• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

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Effect of Short-term Nutrition Education Camp on Food and Nutrient Intakes of Obese Children (단기간 영양교육 캠프가 비만아동의 식품과 영양소 섭취에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Hwa;Lee, Yeon-Kyung;Lee, Hye-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.987-999
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term nutrition education camp on food and nutrient intakes of obese children. The subjects of the study were 30 obese children in Gumi city who have obesity index over $130\%$. The food consumption of the subjects was surveyed for three days before the camp, for eleven days during the first camp and for three days after the second camp, by food record method. The mean intakes of energy and carbohydrates in obese children were significantly decreased during and after the nutrition education camp, and that of vitamin C was significantly increased after the camp. The mean daily total food intake of the subjects was gradually decreased from 1646.4g before the camp to 1438.6g during the camp and 1412.66g after the camp. Energy and fat intake ratios from grains and milks were significantly decreased after the camp compared with that before the camp, and the energy intake ratio from grains, milks and eggs was significantly low during the camp. The protein intake ratios from grains, potatoes, vegetables and fishes were significantly increased after the camp. The calcium intake ratios from potatoes and milks were significantly increased during and after the camp, and the ratio from eggs was significantly decreased after the camp. The iron intake ratios from potatoes and fishes were significantly increased during and after the camp, and the ratio from grains was significantly low during the camp. The results of the study demonstrated that the short-term nutrition education program positively affected the overall food consumption and nutrients intakes of obese children.

A Study on Food Habits and Nutrient Intakes according to BMI in Food and Nutrition Major and Non-major Female Students in Kyungnam University (식품영양전공과 비전공 여대생의 BMI에 따른 식습관 및 영양소 섭취 상태에 관한 연구 -경남대학교를 중심으로-)

  • Seo, Eun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.297-316
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the body image, food habits, nutrition knowledge, food intake frequency, nutrient intakes of female university students in Masan. Methods: Two groups (n = 302, nutrition major: 147, non-major: 155) were classified into underweight, normal weight and overweight/obesity groups according to BMI respectively. Results: Height and weight of all subjects were 161.5 cm, 53.2 kg and were 161.5 cm, 55.1 kg, 161.5 cm, 51.3 kg in major and non-major female students, respectively. The BMI and body weight were significantly different (p < 0.001). Significantly higher proportions of underweight students in both study groups had perceived as 'normal' or 'fat' (p < 0.001). Higher proportion of the subjects skipped breakfast and main reason was no time to eat. Nutrition knowledge score was significantly higher in major than in non-major subjects (p < 0.001). Fish intake frequency score was significantly higher in non-majors, while the vegetable intake frequency score was significantly higher in majors. Nutrient intakes were significantly higher the majors compared to non-majors, particularly the intake of calcium (p < 0.05), zinc (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001) and vitamin E (p < 0.01). Subjects in both groups did not have adequate nutrient intakes compared to KDRIs. BMI showed a positive correlation with body image, body weight and nutrition knowledge score (p < 0.01). Conclusions: These results suggest that systematic nutrition education program which can be applied in real life is important for the formation of correct choices of food and good eating habits.

Bone mineral density and nutritional state according to milk consumption in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee: Using the 2008~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 폐경 후 여성 커피소비자에서 우유섭취여부에 따른 골밀도와 영양상태 비교 : 2008~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Ryu, Sun-Hyoung;Suh, Yoon Suk
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.347-357
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study investigated bone mineral density and nutritional state according to consumption of milk in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee. Methods: Using the 2008~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey data, a total of 1,373 postmenopausal females aged 50 yrs and over were analyzed after excluding those with diseases related to bone health. According to coffee and/or milk consumption, subjects were divided into four groups: coffee only, both coffee & milk, milk only, and none of the above. All data were processed after application of weighted values and adjustment of age, body mass index, physical activity, drinking, and smoking using a general linear model. For analysis of nutrient intake and bone density, data were additionally adjusted by total energy and calcium intake. Results: The coffee & milk group had more subjects younger than 65 yrs and higher education, urban residents, and higher income than any other group. The coffee only group showed somewhat similar characteristics as the none of the above group, which showed the highest percentage of subjects older than 65 and in a lower education and socio-economic state. Body weight, height, body mass index, and lean mass were the highest in coffee & milk group and lowest in the none of the above group. On the other hand, the milk only group showed the lowest values for body mass index and waist circumference, whereas percent body fat did not show any difference among the groups. The coffee and milk group showed the highest bone mineral density in the total femur and lumbar spine as well as the highest nutritional state and most food group intakes, followed by the milk only group, coffee only group, and none of the above group. In the assessment of osteoporosis based on T-score of bone mineral density, although not significant, the coffee and milk group and milk only group, which showed a better nutritional state, included more subjects with a normal bone density, whereas the none of the above group included more subjects with osteoporosis than any other group. Conclusion: Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women might not be affected by coffee drinking if their diets are accompanied by balanced food and nutrient intake including milk.

