• 제목/요약/키워드: Calcium

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골재 부산물의 용토재 활용을 위한 특성 분석 (Physico-Chemical Properties of Aggregate By-Products as Artificial Soil Materials)

  • 양수찬;정영상;김동욱;심규섭
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.418-428
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    • 2007
  • 본 연구는 골재 부산물의 용토재로서 활용을 위한 기초 특성 분석으로서 전국 21개소의 골재 업체를 대상으로 골재 생산시 생하는 슬러지나 석분 등 골재 부산물의 화학성과 물리성 및 광물 조성을 알아 보는데 있다. 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 골재 부산물의 pH는 전라도 지역의 JH, DA 업체를 제외하고 모두 8.41~10.97 정도로 높았으며, EC는 평균 $167.9{\mu}S\;cm^{-1}$ 이고 전라도 지역은 대부분 $33.0{\sim}122.4{\mu}S\;cm^{-1}$ 정도로 상대적으로 낮은 수치를 보였으나, 경상도 지역은 $169.5{\sim}639.0{\mu}S\;cm^{-1}$ 정도로 상대적으로 높은 수치를 나타냈다. 2. 유기물 함량은 대부분 $2.9{\sim}5.0g\;kg^{-1}$ 이며, 강원도 지역의 GG 업체의 경우 $11.27g\;kg^{-1}$ 로 상대적으로 높았다. T-N의 경우, 0.01~0.11 % 정도이고 $NH_4{^+}-N$의 경우, 대부분 지역은 $14.0{\sim}67.2mg\;kg^{-1}$ 수준이었으나 전라도 지역은 $1.03{\sim}3.00mg\;kg^{-1}$ 수준을 보였다. $NO_3{^-}-N$의 경우, 대부분 지역은 $14.0{\sim}67.2mg\;kg^{-1}$ 수준이었으나 전라도 지역은 $1.0{\sim}3.2mg\;kg^{-1}$ 수준을 보였다. $P_2O_5$ 의 경우, 강원도의 $10.2mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서 전라도 $24.8mg\;kg^{-1}$ 까지 비슷한 수준을 나타냈다. $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $K^+$$Na^+$ 의 각 평균은 $2.299cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$, $0.472cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$, $0.021cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$, $0.055cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 이며 $Ca^{2+}$의 경우, 최고값인 경상도 DE 업체의 $6.385cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 부터 최저값인 전라도 JH 업체의 $0.742cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 범위를 보였다. $Mg^{2+}$의 경우 최고값인 전라도 YS 업체의 $1.850cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 부터 최저값인 충청도 JK 업체의 $0.006cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 범위를 보였다. 양이온교환용량은 평균 $7.6cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$으로 경상도에서 $17.3cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$으로 가장 높았으며, 전라도에서 $2.2cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ 으로 가장 낮았다. 3. 