• Title/Summary/Keyword: Broiler Litter

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EFFECT OF FEEDING BROILER LITTER ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY BARBARI GOAT

  • Nadeem, M.A.;Ali, A.;Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 1993
  • Four isocaloric (68.71, 67.07, 66.68 and 66.25% TDN) and isonitrogenous (12.96, 13.36, 13.36 and 12.96% CP) diets without or with 20, 25 and 30% broiler litter were fed to 20 male kids for 90 days. Weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (p < 0.05) for kids offered control diets as compared to kids fed diets containing broiler litter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the feed intake with increasing level of broiler litter in the diets. Digestibility for organic matter, crude protein and crude fibre were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of broiler litter in the diets, whereas inclusion of broiler litter depressed (p < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter and ash. Nitrogen balance was positive for all diets, however, nitrogen retention decreased (p < 0.01) with the increased level of broiler litter. Blood Na, K, Ca, P and urea-N were within normal range.

On­site Survey on Use as Feed of Broiler Litter in Israel and North America and Its Technology Application (이스라엘과 북미 지역의 육계분 사료화 현장 방문 조사 및 기술 정보의 응용)

  • 곽완섭
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2003
  • This on­site survey was performed by visiting sites in Israel and USA where broiler litter is studied, manufactured as feed and applied practically and interviewing experts related. Their advanced experiences, technologies and informations were collected, analyzed, compared with Korean situations and described on the text of this article. Although broiler litter has been successfully used as feed for at least 40 years in Israel and USA, its practice and application rate of the technologies related has been very slow in Korea. Many informations presented here will be very helpful for the successful on­site application of hygienically processed broiler litter as livestock feed. It's doubtless that these efforts to use broiler litter­like underutilized feed resource will result in considerable livestock production cost cut­down and environmental pollution prevention.

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Effects of Molasses Addition and(or) Pelleting on Nutritional Characteristics of Broiler Litter Processed by Ensiling or Deepstacking and Palatability Improvement by 'Hanwoo' During the Adjustment Period (육계분 혐기 또는 퇴적 발효 사료 제조 시 당밀 첨가 및 펠렛화가 사료영양적 가치 및 사료 적응기의 한우 기호성 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W. S.;Park, J. M.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted in order to determine a proper level of molasses addition through the analysis of changes in appearance, nutritive and silage parameters before and after ensiling or deepstacking of broiler litter, to evaluate the effect of pelleting processed broiler litter and to develop methods to enhance palatability of broiler litter and reduce the adjustment period by ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Molasses addition was effective in ensiling and deepstacking of broiler litter and the proper addition level was about 5%. Changes in nutritive values of broiler litter by ensiling and deepstacking with or without molasses treatment were not great. Adding 5% molasses at deepstacking of broiler litter did not affect(P<0.05) in vitro digestion of dry matter and organic matter. Pelleting of broiler litter resulted in significant(P<0.05) moisture evaporation, organic matter reduction and nearly threefold increase of bulk density. Pelleting or molasses addition of broiler litter improved palatability by ‘Hanwoo’ steers and reduced the adjustment period by half(8-9 d).

Effects of Bedding Materials and Season on the Composition and Production Rate of Broiler Litter as a Nutrient Resource for Ruminants

  • Park, K.K.;Yang, S.Y.;Kim, B.K.;Jung, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2000
  • Broiler litter can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants. Fifty seven litter samples collected from 47 farms in Kyungkee Province of Korea were analyzed to assess the effects of type and amount of bedding (rice hulls vs. sawdust), season (winter vs. summer) and drinkers (bell- vs. trough-type) on composition of broiler litter. Rearing conditions of broilers were also surveyed from the farms to estimate annual production rate of litter. Nutrient composition of broiler litter varied widely and moisture and ash concentrations were higher than observed by other researchers. Ash concentration was higher (p<0.05) for samples taken in winter than in summer and higher (p<0.05) in the rice hulls- than in the sawdust-based litter both in winter and summer. Only minor differences in litter composition were noted between drinkers. Ash was negatively correlated with crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). The estimated litter production rate was 2.7 kg per bird per flock on a wet basis (60% DM) and the annual production rate was 12.7 kg per bird per yr (60% DM). Therefore, the 42 million broilers per month grown in Korea in 1999 produced a total of 533,400 metric tons of litter.

