• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

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Uptake of Butachlor by Rice Seedlings and Its Phytotoxic Action to the Physiological Activities (수도묘(水稻苗)의 Butachlor 흡수(吸收) 및 약해발생(藥害發生) 특성(特性)에 관한 생리적(生理的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Bong-Jin;Kwon, Yong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 1981
  • To clarify the mode of uptake of butachlor (2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide) by rice seedlings, its phytotoxic action to growth and physiological activities, studies were conducted with rice seedlings, at the 6th or 7th leaf-stage, which were treated with nutrient solution containing butachlor 0, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, 10.8 or 14.4 ppm for 1, 2 or 4 days, in other case, the solutions were thereafter renewed with the untreated nutrient solution for further growth. Uptake of butachlor by rice seedlings increased linearly with increase of its concentration and duration of uptake. Butachlor inhibited root growth more than shoot growth, furthermore, the inhibitory effect on the shoot growth was greater in height than in weight or leafing rate. After 4 day-treatment, the rates of shoot growth in weight were delayed for 4 days. Butachlor inhibited water uptake rapidly and linearly with increase of its external concentration. The reduced uptake of water was followed by slow increase in the stomatal resistance of leaves. Upon completion of butachlor treatment, rate of water uptake was recovered rapidly, but the stomatal resistance with lag in time. Butachlor did not affect the uptake of cation such as ammonium, potassium and calcium, but inhibited substantially uptake of nitrate in proportion to its concentration. Especially, butachlor did not affect synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase. In addition, butachlor has shown much greater binding to the lipidic substances from rice roots than the proteinous material. The primary mechanism of phytotoxic action of butachlor does not seem to be its effect on the protein synthesis, but great affinity to membranes. The inhibition of water uptake, and its subsequent closure of stomates is thought very important for reduced growth under mild phytotoxicity.

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Yield characteristics and medium composition of winter mushroom in cultivation farms in Korea (국내 팽이버섯 재배농가의 배지조성 및 수량 특성)

  • Lee, Chan-jung;Lee, Eun-ji;Park, Hye-sung;Lim, Ji-hoon;Min, Gyeong-Jin;Kong, Won-Sik
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.120-124
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to provide basic data for setting a standard medium for winter mushroom cultivation. Investigation of medium composition in winter mushroom farms in Korea revealed that the types of medium used for each farm were slightly different and that the mixing ratio of the medium also varied. All farmers used corncob, rice bran, and beet pulp as the main media, and calcium carbonate and ground oyster shells were used at 1.0~3.8% to adjust the pH of the medium. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of the mixed media showed nitrogen content of 1.28~1.52%, carbon content of 45.7~48.5%, and C/N ratio of 30.7~37.9. The content of inorganic components was significantly different in each farm, depending on the type and amount of minerals in the mixed medium. Mycelial growth was the fastest at Farm 2, reaching 6.5 cm within 34 days of culture, followed by Farm 4 at 5.7 cm, whereas Farm 1, 3, and 5 showed similar growth. Mycelial density was high without any significant difference between farms. Survey of yield according to medium composition in each farm showed the highest yield in Farm 2 at 173.4 g/bottle, followed by Farm 1 at 168.4 g/bottle, whereas Farm 3 and 4 showed similar yield. However, Farm 4 had the lowest yield at 145.4 g/bottle. Therefore, mushroom yield was different depending on the medium composition in the farm, and thus selection of a medium that can be used universally in multiple mushroom farms was considered possible.

Ecological Environment and Rhizosphere Microflora in the Native Soil of Purple-Bracted Plantain Lily for Wild Vegetables (비비추 나물의 자생지 생태환경과 근권미생물상)

