• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

Search Result 8,403, Processing Time 0.136 seconds

A Clinical Study on Multiple Myeloma (다발성 골수종의 임상적 고찰)

  • Hwang, Hyeong-Ki;Lee, Choong-Ki;Hyun, Myung-Soo;Shim, Bong-Sup;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.106-113
    • /
    • 1991
  • A clinical review of 31 cases of multiple myeloma which were diagnosed by criteria of the SWOG between May 1983 and February 1990 at Yeungnam University Hospital was done. The results were as followings : 1. The peak incidence was in 7th decade and male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1. 2. The most common presenting symptom at first diagnosis was bone pain (58%), but fever, dyspnea, dizziness and palpable mass were also noted. 3. The distribution of laboratory findings as following diagnostic criteria of Southwest oncology group(SWOG) : plasmacytoma on tissue biopsy was noted 6 cases, bone marrow plasmacytosis with more than 10% plasma cells was 22 cases, monoclonal globulin spike on serum electrophoresis was 24 cases, lytic bone lesions was observed 22 cases. 4. Initial clinical stages were classified as 2 cases in stage I, 3 cases in stage II, 26 cases in stage III(84%) 5. Immunoelectrophoresis revealed the distribution of IgG 64%, light chain 22%, IgA 10%. Kappa to Lambda ratio of 1.1 : 1. 6. Hematologic & biochemical fingins revealed anemia with <8.5% of hemoglobulin in 42%, hypercalcemia with < 10.6mg% of serum calcium in 22%, azotemia >2.0mg% of serum creatinine in 19%. 7. The multiple punched out lesion of bone x-ray examination were noticed skull(65%), rib(42%), L-spine(35%), pelvis(23%), T-spine(19%). The initial skeletal roentgenographic findings showed osteoporosis, osteolytic lesion and fracture in 55%, only osteolytic lesion in 23%, only osteoporosis in 10%. 8. Complications of multiple myeoloma, such as 10 cases of renal impairment, 8 cases of infection, 16 cases of compression fracture of spine were observed.

  • PDF

Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Longissimus dorsi Muscles in Duroc Pigs

  • Cho, Jin Hyoung;Lee, Ra Ham;Jeon, Young-Joo;Park, Seon-Min;Shin, Jae-Cheon;Kim, Seok-Ho;Jeong, Jin Young;Kang, Hyun-sung;Choi, Nag-Jin;Seo, Kang Seok;Cho, Young Sik;Kim, MinSeok S.;Ko, Sungho;Seo, Jae-Min;Lee, Seung-Youp;Shim, Jung-Hyun;Chae, Jung-Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.29 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1653-1663
    • /
    • 2016
  • Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat quality in longissimus dorsi muscles of Duroc pigs under oxidative stress conditions.

Effect of Protein Supplementation, O2 Concentration and Co-Culture on the Development of Embryos Produced by Nuclear Transfer Using Cultured Cumulus Cells in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Im, G.S.;Yang, B.S.;Park, S.J.;Im, S.K.;Yang, B.C.;Yi, Y.J.;Park, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1260-1266
    • /
    • 2001
  • The effect of protein supplementation, $O_2$ concentration and co-culture on the development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer using cultured cumulus cell was investigated. Recipient oocytes and cumulus cells were obtained from the ovaries of the slaughtered Hanwoo cows. Donor cumulus cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum at 5% $CO_2$ in air at $38.5^{\circ}C$. The 1 to 6 passages of cumulus cells were isolated and used as donor cells. The in vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then the isolated donor cells were introduced. One $15{\mu}s$ pulse of 180 volts was applied to induce the fusion between karyoplast and cytoplast. The fused embryos were activated with $10{\mu}M$ calcium ionophore for 5 min and 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 3 h. To examine the effect of protein supplementation, nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were cultured in one of the following 4 treatments : 1) CR1aa + 3 mg/ml BSA for 7 days ; 2) CR1aa + 10% FBS for 7 days ; 3) CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS for 7 days ; and 4) CR1aa + 3 mg/ml BSA for first 3 days and then CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS for 4 days. Culture took place at 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$ and 90% $N_2$ at $38.5^{\circ}C$. Although there were no significant differences in cleavage rate among different protein supplements, the rates of blastocyst formation were significantly different. When NT embryos were cultured in the medium supplemented with only BSA, they could develop to only morula not to blastocyst. However, when FBS was supplemented, NT embryos developed to blastocyst stage. In order to investigate the effect of $O_2$ concentration and co-culture, NT embryos were cultured in CR1aa + 1.5 mg/ml BSA + 5% FBS with or without cumulus cell co-culture at an atmosphere of 5% $CO_2$ in air (20% $O_2$) or 5% $CO_2$, 5% $O_2$, 90% $N_2$ (5% $O_2$) at $38.5^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. The percentage of blastocyst development was significantly higher when the NT embryos were cultured at an atmosphere of 5% $O_2$ than that of 20% $O_2$ (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between with and without cumulus cell co-culture at an atmosphere of 5% $O_2$ or 20% $O_2$. Fifty embryos were transferred to 25 recipients and 5 recipients were pregnant at 100 days. From 5 pregnant cows, only one cow was delivered of female twin. In conclusion, the embryos reconstructed by enucleation of metaphase II oocytes and introduction of the cycling and quiescent cumulus donor cells in Hanwoo had developmental potential to term after embryo transfer to recipient cows.

