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Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Unresectable Non Small Cell Lung Cancer : Preliminary Report for Response and Toxicity (절제 불가능한 제 3기 비소세포성 페암의 다분할 방사선 치료와 MVP 복합 항암요법의 동시 치료에 대한 예비적 결과)

  • Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Chang, Hye-Sook;Kim, Sang-We;Suh, Cheol-Won;Lee, Kyoo-Hyung;Lee, Jung, Shin;Kim, Sang-Hee;Ko, Youn-Suk;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong;Song, Koun-Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 1995
  • Lung cancer study group at Asan Medical Center has conducted the second prospective study to determine the efficacy and feasibility of MVP chemotherapy with concurrent hyperfractionated radiotherapy for Patients with stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). All eligible Patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC were treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy(120 cGy/fx BID. 6480 cGy/54fx) and concurrent 2 cycles of MVP(Mitomycin C $6mg/m^2,$ d2 & d29.Vinblastine $6mg/m^2,$ d2 & d29, Cisplatin $60mg/m^2,$ dl & d28) chemotherapy. Between Aug. 1993 and Nov. 1994, 62 patients entered this study; $6(10\%)$ had advanced stage IIIa and $56(90\%)$ had IIIb disease including 11 with pleural effusion and 10 with supraclavicular metastases. Among 62 patients, $48(77\%)$ completed planned therapy. Fourteen patients refused further treatment during chemoradiotherapy. Of 46 patients evaluable for response, $34(74\%)$ showed major response including $10(22\%)$ with complete and $24(52\%)$ with partial responses. Of 48 patients evaluable for toxicity, $13(27\%)$ showed grade IV hematologic toxicity but treatment delay did not exceed 5 days Two patients died of sepsis during chemoradiotherapy. Severe weight loss(more than $10\%)$ occurred in 9 patients$(19\%)$ during treatment. Nine patients$(19\%)$ developed radiation pneumonitis Six of these patients had grade 1 (mild) Pneumonitis with radiographic changes within the treatment fields Three other patients had grade 11 Pneumonitis, but none of these patients had continuous symptoms after steroid treatment. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with advanced NSCLC was well tolerated with acceptable toxicity and achieved higher response rates than the first study, but rather low compliance $rate(77\%)$ in this study is worrisome. We need to improve nutritional support during treatment and to use G-CSF to improve leukopenia and if necessary. supportive care will be given as in patients, Longer follow-up and larger sample size is needed to observe survival advantage.

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The Results of Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy on Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (국소적으로 진행된 비소세포 폐암에 대한 과분할 방사선 치료의 성적)

  • Hur, Won-Joo;Lee, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Ki;Choi, Young-Min;Lee, Ho-Jun;Youn-Seon-Min;Kim, Jae-seok;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Woo-Jong-Soo;Choi, Pill-Jo;Lee, Ki-Nam
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : The effect of hyperfractionated radiotherapy on locally advanced non-small lung cancer was studied by a retrospective analysis. Materials & Methods : We analyzed sixty one patients of biopsy-confirmed, IIIA and IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Using the ECOG performance scale, all the patients were scored less than 2. They were treated by curative hyperfractionated radiotherapy alone from Oct. 1992 to Oct. 1995 at the Department of Radiation Oncology. All the patients received 120cGy b.i.d with more than 6 hours interval between each fraction. The total dose of radiation was reached up to 6400-7080 cGy with a mean dose of 6934 cGy. The results were analyzed retrospectively. Results : The overall survival rate was 53 1$\%$ in 1 year, 9.9$\%$ in 2 years with a median survival time (MST) of 13.9 months. The progression free survival (PFS) rate was 37.0$\%$ in 1 year, 8.9$\%$ in 2 years. Twenty two Patients were classified as complete responders to this treatment and their MST was 19.5 months When this was compared with that of partial responders (MST: 11 7months), it was statistically significant (p=0.0003). Twenty nine patients of stage IIIA showed a better overall survival rate (1yr 63.3$\%$, 2yr 16.8$\%$) than IIIB patients (1yr 43.3$\%$, 2yr 3.6$\%$), which was also statistically significant (p=0.003). Patients with adenocarcinoma showed a better survival rate (1yr 64.3$\%$, 2yr 21.4$\%$) than that of squamous cell counterpart (1yr 49.4$\%$, 2yr 7.4$\%$), although this was not significant statistically (p=0.61). Two patients developed fatal radiation-induced pneumonia right after the completion of the treatment which progressed rapidly and they all died within 2 months. One patient developed radiation-induced fibrosis after 13 months. He refused further treatment and died soon after the development of fibrosis. Conclusion : Among locally advanced NSCLC, hyperfractionated radiotherapy was effective on stage IIIA patients by increasing MST with acceptable toxicities. Acute radiation-induced pneumonia should be carefully monitored and must be avoided during or after this treatment.