Effect of Ensiling Sudax Fodder with Broiler Litter and Candida Yeast on the Changes in pH, Lactic Acid and Nitrogen Fractions

  • Rasool, S.;Gilani, A.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 1997
  • Sudax fodder (Sorghum sudanense ${\times}$ Sorhum vulgare) was ensiled in laboratory silos with or without 20, 30, or 40 percent broiler litter and 6 percent molasses with or without Candida yeast. The samples were analyzed for pH, lactic acid and nitrogen fractions at the start of the experiment and at 5 days interval, thereafter till 40 days. A sharp decline in pH and increase in lactic acid content was observed on fifth day of ensiling. Thereafter, the rate of pH decline decreased till 20 days and that of lactic acid increase till 25 days and the remained constant. Increasing levels of broiler litter had adverse effect on pH drop and lactic acid increase of silages. Total-N content of the silages had little variation throughout the ensiling period. A sharp decline in protein-N and increase in ammonia-N content was observed on day 5 of ensiling. Thereafter, the content of protein-N increased till 20 days and that of ammonia-N decreased till 15 days, but these changes were very small compared to that occurred during the first 5 days of ensiling. The level of broiler litter had inverse relationship with protein degradation and direct relationship with ammonia production. The yeast inoculum failed to produce any significant effect.

Digestion and Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented with Processed Broiler Litter

  • Kwak, W.S.;Fontenot, J.P.;Herbein, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1634-1641
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    • 2003
  • In vivo digestion and metabolism trials were conducted with 10 wethers equipped with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulae to evaluate digestion of ensiled broiler litter (EBL), deepstacked broiler litter (DBL), and composted broiler litter (CBL). Wethers were fed a low protein (6.3% CP) basal diet alone or supplemented to 10.3% CP with EBL, DBL, CBL or soybean meal (SBM). All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic (56% TDN, DM basis). Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, and ADF were not affected (p<0.05) by diet, but digestibility of CP was improved (p<0.05) by N supplementation. Apparent digestibility of CP was lower (p<0.05) for diets supplemented with CBL and DBL than for diets supplemented with SBM and EBL. Ruminal $NH_3$ concentration was 20 to 24 mg/dl at 2 h after feeding litter-supplemented diets compared with 13 mg/dl for SBM. Abomasal N, $NH_3$ N, and nonammonia N flows were increased (p<0.05) by N supplementation, whereas microbial N flow was not influenced (p<0.05) by diet. Compared with SBM and EBL, undegraded dietary CP flow to the abomasum tended to be greater (p<0.1) when wethers were fed DBL and CBLsupplemented diets. Retention of N (g/d) also was greater (p<0.05) due to greater (p<0.05) N intake and lower (p<0.05) urinary N excretion when wethers were fed diets supplemented with litter (especially EBL) vs. SBM. Overall, characteristics of ruminal fermentation and digestion indicated that broiler litter N was utilized efficiently by wethers, but ensiling may be preferable to deepstacking or composting.

Effects of Supplementary Levels of Deep-stacked Broiler Litter on Digestibility, Dry Matter Intake, and Nitrogen Balance by Male Spotted Deer(Cervus Nippon) (육계분 발효사료의 첨가수준이 숫꽃사슴의 소화율, 건물채식량 및 질소출납에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, B. T.;Kwak, W. S.;Kang, S. K.;Lee, S. M.;Moon, S. H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2003
  • To determine nutritive value and suitability of deep-stacked broiler litter for deer, the influence of supplementary levels of broiler litter on digestibility, dry matter intake, and nitrogen balance was investigated in male spotted deer (Cervus nippon) fed a commercial mixed(complete) ration. The deep-stacked and ground broiler litter was supplemented at the level of 0%(Control), 15%(T1) and 30%(T2) on the basis of fresh matter to the mixed ration. All treatments had similar palatability at about 3% body weight of dry matter intake. Dry matter digestibility was highest in Control and lowest in T2(P<0.05). Digestibility of crude protein was lowest(P<0.05) in T2. Dry matter and digestible dry matter intake was similar in all treatments. Daily body weight gain was not affected by treatments. Feeding 15 or 30% of broiler litter to male deer resulted in similar nitrogen intake, fecal nitrogen excretion and daily nitrogen retention(g/d), compared with feeding Control. These results suggest that up to 30% of broiler litter may be fed to male deer without deleterious effects on deer performance.