Effects of Feeding and Processing Methods of Diets on Performance, Morphological Changes in the Small Intestine and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Yang, J.S.;Jung, H.J.;Xuan, Z.N.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, D.S.;Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1450-1459
    • /
    • 2001
  • These experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding and processing methods of diets on performance, morphological changes in the small intestine and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs. One-hundred fifty growing pigs ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Duroc$; initial body weight of $23.33{\pm}0.75kg$) and one-hundred twenty finishing pigs ($Yorkshire{\times}Landrace{\times}Duroc$; initial body weight of $59.22{\pm}0.56kg$) were used in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Pigs were grouped on the basis of body weight and gender, and randomly allotted into 6 different treatments with 5 replications in each treatment in a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) dry feeding with a mash diet (DM), 2) dry feeding with a pelleted diet (DP), 3) dry feeding with an expanded crumble diet (DEC), 4) dry/wet feeding with a mash diet (WM), 5) dry/wet feeding with a pelleted diet (WP), and 6) dry/wet feeding with an expanded crumble diet (WEC). In Exp. 1 (growing phase), there was no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) among treatments during the entire experimental period, but feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (p<0.05) improved in pigs fed pelleted diets regardless of feeding method. FCR was best in pigs fed a DP diet and worst in pigs fed a WM diet. Pigs fed a pelleted diet showed a 6.2% or 4.0% improvement in FCR compared with those fed a mash diet or an expanded crumble diet. Water disappearance was not significantly affected by dry/wet feeding or feed processing. Significant differences in villus height were not found among treatments, but villus height tended to be improved by dry/wet feeding. Dry/wet feeding or feed processing did not affect crypt depth. Digestibilities of calcium and phosphorus were significantly (p<0.05) improved in pigs fed an expanded crumble diet compared with pigs fed mash diets. Especially, pigs fed a WEC diet digested 8.1% more P than those fed a DM diet. Feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG) tended to be increased by dry/wet feeding rather than dry feeding. In Exp. 2 (finishing phase), ADG and ADFI were not significantly different among treatments, but a significant difference in FCR was found among feed processing forms. The best FCR was obtained in pigs fed a pelleted diet. Pigs fed a DP diet showed a 11.3% improvement compared with those fed a DEC diet. Water disappearance was significantly (p=0.0408) decreased by feeding the mash diet. However, water disappearance was not affected by dry/wet feeding during the finishing period. The villus height and crypt depth were not significantly different among treatments. However, crypt depth tended to be decreased by dry/wet feeding at the mid part of the small intestine. Fat digestibility was improved by dry feeding rather than dry/wet feeding, and was improved by 4.8% by feeding pellet diets compared with expanded crumble diets. Except for carcass grade, carcass characteristics were not significantly (p<0.05) different among treatments. Carcass grade was the best in pigs fed a WP diet. Feed cost per kg weight gain (FCG) was significantly decreased in pigs fed a pelleted diet compared with those fed an expanded crumble diet, and tended to be decreased by dry/wet feeding. In conclusion, these studies suggest that feeding the pelleted diet to growing-finishing pigs can be beneficial in terms of FCR and production cost. Dry/wet feeding can be helpful for the maintenance of villus height, but may not be reflected in improved growth performance or reduction of production costs.