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The Effect of Nasal BiPAP Ventilation in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease (만성 기도폐쇄환자에서 급성 호흡 부전시 BiPAP 환기법의 치료 효과)

  • Cho, Young-Bok;Kim, Ki-Beom;Lee, Hak-Jun;Chung, Jin-Hong;Lee, Kwan-Ho;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.190-200
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    • 1996
  • Background : Mechanical ventilation constitutes the last therapeutic method for acute respiratory failure when oxygen therapy and medical treatment fail to improve the respiratory status of the patient. This invasive ventilation, classically administered by endotracheal intubation or by tracheostomy, is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Consequently, any less invasive method able to avoid the use of endotracheal ventilation would appear to be useful in high risk patient. Over recent years, the efficacy of nasal mask ventilation has been demonstrated in the treatment of chronic restrictive respiratory failure, particularly in patients with neuromuscular diseases. More recently, this method has been successfully used in the treatment of acute respiratory failure due to parenchymal disease. Method : We assessed the efficacy of Bilevel positive airway pressure(BiPAP) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). This study prospectively evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a treatment schedule with positive pressure ventilation via nasal mask(Respironics BiPAP device) in 22 patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Eleven patients with acute exacerbations of COPD were treated with nasal pressure support ventilation delivered via a nasal ventilatory support system plus standard treatment for 3 consecutive days. An additional 11 control patients were treated only with standard treatment. The standard treatment consisted of medical and oxygen therapy. The nasal BiPAP was delivered by a pressure support ventilator in spontaneous timed mode and at an inspiratory positive airway pressure $6-8cmH_2O$ and an expiratory positive airway pressure $3-4cmH_2O$. Patients were evaluated with physical examination(respiratory rate), modified Borg scale and arterial blood gas before and after the acute therapeutic intervention. Results : Pretreatment and after 3 days of treatment, mean $PaO_2$ was 56.3mmHg and 79.1mmHg (p<0.05) in BiPAP group and 56.9mmHg and 70.2mmHg (p<0.05) in conventional treatment (CT) group and $PaCO_2$ was 63.9mmHg and 56.9mmHg (p<0.05) in BiPAP group and 53mmHg and 52.8mmHg in CT group respectively. pH was 7.36 and 7.41 (p<0.05) in BiPAP group and 7.37 and 7.38 in cr group respectively. Pretreatment and after treatment, mean respiratory rate was 28 and 23 beats/min in BiPAP group and 25 and 20 beats/min in CT group respectively. Borg scale was 7.6 and 4.7 in BiPAP group and 6.4 and 3.8 in CT group respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups in changes of mean $PaO_2$, $PaCO_2$ and pH respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that short-term nasal pressure-support ventilation delivered via nasal BiPAP in the treatment of acute exacerbation of COPD, is an efficient mode of assisted ventilation for improving blood gas values and dyspnea sensation and may reduce the need for endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation.

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Combined Modality Therapy with Selective Bladder Preservation for Muscle Invading Bladder Cancer (침윤성 방광암 환자에서 방광 보존 치료)