중금속 함량은 모든 항목에서 환경부에서 고시한 농경지 오염 우려 기준을 초과하지 않았다. Cd의 경우, 평균 $0.011mg\;kg^{-1}$ 이며 최저 값인 강원도 DM 업체의 $0.003mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 경상도 DH 업체의 $0.062mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. $Cr^{6+}$의 경우, 평균 $0.068mg\;kg^{-1}$ 이며 최저 값인 강원도 DM 업체와 SS 업체의 $0.037mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 경기도 KG 업체의 $0.169mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Cu의 경우, 평균 $0.419mg\;kg^{-1}$ 이며 최저 값인 강원도 DM 업체와 SS 업체의 $0.000mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 충청도 SB 업체의 $1.072mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Ni의 경우, 평균 $3.513mg\;kg^{-1}$ 이며 최저 값인 전라도 DA 업체의 $0.045mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 강원도 GG 업체의 $11.980mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Zn의 경우, 평균 $0.588mg\;kg^{-1}$이며 최저 값인 경상도 SU 업체의 $0.014mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 충청도 SB 업체의 $1.086mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Pb의 경우, 평균 $0.467mg\;kg^{-1}$이며 최저 값인 강원도 DM 업체의 $0.008mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 충청도 SB 업체의 $1.261mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Fe의 경우, 평균 $33.815mg\;kg^{-1}$이며 최저 값인 경상도 SU 업체의 $0.805mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 경기도 KG 업체의 $106.400mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. Mn의 경우, 평균 $18.427mg\;kg^{-1}$이며 최저 값인 강원도 SS 업체의 $0.703mg\;kg^{-1}$ 에서부터 최고 값인 충청도 SB 업체의 $49.140mg\;kg^{-1}$ 사이의 값을 보였다. 4. 골재 부산물의 토성은 평균적으로 대부분 모래가 50 % 이하이며 미사가 50 % 이상인 미사질양토(SiL)인데 비해 전라도의 경우, 양토(L)였다. 유효수분은 평균 2.58 % 로 매우 낮은 수준이며, 액성한계의 경우, 최저 값인 전라도 JS 업체의 5.9 % 에서 최고 값인 경상도의 DH 업체의 39.1 % 사이의 값을 보이며 평균 24.4 %로 일반 밭 토양의 액성한계와 유사한 수치를 보였다. 대부분 시료에서 점착성 및 가소성 모두 그 성질이 약하거나 없는 C나 D 등급이었다. 5. 골재 부산물의 투수성은 경기도 KG 업체의 경우, $2.8{\times}10^{-6}m\;sec^{-1}$, 강원도 CC 업체의 경우, $0.4{\times}10^{-6}m\;sec^{-1}$, 그리고 전라도 KS 업체의 경우, $1.4{\times}10^{-6}m\;sec^{-1}$ 로 상당히 느린 투수성을 보여준다. 6. 골재 부산물의 X선 회절분석 결과, 석영(Quartz)과 단사녹니석(Clinochlore)이나 금운모(Phlogopite)가 주요 피크로 대부분 시료에서 화강암 또는 화강 편마암 지역의 광물 조성을 보였으며, 강원도 지역의 DM 업체에서 석회암을 모암으로 하는 방해석(Calcite)과 백운석(Dolomite)이 주요 피크였다. 7. 골재 부산물의 화학 조성 분석 결과(X선 형광분석), 대부분 시료는 원암을 화강암이나 화강편마암으로 하고 있기에 대표적인 원소는 $SiO_2$이며 그 다음으로 $Al_2O_3$가 대부분을 차지한다. 강원도의 SS, DM 업체의 $SiO_2$의 함량은 30 %이하로 낮은 반면에 CaO의 함량은 45 % 이상으로 높은 수치를 보여준다. 골재 부산물의 규반비는 1.70~3.42 이며, 이는 골재 부산물이 화학적 풍화 보다는 원암에서 기계적인 파쇄에 의한 단순 입자 크기의 축소로 보이며, 원암 가루, 즉 1차 광물로서 2차 광물이 거의 없기 때문이라 판단된다. 8. 골재 부산물의 시차 열분석 결과, 열변화 곡선이 안정적이며 주요 천이점이 $550^{\circ}C$에서 $610^{\circ}C$ 부근에 석영의 천이를 보이는 것과 열변화 곡선이 불안정적이며 여러 천이를 보이는 것으로 나뉘며, 골재 부산물의 경우는 흡 발열피크를 검토할 때 점토광물이 거의 없는 것으로 보인다.