Eight cases of incidentally diagnosed as subclinical rickets (우연히 발견된 무증상 구루병 8예)

  • Seo, Ji-Young;Kim, Curie;Lee, Hee-Woo;Ahn, Young-Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.51 no.8
    • /
    • pp.812-819
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose : Vitamin D plays a key role in bone mineralization of the skeleton and vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets. It is well known that vitamin D deficiency is common in breast fed infants. Of these patients, clinically, some have no signs of rickets, but laboratory and radiographic findings are diagnostic for vitamin D deficiency rickets (subclinical vitamin D deficiency rickets). The purpose of this study is to clarify current causes and ways to prevent this disease. Methods : We reviewed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children who were incidentally diagnosed as subclinical rickets during treatment of other disease such as pneumonia, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection at Eulji Hospital, Seoul, Korea from March, 2003 to July 2007. Results : Eight patients (six boys and two girls) were diagnosed with subclinical vitamin D deficiency rickets. The mean age of the patients was $12.6{\pm}5.8months$, and they were diagnosed from January to July. The associated diseases were pneumonia, urinary tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, and iron deficiency anemia. All patients were breast-fed. Two showed growth failure. The mean serum alkaline phosphatase was $1995.8{\pm}739.5IU/L$, the mean calcium count was $9.5{\pm}0.6mg/dL$, and the mean phosphorus content was $3.6{\pm}1.5mg/dL$. The mean intact parathyroid hormone was $214.8{\pm}155.9pg/mL$ (reference range, 9-65), the mean 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was $82.4{\pm}49.3pg/mL$ (reference range, 2070), and the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D was $29.6{\pm}10.6ng/mL$ (reference range, 1030). A radiographic examination showed cupping, fraying, and flaring of metaphyses in all patients. Six patients were administered calcitriol (400 IU/day) for three months. A consequent radiographic and laboratory examination showed improvement. The first two patients were initially diagnosed with metaphyseal dysplasia, without the detection of vitamin D deficiency and they spontaneously improved without vitamin D supplements. However, two years later, they showed mild scoliosis and metaphyseal dysplasia, respectively. Conclusion : Breast-feeding without supplementation involves high risk of vitamin D deficiency. Some infants may also develop rickets; therefore, such groups should be considered for vitamin D supplementation.

Effect of Dietary Factors on Bone Mineral Density in Korean College Women (한국 여대생의 골밀도에 영향을 미치는 식이 요인 분석)

  • 백희영;송윤주
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.464-472
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate dietary and other factors affecting bone mineral density in young Korean collage women. Thirty subjects were recruited; the mean age was 22.1 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.6 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), ward's triangle (WT), and femoral trochanter (FT) by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), and physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Dietary intake data were obtained 8 times by using a 24 hour recall method to evaluate the subjects' usual diet. Bone mineral densities of lumbar spine, femoral neck, ward's triangle and femoral trochanter were 1.149 g/$\textrm{cm}^2$, 0.980 g/$\textrm{cm}^2$, 0.936 g/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and 0.759 g/$\textrm{cm}^2$ respectively. The met energy intake of subjects was 1,790 kcal, and calcium and iron intakes were found to be inadequate compared to the Korean RDA. The BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly and positively related to the BMI and intake of vitamin C, carbohydrate, potatoes, fruits and plant food. The BMD of the femur (FN, WT, FT) was positively related to the BMI, to carbohydrate and fruit intake, and to the percentage of plant food in total food intake. Multiple recession analysis showed that fruit intake was significantly related to the BMD of the LS. The subjects'ages and fruit intakes were significantly related to the BMD of the femur (FN, WT, FT). These results indicate that higher fruit intakes may have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density.