  • Youn Seon Min;Yang Kwang Mo;Lee Hyung Sik;Hur Won Joo;Oh Sin Geun;Lee Jong Cheol;Yoon Jin Han;Kwon Heon Young;Jung Kyung Woo;Jung Se Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To assess the tolerance, complete response rate, bladder preservation rate and survival rate in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation protocol. Method and Materials : From October 1990 to June 1998, twenty six patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer (clinical stage T2-4, N0-3, M0) were enrolled for the treatment protocol of bladder preservation. They were treated with maximal TURBT (transurethral resection of bladder tumor) and 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy (methotrexate, crisplatin, and vinblastine) followed by $39.6\~45\;Gy$ pelvic irradiation with concomitant cisplatin. After complete urologic evaluation (biopsy or cytology), the patients who achieved complete response were planed for bladder preservation treatment and treated with consolidation cisplatin and radiotherapy (19.8 Gy). The patients who had incomplete response were planed to immediate radical cystectomy. If they refused radical cystectomy, they were treated either with TURBT followed by MCV or cisplatin chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up duration is 49.5 months. Results : The Patients with stage T2-3a and T3b-4a underwent complete removal of tumor or gross tumor removal by TURBT, respectively. Twenty one out of 26 patients $(81\%)$ successfully completed the protocol of the planned chemo-radiotherapy. Seven patients had documented complete response. Six of them were treated with additional consolidation cisplatin and radiotherapy. One patient was treated with 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy due to refusal of chemo-radiotherapy. Five of 7 complete responders had functioning tumor-free bladder. Fourteen patients of incomplete responders were further treated with one of the followings : radical cystectomy (1 patient), or TURBT and 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy (3 patients), or cisplatin and radiotherapy (10 patients). Thirteen patients of them were not treated with planned radical cystectomy due to patients' refusal (9 patients) or underlying medical problems (4 patients). Among twenty one patients, 12 patients $(58\%)$ were alive with their preserved bladder, 8 patients died with the disease, 1 patient died of intercurrent disease. The 5 years actuarial survival rates according to CR and PR after MCV chemotherapy and cisplatin chemoradiotherapy were $80\%\;and\;14\%$, respectively (u=0.001). Conclusion : In selected patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer, the bladder preservation could be achieved by MCV chemotherapy and cisplatin chemo-radiotherapy. All patients tolerated well this bladder preservation protoco. The availability of complete TURBT and the responsibility of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy were important predictors for bladder preservation and survival. The patients who had not achieved complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy should be immediate radical cystectomy. A randomized prospective trial might be essential to determine more accurate indications between cystectomy or bladder preservation.

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Development and Assessment Individual Maximum Permissible Dose Method of I-131 Therapy in High Risk Patients with Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Cancer (물리학 선량법을 이용한 갑상선암의 개인별 최대안전용량 I-131 치료법 개발과 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, Jeong-Chul;Yoon, Jung-Han;Bom, Hee-Seung;JaeGal, Young-Jong;Song, Ho-Chun;Min, Jung-Joon;Jeong, Heong;Kim, Seong-Min;Heo, Young-Jun;Li, Ming-Hao;Park, Young-Kyu;Chung, June-Key
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Radioiodine (I-131) therapy is an effective modality to reduce both recurrence and mortality rates in differentiated thyroid cancer. Whether higher doses shows higher therapeutic responses was still debatable. The purpose of this study was to validate curve-fitting (CF) method measuring maximum permissible dose (MPD) by a biological dosimetry using metaphase analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic effects of MPD was evaluated in 58 patients (49 females and 9 males, mean age $50{\pm}11$ years) of papillary thyroid cancer. Among them 43 patients were treated with ${\Leq}7.4GBq$, while 15 patients with ${\geq}9.25GBq$. The former was defined as low-dose group, and the latter high-dose group. Therapeutic response was defined as complete response when complete disappearance of lesions on follow-up I-131 scan and undetectable serum thyroglobulin levels were found. Statistical comparison between groups were done using chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: MPD measured by CF method using tracer and therapeutic doses were $13.3{\pm}1.9\;and\;13.8{\pm}2.1GBq$, respectively (p=0.20). They showed a significant correlation (r=0.8, p<0.0001). Exposed doses to blood measured by CF and biological methods were $1.54{\pm}0.03\;and\;1.78{\pm}0.03Gy$ (p=0.01). They also showed a significant correlation (r=0.86, p=0.01). High-dose group showed a significantly higher rate of complete response (12/15, 80%) as compared to the low-dose group (22/43, 51.2%) (p=0.05). While occurrence of side effects was not different between two groups (40% vs. 30.2%, p=0.46). Conclusion: Measurement of MPD using CF method is reliable, and the high-dose I-131 therapy using MPD gains significantly higher therapeutic effects as compared with low-dose therapy.

