• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calcium

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A Study on the Calcium and Sodium Intakes and Urinary Calcium Excretion of Preschool Children in Busan (부산지역 학령전 아동의 칼슘 및 나트륨의 섭취와 소변중 칼슘배설상태에 관한 연구)

  • 임화재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.786-796
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    • 2001
  • To assess calcium and sodium and urinary excretion of preschool children in Busan and to evaluate the relationship of intakes of food and nutrient with urinary calcium excretion, calcium and sodium food frequencies of 25 common foods affecting intakes of calcium and sodium per week, nutrient intake by 24hr recall and 24hr urinary calcium and sodium excretion were measured with 97 preschool children. The mean calcium intake was 436.11mg and below RDA. The mean sodium intake was 1890.11mg. The mean urinary calcium and sodium excretion were 42.88mg and 735.25mg respectivery. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.20. The urinary calcium excretion showed positive significant correlations with weight, intake frequency of pizza consumed per week and urinary sodium excretion (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.001). The urinary calcium excretion per milligram of creatinine showed positive significant correlations with intake frequencies of pizza and common squid consumed per week(p<0.01, p<0.05) and negative correlation with intake frequencies of pizza and common squid consumed per week(p<0.01, p<0.05) and negative correlation with age(p<0.05). No significant relations were found between urinary calcium and intakes of calcium, protein and phosphorus. Urinary sodium was found to be the most important determinant of urinary calcium excretion. Intake frequency of pizza consumed per week was found to be the most important determinant of urinary calcium excretion per milligram of creatinine. Based on the results, urinary calcium excretion was related to intake frequency of pizza consumed per week and urinary sodium excretion. Low calcium intake and increase of calcium loss in the urine potentiated by sodium intake during growth may reduce peak bone mass. So nutritional education is needed in order to increase calcium intake and decrease sodium intake, especially from food like pizza.

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The Effect of Water-Soluble Calcium Supplements on Calcium Metabolism and Bone Metabolism of Growing Rats

  • Jang, Se-Young;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Teak-Kyu;Seo, Ji-Hyung;Park, Eun-Mi
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.217-221
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    • 2007
  • Within the elderly population, the use of calcium supplements and the intake of calcium from food are on the rise in order to maintain health. Calcium is absorbed as an ion in vivo, leading to speculation that absorption efficiency is affected by the solubility of the calcium consumed. In our study, the bioavailability of two types of calcium supplements with different solubilities was evaluated. Experimental animals were fed water-soluble or insoluble calcium supplements for 6 weeks. We found that blood alkali phosphatase activity, osteocalcin content, and urine crosslinks values were not different between the groups. Similarly, the degree of apparent calcium absorption between the two calcium supplements was not significantly different. The bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the femur and the tibia increased in the group that consumed insoluble calcium compared with those of the water-soluble calcium supplemented group. However, when considering body weight, the bone mineral density value for all areas, including the spine, was significantly higher in the group that consumed the water-soluble calcium supplement.

Effects of Water-Soluble Calcium Supplements Made from Eggshells and Oyster Shells on the Calcium Metabolism of Growing Rats

  • Jang, Se-Young;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Taeg-Kyu;Seo, Ji-Hyung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the effects of water-soluble calcium supplements manufactured with eggshells and oyster shells on growing rats. The aim was to review the potential use of food wastes as materials for water-soluble calcium supplements as compared to water-soluble calcium supplements made from imported seaweed powder. When experimental animals were administered three types of water-soluble calcium supplements orally for six weeks, the serum calcium level of the seaweed calcium supplement group were significantly higher than that of eggshell or oyster shell-derived calcium, but blood alkali phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and urine crosslink levels were not different in the three types of calcium supplements. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content in spine, femur and tibia also were not significantly different among the groups. However, when considering body weight of each group, bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the femur were significantly higher in the oyster shell calcium supplement group. These results suggest that at least on a short-term basis, the effect of calcium supplements prepared from eggshell and oyster shell are similar to the effects of seaweed calcium supplements.