Effects of Organic or Inorganic Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and White Blood Cell Counts in Weanling Pigs

  • Kil, D.Y.;Piao, L.G.;Long, H.F.;Lim, J.S.;Yun, M.S.;Kong, C.S.;Ju, W.S.;Lee, H.B.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.252-261
    • /
    • 2006
  • Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of organic or inorganic acid supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal measurements and white blood cell counts of weanling pigs. In growth trial (Exp I), a total of 100 crossbred pigs ({$Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$}${\times}$Duroc), weaned at $23{\pm}2$ days of age and $7.25{\pm}0.10kg$ average initial body weight (BW), were allotted to 5 treatments by body weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Three different organic acids (fumaric [FUA], formic [FOA] or lactic acid [LAA]) and one inorganic acid (hydrochloric acid [SHA]) were supplemented to each treatment diet. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. During 0-3 wk, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G/F ratio) were not significantly different among treatments. However, pigs fed LAA or SHA diet showed improved ADG by 15 or 13% respectively and 12% greater ADFI in both treatments compared to CON diets. Moreover, compared to organic acid treatments, better ADG (p = 0.07) and ADFI (p = 0.09) were observed in SHA diet compared to pigs that were fed the diet containing organic acids (FUA, FOA or LAA). However, during 4-5 wk, no differences in ADG, ADFI and G/F ratio were observed among treatments. Overall, ADG, ADFI and G/F ratio were not affected by acidifier supplementation. Although it showed no significant difference, pigs fed LAA or SHA diets showed numerically higher ADG and ADFI than pigs fed other treatments. In metabolic trial (Exp II), 15 pigs were used to evaluate the effect of acidifier supplementation on nutrient digestibility. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) was not improved by acidifier supplementation. Although the amount of fecal-N excretion was not different among treatments, that of urinary-N excretion was reduced in acidsupplemented treatments compared to CON group (p = 0.12). Subsequently, N retention was improved in acid-supplemented groups (p = 0.17). In anatomical trial (Exp III), the pH and $Cl^-$ concentrations of digesta in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were not affected by acidifier supplementation. No detrimental effect of intestinal and lingual (taste bud) morphology was observed by acidifier supplementation particularly in inorganic acid treatment. In white blood cell assay (Exp IV), 45 pigs were used for measuring white blood cell (WBC) counts. In all pigs after LPS injection, WBC counts had slightly declined at 2 h and kept elevating at 8 h, then returned to baseline by 24 h after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, overall WBC counts were not affected by acidifier supplementation. In conclusion, there was no difference between organic and inorganic acidifier supplementation in weanling pigs' diet, however inorganic acidifier might have a beneficial effect on growth performance and N utilization with lower supplementation levels. Furthermore, inorganic acidifier had no negative effect on intestinal measurements and white blood cell counts in weanling pigs. These results suggested that inorganic acidifier might be a good alternative to organic acidifiers in weanling pigs.

A Survey of Food and Nutrient Intakes of the Eged People in Rural Area, Gyeongbuk Yecheon (경북 예천 농촌지역 거주노인의 연령대별 영양소 및 식품섭취량 조사)

  • Park, Mi-Yeon;Kim, Gum-Ran;Lee, Da-Jeong;Kim, Jin-Moon;Park, Phil-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.58-73
    • /
    • 2006
  • This research has done for 262 people of the aged men and women that are more than 65 years old who are live in 9 areas of Yecheon as target; through twice off ace to face interview for 24 hours recall method, the result of food intake for 2 days is as following. In case of energy, the aged men (women) of sixties ingested 67.7 $(72.0)\%$ of Korean RDA by 1,369 (1264) kcal, for the ages of seventies and eighties, 68.9 $(66.9)\%$ of Korean RDA and 76.3 $(65.8)\%$ by each 1,309 (1104) kcal and 1,368 (1052) kcal. The aged men ingested protein $46.0\~49.6 g$ ($70.6\~82.9\%$ of RDA), and aged women ingested protein $32.7\~40.2 g$ ($59.4\~73.0\%$ of RDA). Calcium intake of aged men was 388.8 mg, 319.8 mg, 284.4 mg by age range, and aged women was 291.9 mg ($41.6\%$ of RDA), 246.5 mg ($35.3\%$ of RDA), 240.1 mg ($34.3\%$ of RDA). Iron intake of aged men was $8.6\~8.9 mg$ ($72\~74%$ of RDA), and aged women ingested 8.6 mg ($71.3\%$ of RDA), 7.5 mg (62.6 of RDA$\%$), 6.6 mg ($55.4\%$ of RDA) for iron by age range. Vitamin $B_1$ intake of aged men was $0.62\~0.71 mg$ ($62\~71\%$ of RDA), and aged women's intake was $0.50\~0.60 mg$ ($50\~60\%$ of RDA). Vitamin $B_2$ intake of aged men was $0.59\~0.60 mg$ ($49\%$ of RDA), and aged women's intake was $0.45\~0.50 mg$ ($37\~42\%$ of RDA). Vitamin C intake by age range, in case of aged men (women) in sixties was 53.1 (48.9) mg, in seventies was 49.9 (33.2) mg and more than eighties was 34.1 (33.4) mg. The average food intake by age range, in aged men (women) of sixties was 828.9 (670.8) g and seventies was 726.8 (568.8) g and more than eighties was 656.0 (525.3) g. Plant food intake of aged men was 490.8-569.5 g and aged women was 417.9-537.7 g. Aged men (women) of MAR by age range, sixties was 0.60 (0.58), seventies was 0.59 (0.50) and more than eighties was 0.56 (0.49), respectively. INQ for protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B, niacin, vitamin C was more than 1 in 60's and 70's aged men, but there was no nutrients in eighties of aged women. Aged men and women's KDDS points represent average 3.14 and 3.04 (out of 5 points), and while intake of the milk was the most lacking, but intake of the fruit was the most lacking in DDS.