느타리버섯의 생리화학적성질(生理化學的性質) 및 재배(栽培)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (Studies on the physio-chemical properties and the cultivation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus))

  • 홍재식
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.150-184
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    • 1978
  • 합성배지(合成培地)에서 느타리 버섯균(菌)의 균사생육(菌絲生育)과 자실체형성(子實體形成)에 대한 영양적(營養的) 특성(特性)과 생리화학적(生理化學的) 제성질(諸性質)을 구명(究明)하고 볏짚과 톱밥 양(兩) 배지(培地)에서 느타리 버섯의 대량(大量) 생산(生産)을 위한 배양조건(培養條件)을 밝히고, 느타리 버섯 재배기간(栽培期間) 중 배지(培地)와 버섯중의 각종(各種) 성분(成分)의 추이(推移)를 알고자 실험을 수행하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 탄소원(炭素源) 중 mannitol과 서은 균사생육(菌絲生育)과 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)이 빠르고 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)이 많았으나 lactose와 rhamnose는 균사(菌絲) 조차도 생육하지 못하였다. 또한 구연산, 호박산, ethyl alcohol 및 glycerol에서는 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)이 매우 빈약(貧弱)하였고, 식초산, 개미산, 푸마르산, n-butyl alcohol, iso-butyl alcohol 및 n-propyl alcohol은 균사생육(菌絲生育)을 저해(阻害)하였다. 2. 질소원(窒素源)중 peptone은 균사생육(菌絲生育)과 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)이 빠르고 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)이 많았으나 DL-alanine, asparagine, L-aspartic acid, glycine및 serine은 자실체형성(子實體形成)이 매우 빈약(貧弱)하였으며 아질산태질소(亞窒酸態窒素), L-tryptophan 및 L-tyrosine은 균(菌)의 생육을 저해(沮害)하였다. 또한 peptone에 무기태질소(無機態窒素)와 아미노산(酸)을 혼용(混用)한 결과 $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, $NH_4$-tartarate, DL-alanine및 L-leucine에서는 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)이 약 10% 증가되었고, L-aspartic acid는 약 15%. L-arginine은 약20%, L-glutamic acid와 L-lysine은 약 25%증가 되었다. 3. C/N율(率) 15.23에서 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)은 빠르나 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)은 감소(減少)되었으며, C/N율(率) 11.42에서는 자실체형성(子實體形成)은 늦으나 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)은 증가되는 경향이 있었다. 또한 동일 C/N율(率)에서도 mannitol과 peptone의 농도(濃度)가 높은 편이 수량(收量)이 증가되었다. 