Coffee consumption behaviors, dietary habits, and dietary nutrient intakes according to coffee intake amount among university students (일부 대학생의 커피섭취량에 따른 커피섭취행동, 식습관 및 식사 영양소 섭취)

  • Kim, Sun-Hyo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.270-283
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to examine coffee consumption behaviors, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes by coffee intake amount among university students. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 300 university students randomly selected in Gongju. Dietary survey was administered during two weekdays by the food record method. Results: Subjects were divided into three groups: NCG (non-coffee group), LCG (low coffee group, 1~2 cups/d), and HCG (high coffee group, 3 cups/d) by coffee intake amount and subjects' distribution. Coffee intake frequency was significantly greater in the HCG compared to the LCG (p < 0.001). The HCG was more likely to intake dripped coffee with or without milk and/or sugar than the LCG (p < 0.05). More than 80% of coffee drinkers chose their favorite coffee or accompanying snacks regardless of energy content. More than 75% of coffee takers did not eat accompanying snacks instead of meals, and the HCG ate them more frequently than LCG (p < 0.05). Breakfast skipping rate was high while vegetable and fruit intakes were very low in most subjects. Subjects who drank carbonated drinks, sweet beverages, or alcohol were significantly greater in number in the LCG and HCG than in the NCG (p < 0.01). Energy intakes from coffee were $0.88{\pm}5.62kcal/d$ and $7.07{\pm}16.93kcal/d$ for the LCG and HCG. For total subjects, daily mean dietary energy intake was low at less than 72% of estimated energy requirement. Levels of vitamin C and calcium were lower than the estimated average requirements while that of vitamin D was low (24~34% of adequate intake). There was no difference in nutrient intakes by coffee intake amount, except protein, vitamin A, and niacin. Conclusion: Coffee intake amount did not affect dietary nutrient intakes. Dietary habits were poor,and most nutrient intakes were lower than recommend levels. High intakes of coffee seemed to be related with high consumption of sweet beverages and alcohol. Therefore, it is necessary to improve nutritional intakes and encourage proper water intake habits, including coffee intake, for improved nutritional status of subjects.

Anthropometric Measurement, Dietary Behaviors, Health-related Behaviors and Nutrient Intake According to Lifestyles of College Students (대학생의 라이프스타일 유형에 따른 신체계측, 식행동, 건강관련 생활습관 및 영양소 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Cheong, Sun-Hee;Na, Young-Joo;Lee, Eun-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1560-1570
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences according to lifestyle in anthropometric measurement, dietary attitude, health-related behaviors and nutrient intake among the college students. The subjects were 994 nation-wide college students (male: 385, female: 609) and divided into 7 clusters (PEAO: passive economy/appearance-oriented type, NCPR: non-consumption/pursuit of relationship type, PTA: pursuit of traditional actuality type, PAT: pursuit of active health type, UO: utility-oriented type, POF: pursuit of open fashion type, PFR: pursuit of family relations type). A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self administered questionnaire, and the data were collected via Internet or by mail. The nutrient intake data collected from food record were analyzed by the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Data were analyzed by a SPSS 12.0 program. Average age of male and female college students were 23.7 years and 21.6 years, respectively. Most of the college students had poor eating habits. In particular, about 60% of the PEAO group has irregularity in meal time. The students in PAH and POF groups showed significantly higher consumption frequency of fruits, meat products and foods cooked with oil compared to the other groups. As for exercise, drinking and smoking, there were significant differences between PAH and the other groups. Asked for the reason for body weight control, 16.2% of NCPR group answered "for health", but 24.8% of PEAO group and 26.3% of POF group answered "for appearance". Calorie, vitamin A, vitamin $B_2$, calcium and iron intakes of all the groups were lower than the Korean DRIs. Female students in PTA group showed significantly lower vitamin $B_1$ and niacin intakes compared to the PFR group. Therefore, these results provide nation-wide information on health-related behaviors and nutrient intake according to lifestyles among Korean college students.