Changes of Total and Ionized Calcium following Cardiopulmonary Bypass (심폐관류에 따른 혈청칼슘의 변동)

  • 전상훈
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.240-245
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    • 1988
  • This study was prospectively planned to realize the reduction of calcium ion in serum along with the cardiopulmonary bypass[CPB], to find out the cause of the reduction, and to verify the justification of the classical methods of calcium replacement. Nine patients with various open heart surgeries by CPB in 1987 wee selected at random. Calcium chloride was added as follows:: For each unit of ACD blood transfusion, 600mg of calcium chloride was added. In case of massive transfusion, 600 mg of calcium chloride was injected every 2 or 3 units of transfusion. On occasions such as weaning from CPB, or following defibrillation, or hypotension, weak myocardial contractility of the heart, calcium chloride was needed in an amount of 10 mg / kg. In ICU, calcium chloride was limited to use in low serum level or in emergency use. Total calcium decreased early bypass and progressively increased above the preoperative value during late bypass and three hours thereafter, Ionized calcium increased during late bypass and three hours following. Total and ionized calcium depicted similar patterns of change during open heart surgery. Decrease of the calcium at the early bypass was thought from reduction of total protein and alkalosis during bypass. Meanwhile, increase of both calciums during the end of surgery was presumably attributable to addition of calcium chloride in priming solution, injections of calcium chloride in the process of termination of bypass. We conclude that enough calcium was replaced by the classical methods of calcium supplement.

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Vitamin D², Thyroxine, 및 Calcium gluconate가 백서악하선적출로 인한 혈중 Calcium농도변화에 미치는 영향

  • Cheong, Dong-Kyun;Park, No-Hee;Kim, Joong-KI
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.919-923
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    • 1974
  • Serum calcium level was decreased by submaxillary gland removal in rate. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the above change, the authors examined the effects of thyroxine, vitamin D₂, and calcium gluconate, which influence the metabolisms of calcium and submaxillary gland, on the serum calcium level of the intact and submaxillary gland removal rats. The results were as follows: 1) Serum calcium level decreased by submaxillary gland removal. 2) Vitamin D₂, increased the serum calcium level significantly. 3) Thyroxine falied to recover the decreased serum calcium level induced by submaxillary gland removal to the control level. 4) In submaxillary gland removal rats, vitamin D₂ failed to increase the serum calcium level. 5) In thyroxine administered rats for 55 days, of which submaxillary glands were removed, vitamin D₂ failed to increase the serum calcium level. 6) The serum calcium level in intact rats was increased slightly, but increased significantly in submaxillary gland removal rats shortly after intravenous injection of calcium gluconate.

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Quality Characteristics of Soy Ice Creams as Affected by Enzyme Hydrolysis Times and Added Calciums (효소처리시간과 칼슘의 종류를 달리한 칼슘강화 콩아이스크림의 품질특성)

  • 김지영;이숙영
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2003
  • The effects of hydrolysis times and calcium source additions (calcium lactate, calcium carbonate), on the qualify characteristics of soy ice cream prepared with soy protein isolate(SPI), were studied. Increasing the hydrolysis time decreased the viscosity and overrun of soy ice creams, but increased the melt-down property. The addition of calcium lactate increased the viscosity of the soy ice cream mix, but no changes were observed from the calcium carbonate addition. The overrun of calcium lactate samples was higher than on addition of calcium carbonate. The addition of calcium lactate and calcium carbonate resulted in decreased melt-down properties, although these effects were more evident in the calcium lactate samples. However, calcium carbonate addition resulted in higher scores in the overall quality of the soy ice creams. In conclusion, better soy ice cream could be prepared by treating the SPI with Flavorzyme for 50 min, along with calcium fortification in the form of calcium carbonate.

N-Type Calcium Channels

  • Elmslie, Keith S.
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.427-437
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    • 2000
  • The early studies of cardiac and smooth muscle cells provided evidence for two different calcium channels, the L-type (also called high-voltage activated [HVA]) and T-type (low-voltage activated [LVA]). These calcium channels provided calcium for muscle contractions and pace-making activities. As might be expected, the number of different calcium channels increased when researchers studied neurons and the identification of the neuronal calcium channels has proven to be much more difficult than with the muscle calcium channels. There are two reasons for this difficulty; (1) a larger number of different calcium channels in neurons and (2) many of the different calcium channels have similar kinetic properties. This review uses the N-type calcium channel to illustrate the difficulties in identifying and characterizing calcium channels in neurons. It shows that the discovery of toxins that can specifically block single calcium channel types has made it possible to easily and rapidly discern the physiological roles of the different calcium channels in the neuron, Without these toxins it is unlikely that progress would have been as rapid.

