• Title/Summary/Keyword: Broiler Litter

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EFFECT OF FEEDING BROILER LITTER ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION BY BARBARI GOAT

  • Nadeem, M.A.;Ali, A.;Azim, A.;Khan, A.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 1993
  • Four isocaloric (68.71, 67.07, 66.68 and 66.25% TDN) and isonitrogenous (12.96, 13.36, 13.36 and 12.96% CP) diets without or with 20, 25 and 30% broiler litter were fed to 20 male kids for 90 days. Weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (p < 0.05) for kids offered control diets as compared to kids fed diets containing broiler litter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the feed intake with increasing level of broiler litter in the diets. Digestibility for organic matter, crude protein and crude fibre were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of broiler litter in the diets, whereas inclusion of broiler litter depressed (p < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter and ash. Nitrogen balance was positive for all diets, however, nitrogen retention decreased (p < 0.01) with the increased level of broiler litter. Blood Na, K, Ca, P and urea-N were within normal range.

Effects of Bedding Materials and Season on the Composition and Production Rate of Broiler Litter as a Nutrient Resource for Ruminants

  • Park, K.K.;Yang, S.Y.;Kim, B.K.;Jung, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2000
  • Broiler litter can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants. Fifty seven litter samples collected from 47 farms in Kyungkee Province of Korea were analyzed to assess the effects of type and amount of bedding (rice hulls vs. sawdust), season (winter vs. summer) and drinkers (bell- vs. trough-type) on composition of broiler litter. Rearing conditions of broilers were also surveyed from the farms to estimate annual production rate of litter. Nutrient composition of broiler litter varied widely and moisture and ash concentrations were higher than observed by other researchers. Ash concentration was higher (p<0.05) for samples taken in winter than in summer and higher (p<0.05) in the rice hulls- than in the sawdust-based litter both in winter and summer. Only minor differences in litter composition were noted between drinkers. Ash was negatively correlated with crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). The estimated litter production rate was 2.7 kg per bird per flock on a wet basis (60% DM) and the annual production rate was 12.7 kg per bird per yr (60% DM). Therefore, the 42 million broilers per month grown in Korea in 1999 produced a total of 533,400 metric tons of litter.

Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter

  • Lee, K.W.;Lillehoj, H.S.;Jang, S.I.;Lee, S.H.;Bautista, D.A.;Siragusa, G.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1592-1597
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    • 2013
  • Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens ${\alpha}$-toxin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in chickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) altered by either the type of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-${\gamma}$, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised.

Influence of Depth of Rice Husk Litter on Broiler Performance, Litter Dampness and its Coccidial Oocyst Population During Winter

  • Mizu, M.M.R.;Chowdhury, S.D.;Karim, M.J.;Debnath, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.450-454
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    • 1998
  • Four groups each containing 48 seven-day-old broiler chicks were reared for 7 weeks during winter on rice husk litter spread to depths of 20, 30, 40 or 50 mm. Broiler performance was evaluated in terms of weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency and production number. Litter dampness was determined and coccidial oocyst populations were counted at different weeks of age. The depth of litter did not significantly affect live weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, liveability or production number. Variation in moisture contents of litter was observed but the coccidial oocysts count per gramme of litter was within the safety level and therefore, there was no outbreak of coccidiosis in any group. Use of rice husk litter at different depths (20 to 50 mm) did not cause any breast blisters or leg abnormalities. It was concluded that rice husk can be used as litter at depths of between 20 and 50 mm during winter to raise broilers without affecting performance characteristics and health of birds.

Effects of Molasses Addition and(or) Pelleting on Nutritional Characteristics of Broiler Litter Processed by Ensiling or Deepstacking and Palatability Improvement by 'Hanwoo' During the Adjustment Period (육계분 혐기 또는 퇴적 발효 사료 제조 시 당밀 첨가 및 펠렛화가 사료영양적 가치 및 사료 적응기의 한우 기호성 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W. S.;Park, J. M.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted in order to determine a proper level of molasses addition through the analysis of changes in appearance, nutritive and silage parameters before and after ensiling or deepstacking of broiler litter, to evaluate the effect of pelleting processed broiler litter and to develop methods to enhance palatability of broiler litter and reduce the adjustment period by ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Molasses addition was effective in ensiling and deepstacking of broiler litter and the proper addition level was about 5%. Changes in nutritive values of broiler litter by ensiling and deepstacking with or without molasses treatment were not great. Adding 5% molasses at deepstacking of broiler litter did not affect(P<0.05) in vitro digestion of dry matter and organic matter. Pelleting of broiler litter resulted in significant(P<0.05) moisture evaporation, organic matter reduction and nearly threefold increase of bulk density. Pelleting or molasses addition of broiler litter improved palatability by ‘Hanwoo’ steers and reduced the adjustment period by half(8-9 d).

Digestion and Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented with Processed Broiler Litter

  • Kwak, W.S.;Fontenot, J.P.;Herbein, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1634-1641
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    • 2003
  • In vivo digestion and metabolism trials were conducted with 10 wethers equipped with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulae to evaluate digestion of ensiled broiler litter (EBL), deepstacked broiler litter (DBL), and composted broiler litter (CBL). Wethers were fed a low protein (6.3% CP) basal diet alone or supplemented to 10.3% CP with EBL, DBL, CBL or soybean meal (SBM). All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic (56% TDN, DM basis). Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, and ADF were not affected (p<0.05) by diet, but digestibility of CP was improved (p<0.05) by N supplementation. Apparent digestibility of CP was lower (p<0.05) for diets supplemented with CBL and DBL than for diets supplemented with SBM and EBL. Ruminal $NH_3$ concentration was 20 to 24 mg/dl at 2 h after feeding litter-supplemented diets compared with 13 mg/dl for SBM. Abomasal N, $NH_3$ N, and nonammonia N flows were increased (p<0.05) by N supplementation, whereas microbial N flow was not influenced (p<0.05) by diet. Compared with SBM and EBL, undegraded dietary CP flow to the abomasum tended to be greater (p<0.1) when wethers were fed DBL and CBLsupplemented diets. Retention of N (g/d) also was greater (p<0.05) due to greater (p<0.05) N intake and lower (p<0.05) urinary N excretion when wethers were fed diets supplemented with litter (especially EBL) vs. SBM. Overall, characteristics of ruminal fermentation and digestion indicated that broiler litter N was utilized efficiently by wethers, but ensiling may be preferable to deepstacking or composting.