그러므로 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)과 자실체형성(子實體形成) 소요일(所要日)의 관점(觀點)에서 보면 C/N율(率) 30.46이 어느정도 적당(適當)한 것 같다. 4. Thiamine $50{\mu}g%,\;KH_2PO_4$ 0.2%, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$$0.02{\sim}0.03%$일때 균사(菌絲)와 자실체(子實體) 생육(生育)이 우수(優秀)하였으며 미량원소(微量元素)로서는 $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$,\;ZnSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$$MnSO_4{\cdot}5H_2O$가 공존(共存)하면 생육촉진(生育促進)의 상승효과(相乘效果)가 인정되었으나 3이원소(元素)중 Mn이 결핍(缺乏)하면 균사(菌絲)와 자실체(子實體)의 생육(生育)이 다소 저하되었다. 이들 염류(鹽類)의 최적농도(最適濃度)는 각각 0.02mg%이었다. 5. Cytosine $0.2{\sim}1mg%$와 indole acetic acid 0.01mg%에서 균사량(菌絲量)은 증가되었으나 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)에는 효과 없었으며 그밖의 purine염기(鹽基), pyrimidine염기(鹽基) 및 식물(植物) hormone은 영향이 없었다. 6. 광조사(光照射영)에 의해서 균사생육(菌絲生育)은 저해(沮害)되었으며 영양생장(營養生長)의 후기에 광(光)을 조사(照射)하면 원기형성(原基形成)이 유도(誘導)되었다. 광(光)의 최적조도(最適照度)는 $100{\sim}500lux$, 조사시간(照射時間)은 매일 $6{\sim}12$시간이었고, 이 이상(以上)의 조도(照度)에서는 오히려 저해(沮害)되었으며, 암소(暗所)에서는 원기(原基)가 형성(形成)되지 않고 영양생장(營養生長)만 계속되었다. 7. 균사생육(菌絲生育)과 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)의 최적온도(最適溫度)는 각각 $25^{\circ}C,\;10{\sim}15^{\circ}C$이었고 최적(最適)의 pH범위(範圍)는 $5.0{\sim}6.5$이었으며 균사(菌絲)는 $7{s\im}10$일간 배양(培養)했을 때가 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)이 제일 우수(優秀)하였다. 또한 배지량(培地量)이 적을수록 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)은 빠르나 자실체(子實體)의 수량(收量)은 감소(減少)되었고 배지량(培地量)이 많을수록 자실체(子實體) 형성(形成)은 늦은반면에 그 수량(收量)은 증가 되었으며, 원기형성(原基形成)은 $CO_2$에 의하여 저해(沮害)되었다. 8. 볏짚과 톱밥 병 배지(培地)에서 균사생육(菌絲生育)의 최적(最適) 수분량(水分量)은 70%이상 이었으며 미강(米糠) 10%를 배지(培地)에 첨가(添加)했을 때는 균사생육(菌絲生育)과 자실체형성(子實體形成)이 우수(優秀)하였다. 그리고 양배지(兩培地)에 $CaCo_3$를 단독(單獨)으로 첨가했을 때는 유효(有?)하였으나 미강(米糠)과 함께 첨가했을때는 효과(?果)를 볼 수 없었다. 9. 재배(栽培) 실험(實驗)에서 느타리 버섯의 전체(全體) 수량(收量)은 볏짚배지(培地)에서 $14.99kg/m^2$, 톱밥배지(培地)에서 $6.52kg/m^2$이었고 양배지(兩培地) 모두 90%이상이 1,2주기(週期)에서 얻어졌으며 볏짚배지(培地)(dry matter $20.96kg/m^2$)의 전수율(全收率)을 톱밥배지(培地)(dry matter $20.83kg/m^2$)의 약 2.3배(倍)이었다. 10. 재배기간(栽培期間)중 양(兩) 배지(培地)의 일반 성분을 고형물(固形物) 기준(基準)으로 볼때 회분(灰分)의 변화는 적었으나 유기물(有機物)은 감소(減少)되었으며, 수분(水分)은 종균접종시(種菌接種時) 약 79%이던것이 균사번식기간(菌絲繁殖期間)중에 다소 감소(減少)되었고 그 이후부터는 큰 변화가 없었다. 11, 종균접종시(種菌接種時) 부터 4주기(週期) 수확(收穫) 후까지 배지(培地) 성분(成分)의 소실(消失)을 보면 볏짚배지(培地)는 고형물(固形物) 약 19.7%, 유기물(有機物) 약 19.3%, 질소(窒素) 약 40%가 소실(消失)되었으며, 톱밥 배지(培地)에서는 고형물(固形物) 약 7.5%, 유기물(有機物) 약 7.6%, 질소(窒素) 약 20%가 소실(消失)되었다. 