Effect of Pile Temperature Control on Changes of Nutritional and Microbilological Parameters of Composted Poultry Waste (육계분의 콤포스터 처리시 내부온도 조절이 생산물의 영양학적, 미생물학적 성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Wan-Sup;kim, Tae-Gyu;Kim, Oun-Hyun;Kim, Chagn-Won
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 1996
  • In an attempt to recycle as feed or fertilizer, broiler litter containing rice hull was manually composted under the control of peak temperature of piles(uncontrolled or controlled below $70^{\circ}C$ or below $60^{\circ}C$) in each of three $1.0\;{\times}\;1.0\;{\times}\;1.2m$ dimensional facilities. Changes of nutritional and microbiological parameters were evaluated throughout the 8 weeks of processing period. The initial content of crude protein(29.6%) decreased to 17.8% after 8 weeks of composting. The rapid nitrogen(N) loss observed in the early phase was attributed mainly to non-protein-N(NPN) loss. The initial content of ash(19.1%) increased to $26{\sim}29%$ after 8 weeks. For toxic heavy metals, Cr, Pb, and Hg contents of final composts were far less than the maximum tolerance levels allowed in food or compost. Bacterial growth was rather depressed until the second week, increased thereafter, and reached to peak($10^{12}cfu$ level) at the 4th week of composting. With composting, actinomycetes were active at the level of $10^7\;to\;10^9$. Fungi were active during the first to third week of composting. In general, control of pile temperature below $70^{\circ}C$ did not remarkably alter the nutritional and microbiological parameters of broiler litter compost, compared to that of pile temperature below $60^{\circ}C$. Further researches on prevention from the rapid loss of NPN in the early phase of composting are required for more effective recycling of broiler litter.

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Ruminal Dry Matter and Fiber Characteristics of Rice Hulls-bedded Broiler Litter Compared with Rice Straw

  • Kwak, W.S.;Park, J.M.;Park, K.K.;Kim, W.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2004
  • Ruminal digestion of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of processed (ensiled, deepstacked or composted) broiler litter (BL) was determined in situ and in vitro, and compared with rice straw (RS). DM disappearances at 24 and 48 h and digestion of differently processed BL were higher than those of RS. Compared with RS, processed BL was low in NDF disappearance at 72 h incubation, digestion rate ($K_dB$) and digestibility at 0.025 of passage rate; however, deepstacked BL was similar in these NDF characteristics. Processing of BL affected ruminal digestion of nutrients such as DM and NDF adversely. NDF of composted BL, especially, was the most indigestible. This in situ nutritional evaluation indicated that deepstacked BL, the most widely used form of BL, was superior in DM characteristics (fractions, ruminal disappearance and digestibility) and similar in NDF characteristics (ruminal disappearance and digestibility) to RS.

Effect of Feeding Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration on Production, Economy and Meat Quality of Growing Hanwoo Steers (육계분-제과부산물 혼합사료 급여가 육성 거세 한우의 생산성, 경제성 및 육 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.797-804
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a mixture of broiler litter and bakery by-product on production, economy and meat characteristics of growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers. A control diet (conventional formulated feed and rice straw) and a treatment diet(90% mixture of broiler litter 64% and bakery by-product 36% and 10% rice straw on DM basis) were prepared on an isoenergetic basis and fed to 20 steers for 12 weeks. Palatability of TMR by ‘Hanwoo’ was fair. Compared with feeding a control diet, feeding a treatment diet resulted in increased(P〈0.05) DM intake, similar OM intake, similar daily weight gain(0.75 vs 0.64 kg/d) and feed efficiency of DM(10.1 vs 12.5) and OM(9.0 vs 10.6), considerably(45%) reduced(P〈0.05) feed cost/gain, and similar meat characteristics. These results show that a mixed ration manufactured with broiler litter and bakery by-product may be potentially used for growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers.