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Surface morphology, Glossiness and Hardness of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-X ternary alloy Electrodeposits (고속도금된 Zn-Cr 및 Zn-Cr-X 3원합금 도금층의 표면조직, 광택도 및 경도)

  • 예길촌;김대영;서경훈
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2003
  • The surface morphology, the glossiness and the hardness of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-X(X:Co, Mn) alloy electrodeposits were investigated by using chloride bath with EDTA additive and flow cell system. The surface morphology of Zn-Cr alloy and Zn-Cr-Mn alloy changed from fine needle shape crystalline structure to colony structure of fine granular crystallites with increasing current density in the range of 20-100 $A/dm^2$. The surface morphology of Zn-Cr-Co alloy deposited from low Co concentration bath(2.5-10 g/$\ell$) was similar to that of Zn-Cr alloy, while that of Zn-Cr-Co alloy deposited from high cobalt concentration bath was fine granular crystalline structure in the same range of current density. The glossiness of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-Mn alloy increased noticeably with increasing current density, while that of Zn-Cr-Mn alloy decreased with increasing Mn concentration of bath in high current density region. The glossiness of Zn-Cr-Co alloy deposited from low Co concentration bath increased with current density while that of the alloy from high Co concentration bath decreased with increasing current density. The hardness of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-X alloy increased noticeably with current density.

Oxidation of CrAlN and CrZrN Films (CrAlN과 CrZrN의 산화)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Seul-Gi;Lee, Sang-Yul;Lee, Dong-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • 2011.05a
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    • pp.33-35
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    • 2011
  • Films of CrAlN and CrZrN were deposited on a steel substrate by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering, and their oxidation behaviors were investigated. CrAlN films consisted of dense, polycrystalline CrN and AlN fine columns. The formed oxides consisted primarily of crystalline $Cr_2O_3$ incorporated with $Al_2O_3$. The oxide layers were thin and compact so as to make CrAlN films more protective than CrN films. In case of CrZrN films, Zr atoms were dissolved in the CrN phase. Zr atoms advantageously refined the columnar structure, reduced the surface roughness, and increased the micro-hardness. However, the addition of Zr did not increased oxidation resistance, mainly because Zr was not a protective element. All the deposited films displayed relatively good oxidation resistance, owing to the formation of the highly protective $Cr_2O_3$ on their surface. The $Cr_{40}Zr_9N$ and $Cr_{31}Zr_{16}N$ films oxidized to $Cr_2O_3$ as the major phase and ${\alpha}-ZrO_2$ as the minor one, whereas the CrN film oxidized to $Cr_2O_3$.

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Characteristics of the HVOF_sprayed $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$-NiCr Coationg Layer (HVOF 용사된 $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$-NiCr 용사층의 특성)

  • Kim, Byeong-Hui;Seo, Dong-Su
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.8 no.9
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    • pp.849-855
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was performed to compare to the characteristics (microstructure, phase change and hardness, erosion rate) of HVOF sprayed coatings with 20wt% NiCr claded and 7wt%NiCr mixed $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ powder. In the case of the 20wt% NiCr claded $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ powder, microstructural feature showed that the primary $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ was remained in the coating but was barely remained in the mixed $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ coating. As a results of XRD analysis, both 20wt%NiCr claded and 7wt% NiCr mixed $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ powder was decomposed during spraying but the degree of decomposition of the 20wt%NiCr claded was lower than 7wt%NiCr mixed $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ powder. After spraying the mixed powder for microhardness was higher than claded $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ powder and which was increased up to $\textrm{Hv}_{300}$= 1665 after heat treatment to $1000^{\circ}C$. however. 20wt%NiCr claded $\textrm{Cr}_{3}\textrm{C}_{2}$ became to decrease at $600^{\circ}C$ which was the maximum.