A Case-Control Study of Food Habits and Diet Intakes of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (임신성 당뇨병 환자의 식습관 및 식이섭취에 관한 환자-대조군 연구)

  • Ji, Sun-Kyung;Jang, Hak-C.;Choi, Hay-Mie
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-53
    • /
    • 2008
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance discovered or onset during pregnancy and attention is needed because of increased risk of perinatal morbidties and higher incidence of diabetes afterward. This study was performed to identify dietary factors associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Developed food frequency questionnaire containing 192 food items were used to assess nutritional status of 246 control subjects and 104 GDM subjects. Food habits of subjects were examined in the questionnaire. The more irregularity and less variety of meal were found in GDM group compared to control group and GDM group tended to eat rapidly and do not like vegetables and greasy foods. Total score of food habits in GDM was lower than control group, which suggests that GDM group have undesirable food habits. Mean daily energy and carbohydrate intakes of GDM group were higher than those of control group, and percent energy from protein was significantly higher in control. Nutrient density of protein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin BI of GDM group was significantly lower than those of control group. Therefore dietary quality of GDM group was lower than that of control group. Odds ratio for GDM was high when energy and carbohydrate intakes were high. And when the intakes of rice, noodle, shiruduk, hamburger, boiled egg, steamed pork shank were high, the odds ratio for GDM was high. These results indicate that the amount and frequencies of several foods and dish items were related with the occurrence of GDM subjects. On the whole, GDM subjects consumed more cereals and less vegetables and less legumes. From these results, pregnant women with GDM tended to have unhealthy food habits, and carbohydrate intake was important dietary factors on the onset of GDM.

A study of serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by multibead assay (다중구슬 분석법에 의한 폐구균 혈청형 결정 연구)

  • Cho, Ky Young;Lee, Jung Ah;Cho, Sung Eun;Kim, Nam Hee;Lee, Jin A;Hong, Ki Sook;Lee, Hoan Jong;Kim, Kyung Hyo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.50 no.2
    • /
    • pp.151-156
    • /
    • 2007
  • Purpose : Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major etiologic agent for pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, and sepsis among young children. Multi-drug resistant strains have raised great concern worldwide, thus the importance of prevention with vaccines has been emphasized. However, vaccines may force the appearance of pneumococcal infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Thus, distribution of pneumococcal serotypes should be monitored to estimate vaccine efficacy. We used a new and efficient multibead assay in determining pnemococcal serotypes. Methods : From January to February 2005, 643 children were recruited from ten day care centers to isolate pneumococci from their oropharynx. Pneumococcal serotyping was performed on 62 pneumococcal isolates from 60 children by multibead assay. This immunoassay required two sets of latex particles coated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and serotype-specific antibodies. Twenty four newly developed monoclonal antibodies specific for common serotypes and a pool of polyclonal rabbit sera for some of the less common serotypes were used. Results : The most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes were serotype 6A, 19A, 19F, 23F, and 11A/D/F which accounted more than 50 precent of all the 62 pneumococcal isolates. We found that multibead assay can be performed very rapidly and objectively. Conclusion : This multibead immunoassay was very useful in serotyping clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae because it was simple, reliable and fast.