  • Cho, Ja-Yong;Heo, Buk-Gu;Yang, Seung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.389-400
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate into the ecological environments and the soil microflora of purple-bracted plantain lily (Hosta longipes Matsumura) for wild vgetables. Native soil textures of purple-bracted plantain lily were in the order of sandy loam (SL) > loam (L) > clay loam (CL). pH in soil was relatively acid by 4.8, electric conductivity was 0.08mS/cm, and organic matter content was 0.08g/kg. CEC was measured by $100.8cmol^{(+)}kg^{-1}$ and available phosphate was 103.4mg/kg. Contents of exchangeable cations in terms of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were measured by $0.33cmol^{(+)}kg^{-1},\;2.26cmol^{(+)}kg^{-1},\;and\;0.87cmol^{(+)}kg^{-1}$, etc. Diurnal changes in the air temperature of the natives were 15 to $20^{\circ}C$, that temperature differential was relatively little compared with that in open field by 15 to $30^{\circ}C$. Relative humidity in the natives were much more humid by 60 to 80% compared with that in open feld by 35 to 85%. Light intensity in the natives and the open field at ten o'clock were $2,300{\mu}mol/m^2/sec.\;and\;1,750{\mu}mol/m^2/sec.$ Total number of soil microorganisms were $8.4{\times}10^7\;c.f.u./g$. Mycorrhizal spore densities over $500{\mu}m,\;355{\sim}500{\mu}m,\;251{\sim}354{\mu}m,\;107{\sim}250{\mu}m\;and\;45{\sim}106{\mu}m$ were 0.8, 1.3, 2.1, 38.1, and 110.0 respectively. Mycorrhizal root infections by vesicle and hyphae were 17% and 6%. However, arbuscules in the roots were not shown.

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An Analysis for Effects of Stain Family Drugs on Osteogenic Differentiation using Human Periosteum-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (스타틴(statin) 약물이 성체줄기세포의 골분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Dong Kyu;Yun, Jeong-Won;Kim, Bo Gyu;Lee, A Ram;Moon, Sun Young;Byun, June-Ho;Hwang, Sun-Chul;Woo, Dong Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1337-1344
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    • 2019
  • Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and typically manifests as an increase in fractures. Because this disease is common in elderly populations and lifespans are rapidly increasing, the incidence of osteoporosis has also grown. Most drugs currently used for osteoporosis treatment target osteoclasts in the bone tissue to prevent absorption. However, these medications also cause certain side effects and, furthermore, cannot increase bone mass. Thus, in order to control osteoporosis, regenerative medicine that utilizes adult stem cells and osteoblasts has been extensively studied. Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are cholesterol-lowering drugs that have been widely prescribed for cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, recent studies have reported the beneficial effects of various statins on bone formation via the activation of osteoblasts. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of seven statin-family drugs on osteoblast activity during osteogenic differentiation using adult stem cells from human periosteal tissue. Specifically, statin effects on alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of bone cell differentiation, and on calcium deposit, a late marker of bone cell differentiation, were assessed. The results demonstrate that some statins (for example, pitavastatin and pravastatin) have a weak but positive effect on bone formation, and the findings therefore suggest that statin treatments can be a novel modulator for osteogenic differentiation and regenerative medicine using periosteal stem cells.

Quality Determination of Different Wholesale Cuts of Goat Carcass at Different Ages

  • Islam, R.;Rahman, S.M.E.;Khan, M.;Akhter, S.;Hossain, M.M.;Ding, Tian;Kim, Jai-Moung;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2010
  • The experiment was conducted to find out the nutritive value and microbial status of different wholesale cuts of goat carcass. The meat sample (4 cuts from each animal $\times$ 3 different age groups $\times$ 3 animals in each group = 36 samples) was obtained from 1-, 2-, and 3-year aged goats. The whole sale cuts were shoulder, rack, loin and leg of each goat carcass. To assess the quality of meat sample, the general appearance, color, smell, juiciness, proximate composition, pH, total bacteria, coliform bacteria, and yeast were studied. The mean pH value of different cuts ranges from 5.65-5.69 didn't differ significantly, but due to age differences the pH values (5.59-5.74) differed significantly (p < 0.01). The values of juiciness in different ages ranged from 32.24-42.10% which differed significantly (p < 0.01). The marbling of the cuts of rack portion was more pronounced than that of other cuts. The ranges of crude protein (CP) content of goat carcass (20.78-27.71%) differed significantly (p < 0.01) and leg portion contained higher CP than other portion. Fat contents of different cuts ranged from 2.66-11.47% differed significantly (P < 0.01). The moisture content of the carcass differed significantly which ranged from 69.20-73.31%. The ash content of the cuts of 1-year aged groups (0.99 $\pm$ 0.13%) was higher than that of other age groups and differed significantly (P < 0.01). The calcium (Ca) content did not differ significantly. The phosphorus (P) content was higher in one year old goat (0.15 $\pm$ 0.03%) than that of the goats of other ages. The total viable count (TVC) content of microorganisms ranging from 5.05-5.15 log cfu/g at different ages did not differ significantly. The coliform count (CC) of different cuts differed significantly (P < 0.01) which ranged from 2.56-3.05 log cfu/g; it also differed significantly (P < 0.05) in different ages (2.79-2.84 log cfu/g) and was higher in 1 year old goat carcass. The yeast count differed significantly in different cuts (P < 0.01) and ages (P < 0.05). From the study it is concluded that the age and different wholesale cuts have direct influence on quality of goat carcass.

