• Title, Summary, Keyword: CaO recovery

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Changes in Nutrients Uptake and Dry Matter Yield of Orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata L. ) and Alfalfa ( medicago sativa L. ) by Gypsum Application. (석고시용이 Orchargrass ( Dactylis glomerata L. ) 와 Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L. )의 양분흡수 및 목초수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤순강;송기웅;김재규
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 1990
  • Changes in dry matter yield, crude components, nutrients uptake($P_2O_5$, $K_2O$, CaO, MgO) and sulphur containing amino acid(cysteine, methionine) of orchardgrass(Dacty1is glomerata. L) and alfalfa(A4edicago sativa. L) by gypsum application(as sulphur source, 0, 2. 5, 10, 20kg SIlOa) were investigated to understand the effect of sulphur on herbage production in pasture, which was established in 1987 as means of hand broadcasting. The effect of gypsum on dry matter yield at different cutting times during growing seasons has not been found both in orchardgrass and in alfalfa, but in respect to annual total dry matter yield there were increment in herbage yield (P<0.05) of alfalfa at 5, 10, 20kg SIlOa in 1989 and the amounts of sulphur taken up in herbage slightly increased according to the rates of gypsum application. Maximum apparent recovery of sulphur was 7.55% at 2kg SIlOa in orchardgrass and was 17.8% at 5kg S/lOa in alfalfa. There were no any great differences in the content of crude components of both species and this trend was similar with the mineral contents of orchardgrass. But in alfalfa, the amounts of $K_2O$, CaO, and $P_2O_5$ taken up were increased by gypsum application and the increment in the amounts of minerals taken up in herbage at 20kg SIlOa were 14.9 of $K_2O$, 9.1 of CaO, and 2.5kgIlOa of $P_2O_5$ as compared to those of at untreated plot. Cysteine and methionine were not influenced by gypsum applicaton not only in orchardgrass but also cysteine in alfalfa, however, the content of methionine in alfalfa was slightly increased at 2, 5, lOkg SIlOa and at 20kg SIlOa was reverse.

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Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Rapid Chilled Converter Slag by Watering

  • Lee, Keun-Jae;Yoo, Seung-Yeup;Koo, Ja-Sul;Cho, Bong-Suk;Lee, Hoon-Ha
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2011
  • In this study, a physical and chemical properties analysis was conducted for PCSP to evaluate properties of its materials and, for comparison purpose, was also conducted for CSP. The result of experiment confirmed improvement of iron recovery rate due to introduction of rapid water-cooling equipment and greater density of exterior and interior structure through SEM observation and porosity measurement. Also, SEM, XRD and DSC-TGA analysis showed that content of f-CaO in PCSP was minuscule so it was decided that problems of material stability including f-CaO-caused bulging failure, which has been problematic, can be solved.

Regeneration of Spent Nickel Catalyst for Hydrogenation (수소화 반응용 니켈 폐촉매의 재생)

  • 전종기;박영권;김주식
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2004
  • Nickel oxide was recovered through roasting of a spent catalyst for hydrogenation reaction. Nickel on Kieselguhr catalysts were prepared by a precipitation method after a treatment of the recovered-nickel oxide with an acid. Effects of roasting temperature of the spent catalyst on recovery of nickel oxide was investigated. Most of nickel oxide could be recovered through roasting of the spent catalyst at $1000^{\circ}C$. In regeneration of catalysts by the precipitation method after the treatment of nickel oxide with an acid, the effect of promoter, precipitation condition and reduction condition on catalytic performance in vegetable oil hydrogenation were investigated. The addition of CaO or $Ce_2$$O_3$ resulted in an increase of catalytic activity.