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Effects of Different Sources of Dietary Chromium on Growth, Blood Profiles and Carcass Traits in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Park, J.K.;Lee, J.Y.;Chae, B.J.;Ohh, S.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1547-1554
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium on growth performance, blood profile and carcass trait in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 200 growing pigs (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc, average initial weight 8.5 kg) were allotted to 5 treatments with 4 replicates per treatment and 10 pigs per replicate. Five treatments were designated as follows according to the source of chromium. i) Control (No chromium): corn-soybean meal based basal diet, ii) $CrCl_{3}$: control diet+200 ppb Cr as $CrCl_{3}$, iii) CrPic: control diet+200 ppb Cr as Cr picolinate, iv) CrMet-1: control diet+100 ppb Cr as Cr methionine, and v) CrMet-2: control diet+200 ppb Cr as Cr methionine. After the feeding trial, three pigs per replicate (12 pigs per treatment) were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed: gain ratio (F/G) were not different (p>0.05) among dietary Cr sources. However, whole-period ADG of pigs fed CrPic, CrMet-1 and CrMet-2 diets was higher (p<0.05) than for the control diet. Nutrient digestibility was not different (p>0.05) among dietary Cr sources, but the nutrient digestibility of pigs fed CrPic, CrMet-1 and CrMet-2 diets was higher (p<0.05) than for the control diet. BUN level decreased with more magnitude (p<0.05) in pigs fed Cr during the 20 to 50 kg period. Although both serum cholesterol and triglyceride were different (p<0.05) among treatments, there was no consistent response that could be related to the dietary Cr sources regardless of growth phase. However, the overall data suggested that serum cholesterol level increased as BW of pigs increased. Blood total protein (TP) increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed Cr only during the 90-110 kg phase, and blood creatinine (Creat) level was higher in $CrCl_{3}$ and CrPic treatments than in the control only during the 90-110 kg phase. Backfat thickness was thinner (p<0.05) in pigs fed CrMet-2 than in the control treatment. Therefore, lean percentage was higher (p<0.05) in CrMet-2 than in control pigs. However, dressing percentage and Longissimus muscle area (LMA) were not different (p>0.05) among treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 ppb Cr, via either CrPic or CrMet, improved pig growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, dietary CrMet supplementation for the growing-finishing pig is evidently remarkable for improving both lean percentage of the carcass and backfat thickness.

INTEGRAL CURVES OF THE CHARACTERISTIC VECTOR FIELD ON CR-SUBMANIFOLDS OF MAXIMAL CR-DIMENSION

  • Kim, Hyang Sook;Pak, Jin Suk
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.107-118
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    • 2017
  • In this paper we study CR-submanifolds of maximal CR-dimension by investigating extrinsic behaviors of integral curves of characteristic vector field on them. Also we consider the notion of ruled CR-submanifold of maximal CR-dimension which is a generalization of that of ruled real hypersurface and find some characterizations of ruled CR-submanifold of maximal CR-dimension concerning extrinsic shapes of integral curves of the characteristic vector field and those of CR-Frenet curves.

Magnetic Properties of Co-Cr(-Ta)/Si Bilayered Thin Film (Co-Cr(-Ta)/Si 이층막의 자기적 특성)

  • 김용진;박원효;금민종;최형욱;김경환;손인환
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2002
  • In odder to investigate the magnetic properties of CoCr-based bilayered thin films on kind of underlayer, we introduced amorphous Si layer to Co-Cr(-Ta) magnetic layer as underlayer. First, we prepared CoCr and CoCrTa single layer using the Facing Targets Sputtering system to investigate theirs properties. It was revealed that with increasing the film thickness of CoCr, CoCrTa single layer, crystalline orientation and perpendicular coercivity was improved. The CoCrTa thin film showed bettor crystalline and magnetic characteristics than CoCr thin film. As a result of investigating magnetic properties of CoCr and CoCrTa magnetic layer on introducing the Si underlayer, perpendicular coercivity and saturation magnetization of CoCr/Si and CoCrTa/Si bilayered thin film were decreased due to the increased grain size and diffusion of Si atoms to magnetic layer. And they showed constant with increasing the film thickness of Si thin film. However, in case of CoCrTa/Si bilayered thin film, in-plane coercivity was controlled low at about 250Oe. The c-axis orientations of CoCr/si and CoCrTa/Si bilayered thin film showed a good crystalline characteristics as about $2^{\circ}$.

Surface Analysis of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Alloys with Addition of Ti and Mo for Dental CAD/CAM Use (Ti 및 Mo 첨가에 따른 치과 CAD/CAM용 Ni-Cr 및 Co-Cr합금의 표면분석)

  • Moon, Dae-Sun;Choe, Han-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2018
  • In this study, surface analysis of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys with addition of Ti and Mo for dental CAD/CAM use has been researched experimentally. The surface characteristics of the alloys were examined by Vickers hardness test, bonding strength test, surface roughness test, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The shrinkage of the sintered Ni-Cr alloy alloy was slightly larger than that of Ni-Cr-Ti alloy, and larger than Co-Cr alloy. Also, the addition of Mo showed a tendency to decrease shrinkage somewhat. From the result of XRD analysis, NiCr, $Ni_3Cr$ and $Ni_3Ti$ were observed in the sintered Ni-13Cr-xTi and Ni-13Cr-xMo alloys. In addition, ${\sigma}-CrCo$, $Co_2Mo_3$ and $TiCo_2$ were formed in the sintered Co-Cr-xTi and Co-Cr-xMo alloys. Surface hardness of Ti and Mo added alloy was higher than those of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloy. The bond strength between sintered alloy and porcelain was $16.1kgf/mm^2$ for Ni-13Cr alloy, $17.8kgf/mm^2$ for Ni-13Cr-5Ti alloy, and $8.2kgf/mm^2$ for Ni-13Cr-10Ti alloy, respectively.