The Amino-Carbonyl Reaction in the Fructose-Glycine Mixture System (Fructose-Glycine 혼합계에 있어서 Amino-Carbonyl 반응)

  • Lee, Jin-Ho;Han, Kang-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 1989
  • This study was conducted to observe the physico-chemical exchange and effect of amino-carbonyl reaction between fructose and glycine . When various buffer solutions were added to equimolar mixture of fructose and glycine at pH 6.0 and $100^{\circ}C$, the browning effect was markedly observed by Mcllvaine buffer. Among the combinations of temperature and reaction time, the deep browning effect was obtained above $100^{\circ}C$, 3hr A marked browning effect obtained above pH 7.0 but little observed below pH 7.0. The browning effect was markedly increased at high fructose concentration. It required 4.0hrs and 32.9hrs to decrease 50% of initial concentration of fructose and glycine at $100^{\circ}C$ and pH 7 but 0.9hrs and 3.8hrs at $120^{\circ}C$, pH 7.0, respectively. The rate constant of fructose and glycine at $100^{\circ}C\;and\;120^{\circ}C$ were $1.78{\times}10^{-1},\;2.11{\times}10^{-2}\;and\;7.74{\times}10^{-1},\;1.83{\times}10^{-1}$, respectively. The formation of HMF was likely to follow the first order kinetics. The addition of 0.1M sodium sulfite, 0.1M sodium bisulfite and 0.1M calcium chloride to equimolar mixture (0.05M) surpressed the reaction up to 76.8%, 76.8% and 96.4%, respectively.

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Edible Films from Protein Concentrates of Rice Wine Meal (주박 단백질 농축물로부터 가식성필름의 제조)

  • Cho, Seung-Yong;Park, Jang-Woo;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1097-1106
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    • 1998
  • Biodegradable edible films were prepared from rice protein concentrates (RPC) made from rice wine meal by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. The effect of film forming solution pH and plasticizers were studied, and cross-linkers were added to improve mechanical properties and water vapor permeabilities (WVP) of films. Films could be formed within pH $8{\sim}11$ with tensile strength (TS) of 4.3{\sim}5.7\;MPa$. Films produced under pH 11 had the highest TS (5.7 MPa) and the lowest WVP $(0.44\;ng{\cdot}m/m^2{\cdot}s{\cdot}Pa)$. Added glycerol, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG) and its mixture (GLY:PEG=50:50) as plasticizers also affected the mechanical properties and WVP of films. TS and elongation at break (E) of films at various plasticizer levels were $5.5{\sim}1.0\;MPa$ and $3.6{\sim}24.3%$, respectively. At the same plasticizer concentration, the highest TS was observed when glycerol was used whereas the highest E was measured when mixture was used as plasticizer. WVPs of films with thickness of $60\;{\mu}m$ were $0.39{\sim}0.54\;ng{\cdot}m/m^2{\cdot}s{\cdot}Pa$. WVP of films decreased as the ratio of glycerol/PEG 200 was decreased, and WVP increased as the total amount of plasticizer added to the films increased. Film strength was improved by the addition of small amount of sodium hydrogen sulfate, succinic anhydride, ascorbic acid and citric acid, whereas TS of films containing $0.5{\sim}2.0%$ of NaCl and $CaCl_2$ were lower than those without the salts. The highest TS (6.3 MPa) was achieved with films containing 0.1% of succinic anhydride.

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17 beta-Estradiol Increases Peak of $\textrm{Ca}^{2+}$ Current in Mouse Early Embryo (에스트로겐이 생쥐 초기배의 $\textrm{Ca}^{2+}$ 전류에 미치는 영향)