Recycling of rayon industry effluent for the recovery and separation of Zn/Ca using Thiophosphinic extractant

  • Jha, M.K.;Kumar, V.;Bagchi, D.;Singh, R.J.;Lee, Jae-Chun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling Conference
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 2006
  • In textile industries, waste effluent containing zinc is generated during the manufacture of rayon yarn from the wood pulp or cotton linters. Due to the strict environmental regulations and the presence of toxic metallic and other constituents, the discharge of industrial effluents in the sewage or disposal of solid sludge as landfill is restricted. Before recycling of zinc as zinc sulphate solution to the spinning-bath of the rayon manufacturing plant the zinc sulphate solution must be free from calcium, which is deleterious to the process as gypsum precipitates with the increase in concentration and forms scale in the bath. In the present work an attempt has been made to develop a process following solvent extraction technique using thiophosphinic extractants, Cyanex 272 and 302 modified with isodecanol and diluted in kerosene to recover zinc from rayon effluent. Various process parameters viz. extraction of zinc from different concentration of solution, distribution ratio, selective extraction, O/A ratio on extraction and stripping from the loaded organic, complex formation in the organic phase etc. have been studied to see the feasibility of the process. The extractant Cyanex 302 has been found selective for the recovery of 99.99% of zinc from the effluent above equilibrium pH 3.4 maintaining the O/A ratio of 1/30 leaving all the calcium in the raffinate. It selectively extracted zinc in the form of complex $[R_{2}Zn.3RH]_{org}$ and retained all the calcium in the aqueous raffinate. The zinc from the loaded Cyanex 302 can be stripped with 10% sulphuric acid at even O/A ratio of 10 without affecting the stripping efficiency. The stripped solution thus obtained could be recycled in the spinning bath of the rayon plant. The raffinate obtained after the recovery of zinc could be disposed safely without affacting environment.

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High $J_{c}$'s in just-rolled $Tl_{0.8}$$Pb_{0.2}$$Bi_{0.2}$$Sr_{1.8}$$Ba_{0.2}$$Ca_{2.2}$$Cu_{3}$$O_{x}$/Ag tapes (압영제조된 $Tl_{0.8}$$Pb_{0.2}$$Bi_{0.2}$$Sr_{1.8}$$Ba_{0.2}$$Ca_{2.2}$$Cu_{3}$$O_{x}$/Ag 선재에서의 높은 $J_{c}$)

  • 정대영;김희권;이해연;허홍수;오상수;이준호;김봉준;김영철
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics Conference
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 1999
  • The grain morphology, the changes in morphology and Jc with the thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) history, the field dependence of Jc and the nature of intergranular bonding were studied in $T_{10.8}$$Pb_{.2}$$Bi_{0.2}$$Sr_{1.8}$$Ba_{0.2}$$Ca_{2.2}$$Cu_{3}$$O_{z}$/Ag tapes. As a result, incorporation of intermediate rolling during the final heat-treatment resulted in of plate-like TI-1223 grains, and thus enhanced Jc. Jc's near 2.5$\times$104 A/cm2 at 77 K and 0 T were obtained in just rolled tapes with an excellent reproducibility. The high Jc's seem to grain-connectivity easy recovery of excellent grain-connectivity during final heat-treatment after inter -mediate rolling, probably due to retarded T1 evaporation and excessive Ca content in the present composition. The strong field dependence of Jc even in low fields, however, indicated that there still existed significant weak-links and the degree of directional grain-alignment was far from the desired one. The intergranular binding in the tapes seemed to be mainly dominated by SIS junctions.

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Effects of Histamine Pretreatment on the subsequent Noradrenaline-induced Contraction and $K^+-Contracture$ in Rabbit Renal Artery (가토 신동맥의 고농도 Histamine에 의한 노아드레날린 유발 수축 및 K-경축 약화 기전)