버섯 1kg을 생산(生産)하기 위하여 볏짚 배지(培地)에서는 유기물(有機物) 약 232g, 질소(窒素) 약 7.0g이 소실(消失)되었고, 톱밥 배지(培地)에서는 유기물(有機物) 약 235g, 질소(窒素) 약 6.8g이 소실(消失)되었으며, 버섯 1kg당(當) 함유된 유기물(有機物)은 각각 82.4g, 82.3g, 질소(窒素)는 각각 5.6g, 5.4g이었다. 12. 양배지(兩培地)의 전질소(全窒素)는 점차적으로 감소(減少)되었고 불용성질소(不溶性窒素)의 절대감소량(絶對減少量)은 수용성질소(水溶性窒素)보다 컸으며 아미노태(態) 질소(窒素)는 3주기(週期)까지는 계속 증가 되었으나 그 이후부터는 감소(減少)되었다. 13. 볏짚 배지(培地)에서는 재배기간(栽培其間)에 소실(消失)된 전(全) pentosan의 28%, ${\alpha}$-cellulose는 13.8%가 균사생육(菌絲生育)중에 소실(消失)되었고 톱밥배지(培地)에서는 전(全) pentosan의 24.1%, ${\alpha}$-cellulose는 11.9%가 소실(消失)되었으며 lignin은 양(兩) 배지(培地)의 2주기(週期) 수확(收穫)부터 다소 감소(減少)되었다. 환원당(還元糖), trehalose 및 mannitol은 계속 증가의 추세를 보였으며 C/N율(率)은 볏짚 배지(培地)에서 종균(種菌) 접종시(接種時) 33.2이었던 것이 폐상시(廢床時)에는 30.3이었고, 톱밥 배지(培地)는 61.3이었던 것이 60.0 이었다. 14. 양(兩) 배지(培地)에서 P, K, Mn, Zn은 감소(減少)되었고, Mg, Ca, Cu는 불규칙하게 변화되었으며, Fe는 증가되는 경향이었다. 15. 재배기간(栽培期間)중 각종효소(各種酵素)의 활성(活性)은 톱밥배지(培地)보다 볏짚배지(培地)가 월등히 높았다. 즉 CMC 당화활성(糖化活性)과 CMC액화활성(液化活性)은 균사번식(菌絲繁殖)후부터 2주기수확(週期收穫)까지는 양배지(兩培地)에서 점차적으로 증가 되었으나 그 이후부터는 감소(減少)되었다. xylanase활성(活性)은 1주기(週期)보다 2주기(週期)에서 급격히 상승되었고 3주기(週期)가 되면서 볏짚 배지(培地)에서는 신속히 감소(減少)되었으나 톱밥 배지(培地)에서는 이와같은 감소(減少)를 볼 수 없었다. protease 활성(活性)은 균사번식(菌絲繁殖)후 최고의 활성도(活性度)를 보였다가 점차로 감소(減少)하였다. 또한 볏짚 배지(培地)의 pH는 종균접종시(種菌接種時) 6.3이던 것이 4주기(週期)후는 5.0이었고 톱밥배지(培地)의 pH는 5.7에서 4.9로 떨어졌다. 16. 볏짚 배지(培地)에서 생육한 버섯은 섬유소(纖維素)를 제외한 모든 성분량(成分量)이 톱밥배지(培地)에서 생육한 버섯보다 높은 경향이있었으며 양배지(兩培地)에서 버섯의 각주기별(各週期別) 성분(成分) 변화는 $1{\sim}3$주기(週期)까지는 거의 비슷하였으나 4주기(週期)에서는 다소 감소(減少)의 추세를 보였다.

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High Resolution HC$_3$N Observations toward the Central Region of Sagittarius B2

  • H.S-Ching;Oh, M.ishi;M.Morimoto
    • 한국우주과학회:학술대회논문집(한국우주과학회보)
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    • pp.17-17
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    • 1993
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70${\pm}$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32${\pm}$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500,550,570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500,550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100,300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3,000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • 대한의용생체공학회:의공학회지