Multimodality Treatement in Patients with Clinical Stage IIIA NSCLC (임상적 IIIA병기 비소세포폐암의 다각적 치료의 효과)

  • Lee, Yun Seun;Jang, Pil Soon;kang, Hyun Mo;Lee, Jeung Eyun;Kwon, Sun Jung;An, Jin Yong;Jung, Sung Soo;Kim, Ju Ock;Kim, Sun Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 2004
  • Background : To find out effectiveness of multimodality treatments based on induction chemotherapy(CTx) in patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC Methods : From 1997 to 2002, 74 patients with clinical stage IIIA NSCLC underwent induction CTx at the hospital of Chungnam National University. Induction CTx included above two cycles of cisplatin-based regimens(ectoposide, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, or taxol) followed by tumor evaluation. In 30 complete resection group, additional 4500-5000cGy radiotherapy(RTx) was delivered in 15 patients with pathologic nodal metastasis. 29 out of 44 patients who were unresectable disease, refusal of operation, and incomplete resection were followed by 60-70Gy RTx in local treatment. Additional 1-3 cycle CTx were done in case of induction CTx responders in both local treatment groups. Results : Induction CTx response rate were 44.6%(complete remission 1.4% & partial response 43.2%) and there was no difference of response rate by regimens(p=0.506). After induction chemotherapy, only 33 out of resectable 55 ones(including initial resectable 37 patients) were performed by surgical treatment because of 13 refusal of surgery by themselves and 9 poor predicted reserve lung function. There were 30(40.5%) patients with complete resection, 2(2.6%) persons with incomplete resection, and 1(1.3%) person with open & closure. Response rate in 27 ones with chest RTx out of non-operation group was 4.8% CR and 11.9% PR. In complete resection group, relapse free interval was 13.6 months and 2 year recur rate was 52%. In non-complete resection(incomplete resection or non-operation) group, disease progression free interval was 11.2 months and 2 year disease progression rate was 66.7%. Median survival time of induction CTx 74 patients with IIIA NSCLC was 25.1months. When compared complete resection group with non-complete resection group, the median survival time was 31.7 and 23.4months(p=0.024) and the 2-year overall survival rate was 80% and 41%. In the complete resection group, adjuvant postoperative RTx subgroup significantly improved the 2-year local control rate(0% vs. 40%, p= 0.007) but did not significantly improve overall survival(32.2months vs. 34.9months, p=0.48). Conculusion : Induction CTx is a possible method in the multimodality treatments, especially followed by complete resection, but overall survival by any local treatment(surgical resection or RTx) was low. Additional studies should be needed to analysis data for appropriate patient selection, new chemotherapy regimens and the time when should RTx be initiated.

Late Rectal Complication in Patients treated with High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Stage IIB Carcinoma of the Cervix (FIGO병기 IIB 자궁경부암에서 고선량 강내 방사선치료후의 후기 직장 합병증)

  • Chung, Eun-Ji;Kim, Gwi-Eon;Suh, Chang-Ok;Keum, Ki-Chang;Kim, Woo-Cheol
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : This paper reports a dosimetric study of 88 patients treated with a combination of external radiotherapy and high dose rate ICR for FIGO stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix. The purpose is to investigate the correlation between the radiation doses to the rectum, external radiation dose to the whole pelvis, ICR reference volume, TDF BED and the incidence of late rectal complications, retrospectively. Materials and Methods : From November 1989 through December 1992, 88 patients with stage IIB cervical carcinoma received radical radiotherapy at Department of Radiation Oncology in Yonsei University Hospital. Radiotherapy consisted of 44-54 Gy(median 49 Gy) external beam irradiation plus high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy with 5 Gy per fraction twice a week to a total dose of 30 Gy on point A. The maximum dose to the rectum by contrast(r, R) and reference rectal dose by ICRU 38(dr, DR) were calculated. The ICR reference volume was calculated by Gamma Dot 3.11 HDR planning system, retrospectively The time-dose factor(TDF) and the biologically effective dose (BED) were calculated. Results : Twenty seven($30.7\%$) of the 88 patients developed late rectal complications:12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 1, 12 patients($13.6\%$) for grade 2 and 3 patients($3.4\%$) for grade 3. We found a significant correlation between the external whole pelvis irradiation dose and grade 2, 3 rectal complication. The mean dose to the whole pelvis for the group of patients with grade 2, 3 complication was Higher, $4093.3\pm453.1$ cGy, than that for the patients without complication, $3873.8\pm415.6$ (0.05$7163.0\pm838.5$ cGy, than that for the Patients without rectal complication, $0772.7\pm884.0$ (p<0.05). There was no correlation of the rate of grade 2, 3 rectal complication with the iCR rectal doses(r, dr), ICR reference volume, TDF and BED. Conclusion : This investigation has revealed a significant correlation between the dose calculated at the rectal dose by ICRU 38(DR) or the most anterior rectal dose by contrast(R) dose to the whole pelvis and the incidence of grade 2, 3 late rectal complications in patients with stage IIB cervical cancer undergoing external beam radiotherapy and HOR ICR. Thus these rectal reference points doses and whole pelvis dose appear to be useful Prognostic indicators of late rectal complication in high dose rate ICR treatment in cervical carcinoma.