  • 강다원;신용원;김은심;홍성근;한재희
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2001
  • Steroid hormones control the expression of many cellular regulators, and a role thor estrogen in mouse oocytes has been well documented. The preovulatory $E_2$increment is generally accepted as the endocrine process regulating induction of in vivo oocyte maturation To address whether the activity of the T-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel is altered by 17 beta-estradiol ( $E_2$), we examined the actions of $E_2$on the calcium channel of mouse oocytes and early embryos. Oocrtes were collected from the oviduct of mice treated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human choronic gonadotropin (hCG). Whole cell voltage clamp technique and confocal microscopy were used to examine that $E_2$increase intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([C $a^{2+}$]$_{i}$ ) via voltage dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channel (VDC) and estrogen receptor (FSR), and $E_2$concentration by the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) were examined in mouse. The results obtained were as follows: The peak of $Ca^{2+}$ current induced by $E_2$increased 122% to 1.50$\pm$0.03 nA from 1.23$\pm$0.21 nA (n=15) in the presence of 5 mM extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([C $a^{2+}$]$_{o}$ ). The increased $Ca^{2+}$ current was temporally associated with $Ca^{2+}$ transients. The intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level increased 207%~30 s following the addition of 1${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ $E_2$(relative fluorescence intensity: 836.4$\pm$131.2 for control, n=10, 1736.4$\pm$192.0 in the presence of $E_2$, n=10). $E_2$increased amplitude of $Ca^{2+}$ current and [C $a^{2+}$]$_{i}$ . $E_2$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ current and $E_2$concentration in blood were showed difference on the stage of embryo. These results suggest that $E_2$modulate $Ca^{2+}$ channel to increase $Ca^{2+}$ influx.$Ca^{2+}$ influx.

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Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Algae Meal Produced from Dairy Cow Wastes as a Feedstuff (젖소폐기물에서 생산된 Algae Meal의 화학적조성 및 사료적가치)

  • Kim, Y.K.;Eun, J.S.;Kim, S.D.
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 1998
  • Algal meal (cell) was produced from the solution of dairy cow wastes by fermentation of ulothrix. sp. and chlorella sp. Raw wastes mainly feces were diluted with ground water to give dry matter concentration of 0.5 w/v of wastes in 20 l amounts of ten plastic containers. Each containers were covered with plastic nets and vinyl films to protect from the insects and rain. Algea cells were harvested every 3 to 5 days and dried by sunlight and artifitial heat. Dried cells were ground by a feed meal, and analyzed and tested for the chemical composition of dry cell, in vitro DM and protein digestibility and the safty of algae. Protein contents in algae meals, ulothrix (29.37%) and chlorella (29.24%) were similar. However, chlorella contained lower Neutral detergent fiber (5.92%) than ulothrix(20,76%), and higher ash (32.86%) and calcium (12.62%) than ulothrix (28.66% and 6.09%) (P<.01). Ulothrix protein had higher for essential amino acids; valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, than chlorella (P<.05). Algal fats contained high saturated fatty acids, C16:0 and C18:0, for ulothrix and high unsaturated fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, for chlorella (P<.01). In vitro digestibility of. ulothrix tended to be higher for DM, but lower for protein than chlorella. The weight gain and survival percentage were higher for pond fishes (loaches, Misgurnus sp. ) fed diet added chlorella meal than diets added ulothrix meal and control diet (P<.05).

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Effects of Feeding Colloidal Silver and Rare Earth Elements on Growth Performance in Broilers (콜로이드 은과 희토류 원소의 첨가가 육계 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Jong-Kwan;Kim, Jin-Soo;Yun, Ku;Kim, Young-Woo;Kim, Kwang-Hyun;Kwon, Il-Kyung;Chae, Byung-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of rare earth, individually and in combination with colloidal silver on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and immune response in broiler chicks. A total of 3,872 day-old chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were four pens per treatment and 242 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were T1) CON (control diet), T2) colloidal silver (control diet+20 ppb colloidal silver), T3) rare earth elements (control diet+500 ppm rare earth), T4) colloidal silver +rare earth elements (control diet+20 ppb colloidal silver+500 ppm rare earth). There were no significant differences in feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among dietary treatments during the whole experimental period (0 to 5 weeks). Body weight gain was greatest in birds fed T3 and T4 diets (p<0.01). Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and calcium were greatest in birds fed T4 diet (p<0.05), while apparent digestibility of phosphorus was lowest in birds fed T3 diet (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in bone strength, carcass characteristics and immune response among dietary treatments. Dry matter content of bone was greatest in birds fed T4 diet (p<0.05), and phosphorus content of bone was greater in birds fed T3 diet than in birds fed T2 and T4 diets (p<0.05). Thus, the results of this study suggest that rare earth elements supplementation, individually and in combination with colloidal silver could improve performance of broilers.