ACh, 56 mM KCl, 100 uM DMPP and 100 uM McN-A-343. Increasing apomorphine concentration to 30 uM led to more markedly decreased CA secretion as compared to the case of 10 uM apomorphine and also did inhibit clearly CA release by $10^{-5}M$ Bay-K-8644. Furthermore, in adrenal glands preloaded with a higher dose of 100 uM apomorphine, CA releases evoked by ACh, excess $K^+$, DMPP and McN-A-343 were almost abolished by the drug. The perfusion of $3.3{\pm}10^{-5}M$ metoclopramide, which is well-known as a selective dopaminergic $D_2$ antagonist, produced significantly inhibitory effect of CA release by ACh, DMPP and McN-A-343 but did not affect that by excess $K^+$. However, preloading of 30uM apomorphine in the presence of metoclopramide did not modify the CA secretory effect of excess $K+$ and DMPP. These experimental results demonstrate that apomorphine causes dose-dependent inhibition of CA secretion by cholinergic receptor stimulation and also by membrane depolarization from the isolated perfused rat adrenal gland, suggesting that these effects appear to be exerted by inhibiting influx of extracellular calcium into the rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells through activation of inhibitory dopaminergic receptors.

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Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in the Children with Epilepsy Taking on Chronic Anticonvulsants (장기간 항경련제를 복용하고 있는 소아 간질 환아들의 골밀도 및 골대사 지표들)

  • Lee, Soon Bum;Kang, So Young;Yu, Jeesuk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Long-term administration of anticonvulsants in children with epilepsy may cause short stature, hypocalcemia and low bone mineral density. This study was performed for the early detection of abnormal bone metabolism in children with epilepsy on taking anticonvulsants. Methods : Thirty children aged 5 to 16 years who were diagnosed with epilepsy were enrolled in this study. All had taken anticonvulsants for more than one year. Bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol[$25(OH)D_3$], parathyroid hormone, and urine deoxypyridinoline were measured as biochemical bone markers. Bone age and body mass index were also calculated. Results : Bone minreal density, body mass index, bone age, and height were significantly decreased in two female patients who had taken two antiepileptic drugs for more than four years and they also had chronic diseases such as cerebral palsy with microcephaly, encephalomalacia, and microcephaly with atrial septal defect. Bone mineral density had significant positive correlations with body mass index(P<0.01) and bone age(P<0.01). Conclusion : This study showed chronic medication of anticonvulsants in children may cause low bone mineral density and short stature. Bone age and body mass index could be the important surrogate markers to find the population at risk. More studies, including a large study population and long term cohort study, will be required.