Studies on the Changes of Reproductive Organs, Serum Sex Hormones and Metabolites according to the Gestation Period in Rabbit (가토(家兎)의 임신(姙娠)에 따른 생식기관(生殖器官), 혈중(血中) 성(性)Hormone 및 대사물질(代謝物質)의 변화(變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Kyu Seung;Han, Sung Wook;Park, Chang Sik
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.303-313
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    • 1982
  • The study was conducted to find out the concentrations of sex hormones and the contents of metabolites in serum, and the changes of weights and tissues on ovary, thyroid gland and adrenal gland according to gestation period in rabbit. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The ovary weights were increased significantly with the time e lapse after gestation and recovered normally at 5 days after parturition. In the histological changes of ovary, the lutein cells were hypertrophied and the secretory granules were increased actively until 3 weeks after gestation, and then a trophied thereafter. 2. The thyroid gland weights at all observation times were higher than those in control group, and the significance was recognized at 1, 3 and 4 weeks after gestation. The histological features of the secretory epithelium were the hyper trophic and columnar condition stimulating the functional state from 1 week after gestation. 3. The adrenal gland weights in experimental group were recognized significantly at 4 weeks after gestation, but showed higher than those in control group at all observation times. The zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the gland showed the slight hypertrophic condition, but the zona glomeerulosa and adrenal medulla did not find out any particular changes. 4. The serum concentrations of progesterone and LH reached a peak level at 2 weeks and 1 week after geestation respectively, and rapidly began to decline thereafter. 5. The serum concentrations of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ and FSH were not detected below 20.0 pg/ml and 1.3 mIU/ml respectively. 6. The contents of total protein and non-protein nitrogen nitrogen were decreased gradually with the time elapse after gestation, but the significant differences were recognized from 3 weeks. 7. The total lipids were not changed markedly until 3 weeks, but increased significantly at 4 weeks after gestation and at 5 days after parturition. 8. The serum cholesterol tended to be decreased until 3 weeks, but increased at 4 weeks after gestation and at 5 days after parturition. 9. The serum calcium showed a continuous decrease during the gestation period, but the significant differences were recognized at 3 and 4 weeks. The serum phosphorus also had a significant decrease at 4 weeks after gestation.

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Prophylactic and therapeutic studies on intestinal giant-cystic disease of the Israel carp caused by Thelophanellus kitauei II. Effects of physical and chemical factors on T. kitauei spores in vitro (향어의 장포자충(Thelohanellus kitauei)증의 예방 및 치료에 관한 기초적 연구 II. 물리화학적 요인이 장포자충 포자에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Gu;Kim, Jong-O;Park, Bae-Geun
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.241-252
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    • 1990
  • In a basic attempt to develop the prophylactic and therapeutic measures on intestinal giantcystic disease of the Israel carp, C), prinks carpio nudum, the effects of physical and chemical factors on viability or survival of the spores of Thelchcnellus kiteuei were checked in vitro by means of extrusion test on the polar filament. When the fresh spores suspended with 0.45% and 0.9% scdium chloride solution and distilled water were laid at $5^{\circ}C$ and $28^{\circ}C$ for short terms, the extrusion rates increased until the 3rd day, meanwhile when son;e of them were suspended with Tyrode's solution at $-70^{\circ}C$ the rates increased gradually until the 8th day. Viabilities of the spores suspended with 0.9% saline and added antibiotics to the suspension at $5^{\circ}C$ for long terms lasted for 997 days and 1, 256 days (presumed values) at maximum, respectively. The spores suspended with distilled water at $28^{\circ}C$ for long terms survived 152.4 days, but the spores suspended with Tyrode's solution at $-70^{\circ}C$ for long terms showed almost the same viable pattern as early freezing stages up to 780 days. The spores suspended with Tyrode's solution, frozen at $-70^{\circ}C$ and thawed at $5^{\circ}C$, showed the highest rate of extrusion of the polar filament. In the case of frozen spores, the extrusion rates during heating tend to become higher in accordance with the increase of frozen period, and the critical points of 180 day-frozen spores to be killed were generally 78.5 hr. at $60^{\circ}C$, 23.4 hr. at $70^{\circ}C$, 189.1 min. at $80^{\circ}C$ or 10.5 min. at $90^{\circ}C$. The longer the spores were frozen, the more time was needed for the death of spores after thawing; 20 days-17.4 days, 100 days-33.2 days, and 400 days-37.8 days. The longer the spores were frozen, the more time was needed for the death of spores at a conventional when they were dried air drying condition, 540 days-23.5 days, 160 days-21.0 days, and 20 days-14.4 days. On the other hand, the longer the spores were frozen, the more spores were dead rapidly when they were irradiated with 10W UV-ray; 100 days-26.0 hr, 300 days-21.9 hr, and 540 days-13.9 hr. The time needed for killing 200 days-frozen spores by various disinfectants at 1, 000 ppd was 5.2 min. by calcium oxide, 10.4 min. by potassium permanganate, 27.8 min. by malachite green and 14.3 hr. by formalin. Transient inhibitory effects of the extrusion of the polar filament were observed by various antiprotozoal and antifungal agents in the descending order of ketoconazole. metronidasole and dapsone. The above results presume that full drying, followed by spraying CaO and maintaining sunny condition for a few days on the concrete bottoms of knish farm may be an effective method for the prevention of intestinal giant.cystic disease.