  • Lee, Sung-Woo;Kim, Se-Hoon;Chang, Seok-Jong;Park, Hae-Kun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 1989
  • The contraction of renal arterial strip by no.epineph.me (NE) or 40 mM $K^+$ were Significantly attenuated after histamine $(10^{-5}\;M)-induced$ contraction. The mechanisms of this phenomenon were investigated in the helical strips of isolated renal artery with the measurement of isometric tension. The arterial strip was immersed in the tris-buffered Tyrode's solution which was equilibrated with 100% $O_2\;at\;35^{\circ}C$. The contraction was induced by NE or 40 mM $K^+$ during the recovery from the histamine-induced contraction which lasted for 15 minutes. The contraction by NE was also attenuated in the $Ca^{2+}-free$ Tyrode's solution and the increase of contraction by addition of 2 mM $Ca^{2+}$ was attenuated as well. This attenuation phenomenon was not observed in the presence of low concentration $(3{\times}10^{-7}\;M)$ of histamine. This attenuation was not affected by destruction of endothelium, pretreatment with papaverine or propranolol. This attenuation was partially inhibited by pretreatment of ouabain or in low $K^+(0.5 mM)$ Tyrode's solution. But the attenuation in the $Ca^{2+}-free$ Tyrode's solution was not inhibited. Furthermore this attenuation was completely blocked by pretreatment of djphenhydramine $(H_1-receptor blocker)$ and potentiated by pretreatment of cimetidine $(H_2-receptor\;blocker)$. This attenuation Phenomenon was disappeared after recovery of 1 hour. From the above results, it is suggested that the attenuation phenomenon may be resulted partially from the activation of $Na^+-K^+$ exchange pump and partially from the depletion of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ pool after the histamine-induced contraction mediated through $H_1-receptor$ function.

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Difference of Neuronal Recovery by Incubation Condition after Transient Hypoxia (배양조건에 의한 일과성 저산소상태 후 신경세포회복의 차이)

  • Moon, Soo-Hyeon;Oh, Jae-Inn;Park, Youn-Kwan;Chung, Heung-Sub;Lee, Hoon-Kap;Lee, Ki-Chan
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1161-1170
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    • 2000
  • Objective : The transverse hippocampal slice is one of the most commonly studied in vitro models of mammalian brain physiology. However, despite its broad usage, there has been no standardization of slice preparation techniques or recording condition. It is well known that variations in recording conditions can result in profound different effects to neuronal responses. Evoked field potentials, recorded extracellularly, were used to investigate the effects of variations in hippocampal slice preparation protocol on hypoxia responses of CA1 neurones. Material & Methods : Before hypoxic injury, hippocampal slices were incubated for 4 hours. During incubation period, the slices were placed in a incubation chamber($21^{\circ}C$) for recovery from preparation injury and then transferred to recording chamber($34^{\circ}C$) for more recovery and baseline electric recording with current stimulation(0.1Hz). Various time periods in incubation chamber and recording chamber were applied to each experimental group(group 1=60min : 180min, group 2=90min : 150min, group 3=180min : 60min, time in incubation chamber : time in recording chamber) before 10 min hypoxia produced by replacing 95% $O_2$+5% $CO_2$ mixed gas to 95% $N_2$+5% $CO_2$ gas. Calcium, Magnesium ions and several drugs effecting on glutamate receptor also were studied. Recoveries from hypoxic injury of hippocampal slices were estimated by percent recovery of population spike(PS). Statistic analysis of study were performed using paired t-test. Results : The percent recovery of PS after 10min hypoxia was considerably enhanced by increasing the period of current stimulation during incubation period before hypoxic injury. Temperature effect on the result of this experiment was also studied(group 4) but the result from this showed no statistic significance. Low magnesium ion concentration of artificial CSF(Mg-free aCSF) during incubation period enhanced the recovery of PS but low calcium (calcium-free) and high magnesium ion concentration(2mM) reduced it after hypoxic injury. L-glutamate($100{\mu}M$) and AP-5($50{\mu}M$) had no effect on the recovery of PS but CNQX($10{\mu}M$) in artificial CSF during incubation period markedly enhanced the recovery of PS. Co-treatment of AP-5($50{\mu}M$), CNQX($10{\mu}M$) and high magnesium concentration(2mM) enhanced recovery of PS in immediate following period of hypoxic injury but the effect of cotreatment after then decayed rapidly and lost statistic significance. Conclusions : Judging from above results, the condition of baseline recording is important in observing the recovery of population spike after hypoxia, and the time and the condition should be controled more strictly to obtain reliable results.