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Effect of Dietary Boron Supplementation and Calcium Levels on Calcium and Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Female Rats (난소절제 쥐에서 붕소보충과 식이 칼슘 수준이 체내 칼슘 및 골격대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 정혜경;이현숙;최창숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.887-895
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary boron supplementation and calcium levels on calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized female rats. The experimental group classified ovariectomized group(O) and sham operation group (S). The two groups were then each randomly divided into flour sub-groups and fed experimental diets consisting in two levels of calcium and at each level of calcium, there were boron supplemented group and non-supplemented group. Calcium levels were either 0.2%(low calcium group: L) or 1.2%(high calcium group: H). The level of boron in the diet for the boron supplemented groups(B) was 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/g diet. The experimental period was six weeks. The average food intake were not statistically significantly different in all of eight groups. The increase in weights of rats was observed only in ovariectonized and sham control rats(low ca without boron supplemented). The rest of the groups lost weight significantly during the experimental period ranging from 26.94g to 44.34g. Significant higher calcium intakes were observed in high calcium groups, regardless of boron supplementation during experimental period. Urinary calcium excretion was not affected either by ovariectomy or diets on the first, third and sixth week of feeding. Apparent calcium absorption rates were not different among the groups on first week, whereas noticeable increase was observed in low calcium groups at third and sixth weeks. Femur wet and dry weight, and calcium contents of femur were higher in low calcium groups. whereas femur bone density was higher low calcium with boron supplementation groups than low calcium groups. Scapular density did not show any significant differences among all groups. Despite there were no differences in the activities of alkaline phosphatase by boron supplementation, boron supplemetation appeared to cause higher femur density. There results suggest that in both of sham-operated and ovariectomized rats low calcium did not influence greatly bone status of rats and boron increased bone density.

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE UTILIZATION OF CALCIUM BETWEEN LAYING TSAIYA DUCK AND LEGHORN HEN

  • Chen, Woan-Lin;Shen, Tlan-Fuh
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 1989
  • Studies were conducted to compare the utilization of dietary calcium between brown laying Tsaiya duck and Leghorn hen. Birds were fed corn-soybean diets containing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0% calcium, respectively, with five birds per treatment. The metabolizability of calcium was determined by the indicator method. Experiments were conducted three times each at the age of 27, 31 and 36 weeks. Results appeared that duck eggs were heavier with better shell quality in comparison with hen eggs. Ducks fed 1% calcium diet resulted in severely depressed egg production (19%), but not for hens which still had 56% egg production. The metabolizability of calcium for hens was significantly higher than that for ducks (P<0.05) when both were fed diets containing 1 or 2% calcium. As the dietary calcium level was increased to 3 to 5%, there was no significant difference in calcium metabolizability between ducks and hens. When the dietary calcium was between 2 to 5%, the ducks retained more calcium than did the hens. Plasma calcium content for both hens and ducks fed 1% calcium diet was about the same. When the amount of the dietary calcium was increased to 2-5%, the plasma calcium level of ducks was approximately 7-10 mg/dl higher than that of hens. The calcium content in the egg shell of duck was significantly higher than that of hens, too. As the dietary calcium level was increased, there was a decreased magnesium content in the eggshell of hens, but not for ducks. The magnesium level in the eggshell was higher in hens than that in ducks. It is concluded that ducks could retain significantly more calcium and maintain higher plasma calcium level which might be the reason for larger eggs with better shell quality by ducks.

Effects of Various Calcium Salt Spray on Calcium Accumulation into Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.) (칼슘급원별 수관살포가 사과 과실의 칼슘축적에 미치는 영향)

  • Choe, Jong-Seung
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of various calcium salts on the accumulation of calcium in apple fruits when sprayed on whole tree. Differences in the total calcium contents of fruits were found between calcium sources and cultivars. In 'Tsugaru' , calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, and calcium carbonate were all effective but only calcium chloride and calcium carbonate appeared to be effective in 'Fuji' . Major parts of the applied calcium were accumulated in the feel and outer flesh. Ethylene evolution of fruit was retarded during storage with the increase of total calcium content in 'Fuji' fruit treated calcium acetate.

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