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Comparison between phosphorus absorption coefficient and Langmuir adsorption maximum (전토양(田土壤) 인산(燐酸)의 흡수계수(吸收係數)와 Langmuir 최대흡착량(最大吸着量)과의 비교연구(比較硏究))

  • Ryu, In Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 1975
  • Laboratory experiments on the phosphorus adsorption by soil were conducted to evaluate the parameters for determination of phosphorus adsorption capacity of soil, which serve as a basis for establishing the amount of phosphorus required to improve newly reclaimed soil and volcanic ash soil. The calculated Langmuir adsorption maxima varied from 6.2-32.9, 74.7-90.4 and 720-915mg p/100g soil for cultivated soils, non-cultivated soils, and volcanic ash soils respectively. The phosphorus absorption coefficient ranged from 116-179, 161-259 and 1,098-1,205mg p/100g soil for cultivated soils, non-cultivated soils, and volcanic ash soils respectively. The ratio of the phosphorus absorption coefficient to Langmuir adsorption maximum was low in soils of high phosphorus adsorption capacity (1.3-1.5) and high in soils of low phosphorus adsorption capacity (2.2-18.7). Changes in the amount of phosphurus adsorption induced by liming and preaddition of phosphorus were hadly detected by the phosphorus absorption coefficient, which is measured using a test solution with a relatively high phosphorus concentration. The Langmuir adsorption maximum was a more sensitive index of the phosphorus adsorption capacity. The Langmuir adsorption maxima of the non-cultivated soils, which were treated with an amount of calcium hydroxide equivalent to the exchangeable Al and incubated ($25-30^{\circ}C$) for 40 days at field capacity, were lower than the original soils. The change in the adorption maximum on incubation following the liming of soils was insignificant for other soils. The secondary adsorption maximum of soils, which received phosphorus equivalent to the Langmuir adsorption maximum of the limed soils incubated ($25-30^{\circ}C$) for 50 days at held capacity, was 74.5, 5.6 and 23.8% of the primary adsorption maximum for volcanic ash soils, non-cultivated soils, and cultivated soils respectively. The amount of phosphorus adsorbed by soils increased quadratically with the concentration of phosphorus solution added to the soils. The amount of phosphorus adsorbed by 5-g soil samples from 100ml of 100- and 1,000mg p/l solution for the mineral soils and volcanic ash soils respectively was found to be close to the Langmuir adsorption maximum. The amount of the phosphorus adsorbed at these concentrations is defined as a saturation adsorption maximum and proposed as a new parameter for the phosphorus adsorption capacity of the soil. The evaluation of the phosphorus adsorption capacity by the saturation adsorption maximum is regarded as a more practical method in that it obviates the need for the various concentrations used for the determination of the Langmuir adsorption maximum.