Effect of Oiling and Antimicrobial Spray of Litter on Performance of Broiler Chickens Reared on Leaves and Corn Cob Bedding Materials under Heat Stress Conditions

  • Khosravinia, Heshmatollah
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of surface spraying of antimicrobial solutions, oil and application of both on performance of broiler chicken under heat stress and reared on leaves and ground corn cobs as two alternative bedding materials. Six hundred seventy five day-old straightrun Arian broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 45 pens (at density of $0.09m^2/bird$) in an open sided partially-controlled shed. Three bedding materials viz. wood shavings (WS), ground corn cobs (GCC) (1.5 cm in length) and leaves were subjected to surface spraying of oil ($0.4L/m^2$ animal food grade sunflower oil), anti microbial solutions (3%) and mix treatment of both. Data on performance traits, incidence of breast and food pad lesions and litter characteristics were gathered and analysed in an appropriate factorial arrangements. Body weight at 56 d, feed intake up to 14 d, litter moisture at 28 d, litter pH at 14 d and litter temperature at 14 and 56 d were significantly influenced by litter type (p<0.05). Litter treatment revealed significant impact on body weight at 28, 42 and 56 d, feed intake during 29-42 and 1-42 d, mortality up to 56 d, litter temperature at 28 and 56 d, and litter pH at 28 and 56 d. Leaves and ground corn cobs have shown good potential as alternative bedding materials for rearing broilers. Surface spraying of antimicrobial solutions, oil and applying both were not effective tools to promote the broiler's health and performance. Meat type poultry growers and integrators are considered as primary audiences of the results achieved.

Effect of Ensiling Sudax Fodder with Broiler Litter and Candida Yeast on the Changes in pH, Lactic Acid and Nitrogen Fractions

  • Rasool, S.;Gilani, A.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 1997
  • Sudax fodder (Sorghum sudanense ${\times}$ Sorhum vulgare) was ensiled in laboratory silos with or without 20, 30, or 40 percent broiler litter and 6 percent molasses with or without Candida yeast. The samples were analyzed for pH, lactic acid and nitrogen fractions at the start of the experiment and at 5 days interval, thereafter till 40 days. A sharp decline in pH and increase in lactic acid content was observed on fifth day of ensiling. Thereafter, the rate of pH decline decreased till 20 days and that of lactic acid increase till 25 days and the remained constant. Increasing levels of broiler litter had adverse effect on pH drop and lactic acid increase of silages. Total-N content of the silages had little variation throughout the ensiling period. A sharp decline in protein-N and increase in ammonia-N content was observed on day 5 of ensiling. Thereafter, the content of protein-N increased till 20 days and that of ammonia-N decreased till 15 days, but these changes were very small compared to that occurred during the first 5 days of ensiling. The level of broiler litter had inverse relationship with protein degradation and direct relationship with ammonia production. The yeast inoculum failed to produce any significant effect.

On­site Survey on Use as Feed of Broiler Litter in Israel and North America and Its Technology Application (이스라엘과 북미 지역의 육계분 사료화 현장 방문 조사 및 기술 정보의 응용)

  • 곽완섭
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2003
  • This on­site survey was performed by visiting sites in Israel and USA where broiler litter is studied, manufactured as feed and applied practically and interviewing experts related. Their advanced experiences, technologies and informations were collected, analyzed, compared with Korean situations and described on the text of this article. Although broiler litter has been successfully used as feed for at least 40 years in Israel and USA, its practice and application rate of the technologies related has been very slow in Korea. Many informations presented here will be very helpful for the successful on­site application of hygienically processed broiler litter as livestock feed. It's doubtless that these efforts to use broiler litter­like underutilized feed resource will result in considerable livestock production cost cut­down and environmental pollution prevention.

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Effects of Litter Type and Gender on Behavior Characteristics and Growth Performance of Korean Hanhyup Broiler (한국형 한협 육계의 행동 특성과 성장성에 미치는 Litter Type과 Gender의 영향)

  • Yang, Ka Young;Ha, Jae Jung;Roh, Hee-Jong;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Oh, Seung Min;Oh, Dong-Yep
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2019
  • The Korean Hanhyup broiler has commercialized native meat-type chicken. This study aimed to determine the effects of two types of litter material-sawdust and rice husk, and gender on the Korean Hanhyup broiler. Chicks (n=416) were randomly assigned in a $2{\times}2$ factorial design by type of litter material and gender. The behavior of chicken's was monitored continuously for 12 hours during the $1^{st}$ through $8^{th}$ week of age. The time spent on standing, sitting, and walking and the frequency of drinking, feeding, preening, dust bathing, flapping, and aggressive pecking, and pecking of chicken's behavior were recorded. The behavior of chickens during the starter (1 to 4 weeks) and finisher period (5 to 8 weeks) was compared to observe the changes upon maturity. Our results indicate that litter material type and gender have no effect on the behavior of chickens. However, aggressive pecking and pecking caused increment in the rice husk as compared to sawdust (P<0.05). Sawdust as litter material for bedding was found to be better than rice husk with respect to Korean Hanhyup broiler behavior.