The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.
Background: A dense breast not only reduces the sensitivity of mammography but also is a moderate independent risk factor for breast cancer. The percentage of Western women with fat breast tissue is higher aged 40 years or older. To a certain extent, mammography as a first choice of screening imaging method for Western women of this group is reasonable. Hitherto, the frequency and age distribution of mammographic breast density patterns among Chinese women had not been characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and age distribution of mammographic breast density patterns among a group of Chinese screening women and breast cancer patients in order to provide useful information for age-specific guidelines for breast cancer screening in Chinese women. Methods: A retrospective review of a total of 3,394 screening women between August and December 2009 and 2,527 breast cancer patients between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. The significance of differences of breast density between the screening women and the breast cancer patients was examined using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density overall (r=-0.37, p< 0.01). Breast density of the breast cancer patients in the subgroups of 40-49 years old was greater compared with that of the screening women, the same in those aged 50-54 years and in those 55 years old or older, less than in the screening group. Conclusions: With regard to the Chinese women younger than 55 years old, the diagnostic efficiency of breast cancer screening imaging examinations may be potentially improved by combining screening mammography with ultrasound.
Roder, David;Webster, Fleur;Zorbas, Helen;Sinclair, Sue
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people comprise about 2.5% of the Australian population. Cancer registry data indicate that their breast cancer survivals are lower than for other women but the completeness and accuracy of Indigenous descriptors on registries are uncertain. We followed women receiving mammography screening in BreastScreen to determine differences in screening experiences and survivals from breast cancer by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, as recorded by BreastScreen. This status is self-reported and used in BreastScreen accreditation, and is considered to be more accurate. The study included breast cancers diagnosed during the period of screening and after leaving the screening program. Design: Least square regression models were used to compare screening experiences and outcomes adjusted for age, geographic remoteness, socio-economic disadvantage, screening period and round during 1996-2005. Survival of breast cancer patients from all causes and from breast cancer specifically was compared for the 1991-2006 diagnostic period using linked cancer-registry data. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for socio-demographic differences, screening period, and where available, tumour size, nodal status and proximity of diagnosis to time of screen. Results: After adjustment for socio-demographic differences and screening period, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women participated less frequently than other women in screening and re-screening although this difference appeared to be diminishing; were less likely to attend post-screening assessment within the recommended 28 days if recalled for assessment; had an elevated ductal carcinoma in situ but not invasive cancer detection rate; had larger breast cancers; and were more likely than other women to be treated by mastectomy than complete local excision. Linked cancer registry data indicated that five-year year survivals of breast cancer cases from all causes of death were 81% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, compared with 90% for other women, and that the former had larger breast cancers that were more likely to have nodal spread at diagnosis. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, tumour size, nodal spread and time from last screen to diagnosis, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women had approximately twice the risk of death from breast cancer as other women. Conclusions: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have less favourable screening experiences and those diagnosed with breast cancer (either during the screening period or after leaving the screening program) have lower survivals that persist after adjustment for socio-demographic differences, tumour size and nodal status.
Donnelly, Tam Truong;Al Khater, Al-Hareth;Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum;Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith;Al-Meer, Nabila;Malik, Mariam;Singh, Rajvir;Jong, Floor Christie-De
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.
Background: It is important to understand the perceptions of oncologists to understand the comprehensive picture of clinical presentation of breast cancer. In the absence of clear evidence, clinical practice involving patients of breast cancer in India should provide insights into stages of breast cancer with which women present to their clinics and mode of screening of breast cancer prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted to understand the perceptions of oncologists regarding clinical presentation of breast cancer, stages at which women present to clinics, and mode of screening of breast cancer prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with ten practising oncologists from various public and private cancer hospitals in Hyderabad city to understand their perspectives on breast cancer and screening. The data were triangulated to draw inferences suitable for the current public Health scenario. Results: Late presentation was indicated as the most important cause of decreased survival among women. Most women present at Stage 3 and 4 when there is no opportunity for surgical intervention. The results indicate that there is a huge gap in awareness about breast cancer, especially in rural areas and among poor socioeconomic groups. Even despite knowledge, most women delay in reporting due to reasons like fear, embarrassment, cost, ignorance, negligence, and easy going attitude. Conclusions: It is important to improve awareness about breast cancer and screening methods for promoting early screening. The study inferred that it would be beneficial to establish cancer registries in rural areas. Also, the policymakers need to make key decisions which among three methods (breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination and mammography) can best be used as a screening tool and how to successfully implement population wide screening program to prevent mortality and morbidity from breast cancer in India.
Subramanian, Pathmawathi;Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma;Masri, Azimah Mohd;Taib, Nur Aishah;Ahmad, Nora
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Breast cancer is the commonest type of cancer among women, and in Malaysia 50-60% of the new cases are being detected at late stages. Do age, education level, income, ethnicity, relationship with breast cancer patients and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors influence breast screening practices? This study revealed interesting but significant differences. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and early detection measures among women in a high risk group. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey of one hundred and thirty one women relatives of breast cancer patients was carried out. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, during hospital visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The majority of the respondents (71%) had poor knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. Income, relationship with a patient and practise of breast cancer screening predicted performance of mammography, $R^2$=0.467, F=12.568, p<0.0001. Conclusions: The finding shows inadequate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and poor cancer screening practise among women with family history of breast cancer. Poor knowledge and practise of breast screening are likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer disease. Some important predictors of breast cancer screening behaviour among women with positive family history of breast cancer were identified. An understanding of the strengths and significance of the association between these factors and breast screening behaviour is vital for developing more targeted breast health promotion.