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Radiation Therapy Using M3 Wax Bolus in Patients with Malignant Scalp Tumors (악성 두피 종양(Scalp) 환자의 M3 Wax Bolus를 이용한 방사선치료)

  • Kwon, Da Eun;Hwang, Ji Hye;Park, In Seo;Yang, Jun Cheol;Kim, Su Jin;You, Ah Young;Won, Young Jinn;Kwon, Kyung Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Helmet type bolus for 3D printer is being manufactured because of the disadvantages of Bolus materials when photon beam is used for the treatment of scalp malignancy. However, PLA, which is a used material, has a higher density than a tissue equivalent material and inconveniences occur when the patient wears PLA. In this study, we try to treat malignant scalp tumors by using M3 wax helmet with 3D printer. Methods and materials: For the modeling of the helmet type M3 wax, the head phantom was photographed by CT, which was acquired with a DICOM file. The part for helmet on the scalp was made with Helmet contour. The M3 Wax helmet was made by dissolving paraffin wax, mixing magnesium oxide and calcium carbonate, solidifying it in a PLA 3D helmet, and then eliminated PLA 3D Helmet of the surface. The treatment plan was based on Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) of 10 Portals, and the therapeutic dose was 200 cGy, using Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) of Eclipse. Then, the dose was verified by using EBT3 film and Mosfet (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor: USA), and the IMRT plan was measured 3 times in 3 parts by reproducing the phantom of the head human model under the same condition with the CT simulation room. Results: The Hounsfield unit (HU) of the bolus measured by CT was $52{\pm}37.1$. The dose of TPS was 186.6 cGy, 193.2 cGy and 190.6 cGy at the M3 Wax bolus measurement points of A, B and C, and the dose measured three times at Mostet was $179.66{\pm}2.62cGy$, $184.33{\pm}1.24cGy$ and $195.33{\pm}1.69cGy$. And the error rates were -3.71 %, -4.59 %, and 2.48 %. The dose measured with EBT3 film was $182.00{\pm}1.63cGy$, $193.66{\pm}2.05cGy$ and $196{\pm}2.16cGy$. The error rates were -2.46 %, 0.23 % and 2.83 %. Conclusions: The thickness of the M3 wax bolus was 2 cm, which could help the treatment plan to be established by easily lowering the dose of the brain part. The maximum error rate of the scalp surface dose was measured within 5 % and generally within 3 %, even in the A, B, C measurements of dosimeters of EBT3 film and Mosfet in the treatment dose verification. The making period of M3 wax bolus is shorter, cheaper than that of 3D printer, can be reused and is very useful for the treatment of scalp malignancies as human tissue equivalent material. Therefore, we think that the use of casting type M3 wax bolus, which will complement the making period and cost of high capacity Bolus and Compensator in 3D printer, will increase later.

Nutritional Risks Analysis Based on the Food Intake Frequency and Health-related Behaviors of the Older Residents (50 Years and Over) in Andong Area (1) (안동주변 농촌지역 50세 이상 주민의 식품섭취빈도 및 건강행위에 따른 영양위험 분석 (1))

  • Lee, Hye-Sang;Kwun, In-Sook;Kwon, Chong-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.998-1008
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    • 2008
  • This study aimed to assess the nutritional status and the nutritional risks based on the food intake frequency and health-related behaviors of middle-aged and elderly people living in Andong area. Interviews were conducted with 1,384 subjects (532 males, 852 females) aged 50 years and over. Nutrient intakes, food intake frequency, and health-related behaviors including smoking, drinking, and exercise were investigated. The average energy intakes were 1410.5 kcal for males and 1279.2 kcal for females, and the percentages of the subjects consuming below the estimated energy requirement (EER) were 92.5% and 88.4%, respectively. The least consumed nutrients compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR) were riboflavin (92.5% for males, 89.6% for females), folic acid (89.7%, 88.5%), and calcium (78.9%, 85.8%), in order. According to the food intake frequency survey, the intakes of meat, fish and vegetable (except kimchi) were very poor, and this low intakes of meat and fish showed as poor status of protein, niacin, vitamin $B_6$, and zinc intakes. Health-related behaviors data showed that the ratio of cigarette smokers, especially male, was higher, while the ratio of the person exercising regularly was lower than that of the nationwide statistics, respectively. Cigarette smoking and drinking were not significantly related to the poor nutrition intake, while regular exercise positively influenced nutrient intakes in female subjects. These results showed that the nutritional status of the subjects was likely to be severely deficient and the low intakes of meat and fish to be highly related to the increase of nutritional risk. Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of the secondary disease related to the food intake and health-related behaviors of the subjects, the proper educational program on balanced dietary intake and the correction of health-related behaviors should be developed and applied to this area.