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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양송이 수량(收量)에 미치는 합성퇴비배지(合成堆肥培地)의 영양원(營養源), 발효(醱酵) 및 유해생물(有害生物)에 관((關)한 연구(硏究) (Studies on nutrient sources, fermentation and harmful organisms of the synthetic compost affecting yield of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing)

  • 신관철
    • 한국균학회지
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.13-73
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    • 1979
  • 양송이 합성퇴비(合成堆肥) 배지(培地)의 제조(製造)에 있어서 탄소원(炭素原), 질소원(窒素源) 등(等) 영양원(營養源)과 물리적(物理的) 안정(安定)을 위(爲)한 보조재료(補助材料)의 선정(選定), 볏짚을 주재료(主材料)로 사용(使用)할 때의 퇴비재료(堆肥材料)의 배합(配合), 야외퇴적(野外堆積) 및 후발효(後醱酵), 볏짚 퇴비배지(堆肥倍地)에서의 유해생물(有害生物) 발생(發生) 및 방제(防除)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)를 수행(遂行)한 바 그 결과(結果)를 요약(要約)하면 다음과 같다. 1. 합성퇴비배지(合成堆肥倍地)의 탄소원(炭素原)으로서 볏짚은 보리짚과 밀짚보다 발효(醱酵)가 신속(迅速)하고 퇴비(堆肥)의 질소함량(窒素含量)이 높으며 배지(培地)의 질(質)이 양호(良好)하여 양송이 자실체(字實體) 수량(收量)이 현저(顯著)히 높았다. 2. 한국(韓國)에서 생산(生産)되는 일본형(日本型) 벼와 통일품종(統一品種等) 두 계통(系統)의 볏짚은 초형(草型) 및 이화학적(理化學的) 성질(性質)이 달라서 퇴비(堆肥)의 발효상태(醱酵狀態)에 차이(差異)가 많았다. 통일(統一)볏짚은 발효(醱酵)가 빠르게 진행(進行)되므로 퇴적기간(堆積期間)을 단축(短縮)하고 수분공급량(水分供給量)을 감소(減少)시키며 물리성(物理成) 안정재(安定材)를 첨가(添加)하여야 한다. 3. 보릿짚 퇴비(堆肥)는 볏짚퇴비(堆肥)보다 생산성(生産性)이 낮으나 보릿짚과 볏짚을 50 : 50으로 혼용(混用)하면 볏짚과 대등(對等)한 수량(收量)을 얻을 수 있었다. 4. 퇴비배지(堆肥倍地)의 전질소(全窒素), 전유기물(全有機物) 질소(窒素) 및 Amino산태(酸態), Amide태(態) Amino당태(糖態) 질소(窒素)와 자실체(字實體) 수량간(收量間)에는 각각(各各) 높은 정(正)의 상관(相關)이 있으나 Ammonia태(態) 질소(窒素)는 균사생장 및 자실체(字實體) 형성(形成)에 심(甚)히 유해(有害)하였다. 5. 볏짚을 주재료(主材料)로 사용(使用)할 때 무기태(無機態) 질소원(窒素源)으로서 요소(尿素)가 가장 좋았고 유안(硫安)과 석회질소(石灰質素)는 부적당(不適當)하였다. 요소(尿素)는 3회(回) 분시(分施)할 때 손실(損失)이 감소(減少)되고 퇴비(堆肥)의 질소함량(窒素含量)이 증가(增加)하였다. 6. 유기태영양원(有機態營養源) 중(中) 들깻묵, 참깻묵, 밀기울, 계양(鷄養) 등(等)의 첨가(添加)는 퇴비(堆肥)의 발효(醱酵)를 양호(良好)하게 하고 자실체수량(字實體收量)을 증가(增加)시켰다. 7. 들깻묵, 밀기울 등(等) 유기태영양원(有機態營養源)은 장유박(醬油粕), 이분조미료폐비(泥粉調味料廢肥) 등(等) 공장폐엽물(工場廢葉物)로서 대체(代替)하여 재배(栽培)할 수 있었다. 8. 볏짚퇴비(堆肥) 제조시(製造時) 석고(石膏)와 Zeolite를 첨가(添加)하면 과습(過濕) 및 결착(結着) 등(等)으로 인(因)한 물리성(物理性)의 악화(惡化)가 방지(防止)되며, 자실체수량(字實體收量)이 증가(增加)하는데 그 효과(效果)는 일본형(日本型) 볏짚보다 통일(統一)에서 현저(顯著)하였다. 9. 볏짚을 주재료(主材料)로 퇴비재료(堆肥材料)를 배합(配合)할 때 계양(鷄養) 10%, 깻묵 5%, 요소(尿素) $1.2{\sim}1.5%$, 석고(石膏) 1%를 첨가(添加)하고 봄재배(栽培) 때는 발열촉진(發熱促進)을 위(爲)하여 미강(米糠)을 첨가(添加)하는 것이 좋았다. 10. 