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Characteristics of Manure and Estimation of Nutrient and Pollutant of Holstein Dairy Cattle (홀스타인 젖소 분뇨의 특성과 비료성분 및 오염물질 부하량 추정)

  • Choi, D.Y.;Choi, H.L.;Kwag, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Choi, H.C.;Kwon, D.J.;Kang, H.S.;Yang, C.B.;Ahn, H.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to determine fertilizer nutrient and pollutant production of Holstein dairy cattle by estimating manure characteristics. The moisture content of feces was 83.9% and 95.1% for urine. The pH of feces and urine were in the ranges of 7.0~7.4 and 7.5~7.8, respectively. The average BOD5, COD, SS, T-N, T-P concentrations of the dairy feces were 18,294, 52,765, 102,889, 2,575, and 457mg/ℓ, respectively. Dairy urine showed lower levels of BOD5(5,455mg/ℓ), COD(8,089mg/ℓ), SS(593mg/ℓ), T-N(3,401mg/l), and T-P(13mg/ℓ) than feces. The total daily produced pollutant amounts of a dairy cow were 924.1g(Milking cow), 538.8g(Dry cow), 284.4g(Heifer) of BOD5, 2,336.5g (Milking cow), 1,651.8g(Dry cow), 734.1g(Heifer) of COD and 4,210.1g(Milking cow), 2,417.1g(Dry cow), 1,629.1g(Heifer) of SS and 194.8g(Milking cow), 96.4g(Dry cow), 58.3g(Heifer) of T-N and 24.0g(Milking cow), 10.2g(Dry cow), 6.1g(Heifer) of T-P. The calculated amount of pollutants produced by a 450kg dairy cow for one year were 181.3kg of BOD5, 492.5kg of COD, 899.9kg of SS, 36.0kg of T-N and 4.1kg of T-P. The total yearly estimated pollutant production from all head(497,261) of dairy cattle in Korea is 90,149 tons of BOD5, 244,890 tons of COD, 447,491 tons of SS, 17,898 tons of T-N and 2,008 tons of T-P. The fertilizer nutrient concentrations of dairy feces was 0.26% N, 0.1% P2O5 and 0.14% K2O. Urine was found to contain 0.34% N, 0.003% of P2O5 and 0.31% K2O. The total daily fertilizer nutrients produced by dairy cattle were 197.4g (Milking cow), 97.4g(Dry cow), and 57.9g(Heifer) of Nitrogen, 54.2g(Milking cow), 22.2g(Dry cow), and 14.2g(Heifer) of P2O5 and 110.8g(Milking cow), 80.4g (Dry cow), and 39.5g(Heifer) of K2O. The total yearly estimated fertilizer nutrient produced by a 450kg dairy animal is 36.2kg of N, 8.8kg of P2O5, 24.6kg of K2O. The estimated yearly fertilizer nutrient production from all dairy cattle in Korea is 18,000 tons of N, 4,397 tons of P2O5, 12,206 tons of K2O. Dairy manure contains useful trace minerals for crops, such as CaO and MgO, which are contained in similar levels to commercial compost being sold in the domestic market. Concentrations of harmful trace minerals, such as As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, met the Korea compost standard regulations, with some of these minerals being in undetected amounts.