Current Efficiency and Composit ion of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-X Ternary Alloy Electrodeposits (고속도금된 Zn-Cr 및 Zn-Cr-X 3원합금의 전류효율 및 조성)

  • Ye G.C.;Kim D.Y.;Ahn D.S.
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2003
  • The current efficiency and the composition of Zn-Cr and Zn-Cr-X (X : Co, Mn) alloy electrodeposits were investigated by using chloride bath with EDTA auditive and flow cell plating system. The current efficiency of Zn-Cr alloy decreased with increasing current density, while it increased with the content of Co and Mn of the Zn-Cr-X alloy bath in high current density region. The Cr content in Zn-Cr alloy increased from 1.4-2.7 to $28wt\%$ with increasing current density and the phase structure of the alloys changed from $\eta-Zn$ through $\eta-Zn+\gamma'-ZnCr\;to\;\gamma'-ZnCr$ with Increasing Cr content of the alloys. The Co content in Zn-Cr-Co alloys increased with Co content of the bath, while Cr content of the alloy increased or decreased in low current density region $(10-75A/dm^2)$ or high current density region $(75-100A/dm^2)$, respectively. $\gamma-ZnCo$ phase was formed in the Zn-Cr-Co alloy with above $9.0wt\%$ Co. The content of Mn and Cr in Zn-Cr-Mn alloys increased or decreased with the increase of current density in high current density region, respectively while Cr content of the alloy decreased noticeably with the increase of Mn content in the bath. Two phases of $\delta_1-ZnMn$ and $\gamma'-ZnCr$ were formed in the Zn-Cr-Mn alloy with above $8.6wt\%$ Mn.

AES Analysis of Au, Au/Cr, Au/Ni/Cr and Au/Pd/Cr Thin Films by the Change of Substrate Temperature and Annealing Temperature (기판온도와 열처리온도의 변화에 따른 Au/Cr, Au/Ni/Cr 및 Au/Pd/Cr 다층박막의 AES 분석)

  • Yoo, Kwang Soo;Jung, Hyung Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 1993
  • Thin films of the Au/Cr, Au/Ni/Cr and Au/Pd/Cr systems were deposited on alumina substrates at ambient temperature and $250^{\circ}C$ in a high-vacuum resistance heating evaporator and annealed at $300^{\circ}C$, $450^{\circ}C$ and $600^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour in air, respectively. The film thicknesses of Au, Ni(or pd), and Cr were $1000{\AA}$, $300{\AA}$, and $50{\AA}$, respectively. The substrate temperature during deposition and the post-deposition annealing temperature affected the sheet resistance of thin-films due to the inter-diffusion of each layer. As a result of Auger depth profile analysis, in the Au/Cr system Cr already diffused out to Au surface during deposition at the substrate temperature of $250^{\circ}C$ and Au distribution changed after heat treatment. In the Au/Ni/Cr and Au/Pd/Cr systems, diffusion phenomena of Ni and Pd were found and especially Ni (approximately 45 at.%) diffused out to Au surface and oxidized.

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Selective Determination Method of Cr(Ⅲ) and Cr(Ⅵ) by Aliquat 336 Extraction and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Cr(Ⅲ) 와 Cr(Ⅵ)의 Aliquat 336을 이용한 추출분리 및 원자흡수분광법에 의한 정량)

  • Kim, Cheon Han;Hwang, Hye Ryeon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.418-422
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    • 1999
  • A method is described for the selective determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in aqueous solutios by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective extraction of $Cr_2O_7^{2-}$ was performed by Aliquat 336/NIBK from the mixtures of $Cr^{3+}$ and $Cr_2O_7^{2-}$, and the extraction of $Cr^{3+}$ was followed after complex formation with citrate by using the same extractant. The concentraction of each analyte in the extract was determined by $N_2O-C_2H_2$ flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The recoveries of $Cr^{3+}$ and $Cr_2O_7^{2-}$ from 50mL of aqueous solution ranging 0.1~1.0 ${\mu}g/mL$ as Cr respectively by single extractions with 5 mL of 1%(V/V) Aliquat 336/MIBK were resulted as 98.8∼101.7%.

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