볏짚배지(培地)의 야외퇴적시(野外堆積時) 적산온도(積算溫度)와 퇴비(堆肥) 부열도간(腐熱度間)에는 r=0.97의 높은 상관(相關)이 이고 적산온도(積算溫度) $900{\sim}1000^{\circ}C$일 때 자실체(字實體) 수량(收量)이 가장 많았다. 11. 퇴적기간(堆積期間)이 길어질수록 퇴비(堆肥)의 부열도(腐熱度)가 높아지고 전질소함량(全窒素含量)이 증가(增加)하고 Ammonia태(態) 질소(窒素)는 감소(減少)하였는데, 볏짚배지(培地)의 퇴적기간(堆積期間)은 봄재배(栽培) $20{\sim}25$일(日), 가을재배(栽培) 15일(日)이 적당(適當)하였고 그때의 부열도(腐熱度)는 각각 19및 24%였다. 12. 퇴비(堆肥) 후발효시(後醱酵時) 수분함량(水分含量)이 높은 퇴비(堆肥)를 진압(鎭壓) 하여 입상(入床)할 때 공기유통(空氣流通)이 감소(減少)하여 Ammonia태(態) 질소(窒素)의 잔류량(殘溜量)이 증가(增加)하고 Methane과 유기산(有機酸) 등(等) 환원성(還元性) 물질(物質)의 생성(生成)이 많았다. r=-0.76, 휘발성(揮發性) 유기산(有機酸)과는 r=-0.73의 부(負)의 상관(相關)이 있었다. 13. 입상시(入床時) 퇴비(堆肥)의 수분함량(水分含量) $69{\sim}80%$ 범위(範圍)에서 자실체(字實體) 수량(收量)은 수분함량(水分含量)이 증가(增加)할수록 감소(減少)하였는데 (r=-0.78) 이것은 공극량(孔隙量)의 감소(減少)에 기인(基因)하는 것이었다. 입상시(入床時) 균상(菌床)의 적정 공극량(孔隙量)은 $41{\sim}45%$. 14. 후발효(後發效) 정열(頂熱)은 병해충 방제(防除) 뿐 아니고 Ammonia의 제거(除去)를 위(爲)해서 필수적(必須的) 과정(科程)이며 정열후(情熱後) 4일간(日間)의 발효(發效) 과정(科程)이 필요(必要)하였다. 15. 볏짚 퇴비배지(堆肥倍地)에서 양송이 균(菌)에 유해(有害)한 영향(影響)을 미치는 사장균 10종(種)이 동정(同定)되었는데 그 중(中) Diehliomyces microsporus, Trichoderma spp.,Stysanus stemoitis 등(等)은 발생빈도(發生頻度)가 높고 피해(被害)가 심(甚)하였다. 16. Diehliomyces는 재배사(栽培舍) 온도조절(溫度調節), Basamid와 Vapam처리(處理)로서 방제(防除)가 가능(可能)하며 Trichoderma spp.는 Bavistin과 Benomyl 철포(撤布)로서 방제(防除)되었다. 17. 퇴비중(堆肥中) 서식(棲息)하여 양송이를 가해(加害)하는 4종(種)의 선충과 5종(種)의 응애(類)는 퇴비(堆肥)를 $60^{\circ}C$에서 6시간(時間) 정열(頂熱)시키므로서 방제(防除)할 수 있었다.

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수도 등숙의 품종간차이와 그 향상에 관한 연구 (Studies on the Varietal Difference in the Physiology of Ripening in Rice with Special Reference to Raising the Percentage of Ripened Grains)

  • 안수봉
    • 한국작물학회지
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    • v.14
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    • pp.1-40
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    • 1973
  • 수도의 다수확을 위하여 근래 다비재배의 경향이 높아가고 있는 반면에 등숙률의 저하가 증수저해요인으로 크게 문제되고 있다. 특히 최근 육성된 통일품종은 이점이 더 심각한 바 있어 등숙의 향상책을 모색하고저 1970년부터 1972년까지 3개년간에 걸쳐 수원 작물시험장포장과 인공기상실에서 주로 진흥과 통일을 공시하여 증숙에 관한 일련의 실험을 시행한 바 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 통일의 곡립은 발아등 종래품종에 비하여 세장하고 곡립의 폭 및 두께가 작으며 비중과의 상관관계는 진흥에 있어서는 곡립의 무게, 두께, 폭 및 길이의 순으로 낮으나 통일은 무게, 폭, 두께 및 길이의 순으로 낮았다. 2. 