Comparative analysis of Glomerular Filtration Rate measurement and estimated glomerular filtration rate using 99mTc-DTPA in kidney transplant donors. (신장이식 공여자에서 99mTc-DTPA를 이용한 Glomerular Filtration Rate 측정과 추정사구체여과율의 비교분석)

  • Cheon, Jun Hong;Yoo, Nam Ho;Lee, Sun Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2021
  • Purpose Glomerular filtration rate(GFR) is an important indicator for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of kidney disease and is also used by healthy individuals for drug use and evaluating kidney function in donors. The gold standard method of the GFR test is to measure by continuously injecting the inulin which is extrinsic marker, but it takes a long time and the test method is complicated. so, the method of measuring the serum concentration of creatinine is used. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is used instead. However, creatinine is known to be affected by age, gender, muscle mass, etc. eGFR formulas that are currently used include the Cockroft-Gault formula, the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula, and the chronic kidney disease epidemilogy collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula for adults. For children, the Schwartz formula is used. Measurement of GFR using 51Cr-EDTA (diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid), 99mTc-DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) can replace inulin and is currently in use. Therefore, We compared the GFR measured using 99mTc-DTPA with the eGFR using CKD-EPI formula. Materials and Methods For 200 kidney transplant donors who visited Asan medical center.(96 males, 104 females, 47.3 years ± 12.7 years old) GFR was measured using plasma(Two-plasma-sample-method, TPSM) obtained by intravenous administration of 99mTc-DTPA(0.5mCi, 18.5 MBq). eGFR was derived using CKD-EPI formula based on serum creatinine concentration. Results GFR average measured using 99mTc-DTPA for 200 kidney transplant donors is 97.27±19.46(ml/min/1.73m2), and the eGFR average value using the CKD-EPI formula is 96.84±17.74(ml/min/1.73m2), The concentration of serum creatinine is 0.84±0.39(mg/dL). Regression formula of 99mTc-DTPA GFR for serum creatinine-based eGFR was Y = 0.5073X + 48.186, and the correlation coefficient was 0.698 (P<0.01). Difference (%) was 1.52±18.28. Conclusion The correlation coefficient between the 99mTc-DTPA and the eGFR derived on serum creatinine concentration was confirmed to be moderate. This is estimated that eGFR is affected by external factors such as age, gender, and muscle mass and use of formulas made for kidney disease patients. By using 99mTc-DTPA, we can provide reliable GFR results, which is used for diagnosis, treatment and observation of kidney disease, and kidney evaluation of kidney transplant patients.

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Application of Science for Interpreting Archaeological Materials(III) Characterization of Some Western Asia Glass Vessels from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong (고고자료의 자연과학 응용(III) 황남대총(남분)의 일부 서역계 유리제품에 대한 과학적 특성 분류)

  • Kang, Hyung Tae;Cho, Nam Chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.5-19
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    • 2008
  • Thirty six samples of Western asia glass vessel shards which were excavated from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong were each measured for thickness, pore size and specific gravity and analyzed for ten major compositions and thirteen trace elements. The glass samples with colorless, greenish blue and dark purple blue were well classified by principal component analysis(PCA). All glass shards of Hwangnamdaechong belonged to Soda glass system ($Na_2O-CaO-SiO_2$) which have the range of 14~17% $Na_2O$ and 5~6% CaO. The corelation coefficients of (MgO, $K_2O$) and (MnO, CuO) showed above 0.90. The concentrations of thirteen trace elements apparently differentiated from colorless, greenish blue and dark blue glasses. We found that thirteen trace elements were very important indices for studying raw material of glass and the origin of glass making. Colorless glass : The specific gravity is $1.50{\pm}0.04$. Circle or oval circle pores are observed with regular direction in internal zone and the longest one is about 0.35 mm. The raw material of sodium must be the plant ash because sodium glasses contain HCLA(High CaO, Low $Al_2O_3$) and HMK(high MgO, high $K_2O$) and suggested to Sasanian glass. The total amount of coloring agent of colorless glass is below 1 % which is too small to attribute to the color. Greenish blue glass : The specific gravity is $1.58{\pm}0.04$. The fine pores which are 0.1~0.2mm are dispersed in internal zone. Sodium glasses are distributed to HCLA and HMK. Therefore the greenish blue glass also have used plant ash for raw material of sodium with the same as colorless glass. It was also suggested to the glass of Sasanian. The total amount of coloring agent of greenish blue glass is about 4% under the influence of working MnO, $Fe_2O_3$ and CuO. Dark purple blue glass : The specific gravity is $1.48{\pm}0.19$. There are rarely pores in internal zone. They are distributed to HCLA and LMK(Low MgO, Low $K_2O$) and suggested to Roman glass. The raw material of sodium is estimated to natron. The total amount of coloring agents of greenish blue is about 3% by $Fe_2O_3$ and CuO. These studies for western asia glass shards from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong could be used in the future as the standard data which could be compared with those of other several graves in Korea and dispersed in foreign areas.