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About Chromium (VI) Extraction from Fertilizers and Soils

  • Sager Manfred
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.657-662
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    • 2005
  • Extractions fro fertilizer and soil samples were performed to yield the operationally defined fractions 'soluble' chromate (extractable with $NH_4NO_3$), 'exchangeable' chromate (extractable with phosphate buffer pH 7.2), and these results were compared with the data obtained by extractions with ammonium sulfate, borate buffer pH 7.2, saturated borax pH 9.6, and polyphosphate (Graham's salt). In order to maintain the pH of extractant solution about constant, the concentration of extractant buffer had to be raised to at least 0.5 M. The results strongly depended on the kind of extractant, and the solid: liquid ratio. For most of the samples investigated, the extraction efficiency increased in the order borate-sulfate-nitrate-phosphate. Whereas the recovery of $K_2CrO_4\;and\;CaCrO_4$ added to the samples of basic slags prior to the extraction was about complete, the recovery of added $PbCrO_4$ was highly variable. In soil extracts, the color reaction was interfered from co-extracted humics, which react with the chromate in weak acid solution during the time period necessary for color reaction (1 hour). However, this problem can be overcome by standard addition and subtraction of the color of the extractant solution. In soil extract of about pH < 7, organic material reduced chromate during the extraction period also, and standard addition of soluble chromate is recommended to prove recovery and the stability of chromate in the samples. In admixtures of soils and basic slags, results for hexavalent chromium were lower than from the mere basic slags. This effect was more pronounced in phosphate than in nitrate extracts. As a proficiency test, samples low in organic carbon from contaminated sites in Hungary were tested. The results from $NH_4NO_3$ extracts satisfactorily matched the results of the Hungarian labs obtained from $CalCl_2$ extractants.

Enhancement of Human Lysozyme Secretion with Permeabilizing Agents from the Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (재조합 Saccharomyces cerevisiae에서 Permeabilizing Agent를 이용한 HLY의 분비촉진)

  • 황용일;최선욱;하정욱
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.348-352
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    • 1999
  • We have intended to accelerate the secretion of human lysozyme(HLY) with permeabilizing agents from the cultivated cells of the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The five agents CaCl2, Tween 80, ethanol, Triton X 100, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB) were used as permeabilizing agents. Treatments of the yeast cell with CaCl2, Tween 80, and ethanol were effective to increase the secretion from the yeast cells. Especially, treatment of 10% ethanol increased the extracellular HLY activity by 38.6% at 30oC for 48 h in culture broth. But Triton X 100 and CTAB unexpectedly didn't play a role in increase of HLY secretion. Recovery of a foreign protein by permeabilizing agents is easier than by osmotic shock, and is less expensive than enzymatic digestion.

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Advanced Membrane Systems for Seawater Desalination. Kinetics of Salts Crystallization from RO Brines Promoted by Polymeric Membranes

  • Curcio, Efrem;Obaidani, Sulaiman Al;Macedonio, Francesca;Profio, Gianluca Di;Gualtieri, Silvia;Drioli, Enrico
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2007
  • The reliability of innovative membrane contactors technology (i.e. Gas/Liquid Membrane Contactors, Membrane Distillation/Crystallization) is today increasing for seawater desalination processes, where traditional pressure-driven membrane separation units are routinely operated. Furthermore, conventional membrane operations can be integrated with membrane contactors in order to promote possible improvements in process efficiency, operational stability, environmental impact, water quality and cost. Seawater is the most abundant aqueous solution on the earth: the amount of dissolved salts covers about 3% of its composition, and six elements (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Cl, S) account for more than 90% of ionic species. Recent investigations on Membrane Distillation-Crystallization have shown the possibility to achieve significant overall water recovery factors, to limit the brine disposal problem, and to recover valuable salts (i.e. calcium sulphate, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate) by combining this technology with conventional RO trains. In this work, the kinetics of $CaSO_4{\cdot}2H_2O,\;NaCl\;and\;MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ crystallization is experimentally investigated in order to improve the design of the membrane-based crystallization unit.