비중별 립수분포에 있어서 종래의 Japonica도는 비중 1.18을 정점으로 대부분 1.12이상에 분포하고 있으나 통일계통에서는 1.12이하의 곡립도 상당수 분포하였고 진흥이 비중 1.06이하에서 정현비율이 급감하고 있으나 통일에 있어서는 비중 1.20에서 0.96까지의 곡립의 정현비율이 별로 차이가 없으므로 1.06을 등숙립의 선별기준으로 삼는 것은 불합리한 것으로 인정된다. 3. 출수후의 등숙속도는 품종간차이가 현저하며 대체로 한랭지 재배품종일수록 느렸으며 통일은 원래 등숙이 빠른 편이나 등숙후기에는 기온의 저하로 인하여 그 속도가 떨어졌다. 4. 지발분얼 또는 약세분얼은 수당영화수도 적을 뿐 아니라 등숙률도 낮은데 통일은 지발분얼이 많고 이들은 저온하에서 출수하여 수전일수가 연장되고 등숙률이 떨어졌다. 5. 통일의 엽신은 짧고 넓으며 엽신전개력은 다비조건에서는 진흥만큼 크고 또 엽의 경사각도는 적어 수광태세가 양호하였다. 통일 엽신의 단위동화능력은 고온하에서는 비교적 크나 저온하에서는 떨어졌다. 6. 통일은 단간이며 하위절간이 짧고 굵어서 도복저항성이 크고 출수전 저장탄수화물이 많았으며 인산, 규산, 석회, 망간 및 마그네슘 등의 체내함유율이 높았다. 7. 통일은 비교적 많은 영화수를 가지고 있고 진흥이 영화수와 등숙률간에 유의적인 역상관이 있음에 비하여 통일은 고온다조하에서는 영화수가 많아도 등숙률은 떨어지지 않고 영화수증가에 비례하여 수량이 많아졌다. 8. 진흥에 비하여 통일의 뿌리는 천근성이며 고온하에서는 그 활력이 컸으나 저온시에는 엽신이 황갈색으로 변하고 그 변색정도에 비례해서 뿌리의 활력도 떨어졌다. 9. 통일은 수광태세가 좋고 동화일호흡균형상 유리한 생산구조를 갖어 진흥보다 이상적인 모형이었다. 10. 수원지방의 수도보통기재배에 있어서 수량생산기간의 일사량은 비교적 풍부한 편이나 8월25일이후에 출수할 때에는 평균기온이 22$^{\circ}C$이하로 빠르게 하강하므로서 기온이 보다 등숙의 제한요인으로 인정된다. 11. 진흥이 저온하에서도 등숙율이 비교적 높은데 통일의 등숙적온은 $25^{\circ}C$이상이며 21$^{\circ}C$이하에서는 완전등숙이 거의 불가능하였다. 12. 진흥은 감광성이 비교적 크고 감온성은 중정도인데 비하여 통일은 감광성은 작으나 기본영양생장성과 저온하의 출수지연도가 컸었다. 13. 진흥은 질소의 후기중점시비에 의하여 등숙율이 향상되고 증수되었으나 통일에 있어서는 기비중점으로 질소를 시용하여 영화를 많이 확보하여도 등숙율저하가 적고 오히려 증수되였다. 14. 진흥은 만식적응성이 비교적 크나 통일은 조식효과가 크고 만식하면 출수가 지연되고 등숙온도가 낮아져서 등숙율과 수량이 떨어졌다. 15. 통일은 내비성과 밀식적응성이 커서 다비밀식조건에서 그 다수성을 발휘하는 특성을 가졌으며 주수 및 묘수증가에 의하여 수전일수가 단축되고 등숙률이 향상되었다. 16. 재식거리를 좁히고 어느 정도 주당묘수를 늘리면 강세분얼비율이 높아졌다. 17. 인산은 저온시에는 등숙율을 상당히 향상시켰다. 이상을 요약해보면 종래품종들의 등숙향상을 꾀하자면 8월20일이전에 출수시켜야 하며 10a당 질소 7.5kg 이상의 과다한 기비를 억제하고 후기중점으로 시비하여 동화효율을 높여야할 것이다. 한편 통일은 곡립이 세장하고 식물체가 작고 뭉툭한 등 종래품종과 판이한 외부형태와 더불어 그 생리생태적 특성도 상이한 점이 많으므로 등숙립선별, 도정 및 재배법상에도 종전품종과 다른 고려가 있어야 할 것이다. 즉 등숙립 선별기준에 대하여는 통일의 비중별 입수분포 및 정현비율로 보아 종래의 등숙립 선별기준인 비중 1.06 보다는 0.96을 적용하는 것이 합리적이고 도정상으로는 통일의 곡립이 세장하고 폭 및 두께가 작다는 것을 고려하여야 한다. 재배법에 있어서 통일의 등숙률이 낮은 원인이 주로 약세분얼이 많고 저온하에서는 출수가 지연되고 뿌리와 엽신의 기능이 저하되며 불임이 증가되는 것으로 판명되었고 그 외에 통일은 다비밀식적응성이 크므로 등숙향상과 수량 증대를 위해서는 적극적인 방법으로서 우선 견실하고 큰 묘를 가능한 한 조식하고 다비밀식상태로 재배하되 충분한 기비를 시용하고 묘수를 3본 내외로 심고 인산 및 규산등을 충분히 시용하여야 할 것이다.

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