This study was aimed at preparing basic data required for establishment of a cancer screening program by examining the status of cancer screenings performed by women in a city and the factors that had an influence on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior of women. In order to find out the status of cervical and breast cancers screening and the factors having an influence on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior, 1,113 women were selected as study area and subjects by a random cluster sampling method, and the subjects were answered by questionnaires. The major results were as follows: 1. In the cases of the breast and the cervical cancers, 16.7% and 55.7% of the subjects turned out to have had one or more screenings respectively in their life-time. Also the rate of screening group of cervical and breast cancers was 16.7%, the rate of screening group of only cervical cancer was 38.9%, and the rate of non-screening group was 44.4%. 2. As to the screening pattern of cervical and breast cancer, there were significantly for age, income, occupation, married status, spouse, the factors associated with health promotion (doctor visiting, exercising), married age, number of children, and breast feeding(p〈0.05). 3. The factors associated with screening behaviors for cervical and breast cancers were age, income, occupation, married status, doctor visiting, exercising, married age, number of children, and breast feeding(p〈0.05). Based on the above-mentioned results obtained by this study, it was anticipated that this study may be playa vital role as basic data for the development and execution of cervical and breast cancers screening program for women in a community. And the analysis, done on the basis of the status of the cancer screening, of the influence factors on cervical and breast cancers screening behavior showed that for the development of a cancer screening program, the factors like age, social-economic class, married status, health promotion behavior, and reproductive characteristics should be considered.
Dahlui, Maznah;Gan, Daniel Eng Hwee;Taib, Nur Aishah;Pritam, Ranjit;Lim, Jennifer
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Introduction: Despite health education efforts to educate women on breast cancer and breast cancer screening modalities, the incidence of breast cancer and presentation at an advanced stage are still a problem in Malaysia. Objectives: To determine factors associated with the uptake of breast cancer screening among women in the general population. Methods: This pre-intervention survey was conducted in a suburban district. All households were approached and women aged 20 to 60 years old were interviewed with pre-tested guided questionnaires. Variables collected included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on breast cancer and screening practice of breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: 41.5% of a total of 381 respondents scored above average; the mean knowledge score on causes and risks factors of breast cancer was 3.41 out of 5 (SD1.609). 58.5% had ever practiced BSE with half of them performing it at regular monthly intervals. Uptake of CBE by nurses and by doctors was 40.7% and 37.3%, respectively. Mammogram uptake was 14.6%. Significant predictors of BSE were good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.654, 95% CI: 1.033-6.816), being married (OR=2.213, 95% CI: 1.201-4.076) and attending CBE (OR=1.729, 95% CI: 1.122-2.665). Significant predictors for CBE included being married (OR=2.161, 95% CI: 1.174-3.979), good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.286, 95% CI: 1.012-5.161), and social support for breast cancer screening (OR=2.312, 95% CI: 1.245-4.293). Women who had CBE were more likely to undergo mammographic screening of the breast (OR=5.744, 95% CI: 2.112-15.623), p<0.005. Conclusion: CBE attendance is a strong factor in promoting BSE and mammography, educating women on the importance of breast cancer screening and on how to conduct BSE. The currently opportunistic conduct of CBE should be extended to active calling of women for CBE.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a breast cancer screening educational program on women's knowledge and intention to seek breast cancer screening in Taiwan. Materials and Method: This study describes the knowledge and intention of breast cancer screening changes during the period pre and post group education. A pre-test and post-test were used in both the experimental and the control groups. A convenience sampling was used. Two structured questionnaires were used. Results: The mean knowledge of breast cancer screening scores (pre-test and post-test) of the experimental group participants were 12.6 and 14.0. Then the mean knowledge of breast cancer screening scores (pre-test and post-test) of the control group participants were 11.8 and 12.1. The mean intention of breast cancer screening scores (pre-test and post-test) of the experimental group participants were 11.4 and 13.5. And the mean intention of breast cancer screening scores (pre-test and post-test) of the control group participants were 11.6 and 12.4. An independent-t test was applied to examine the differences among the two groups, revealing that the average post-test knowledge score differ significantly between the two groups (t =4.18, p<.00); and the post-test intention also demonstrate a marked statistical difference (t = 2.07, p<.05). A paired-t test was applied to examine the differences of each group, revealing that the total average scores of the experimental group participants on the knowledge of breast cancer screening scale clearly differ statistically (t =-5.54, p<.00); and the pre-test and post-test intention testing also demonstrate a marked statistical difference (t =-7.70, p<.00). Conclusions: These findings are helpful in understanding the knowledge and intention of breast cancer screening changes during the period pre and post group education. It is expected that these results can offer a reference for clinical breast cancer prevention.
A cross-sectional survey of 370 female teachers working at Governmental schools in Gaza city was conducted. Twenty four schools were selected randomly of all female schools of the city that included primary, preparatory and secondary. In each school all-female teachers aged 35-45 year were invited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire to investigate knowledge and behavior toward breast cancer screening. The survey revealed that more than 75% of women had never undergone clinical breast examination and 60% had never undergone mammography, whereas 62% performed breast self-examination (BSE). Women who performed BSE had significantly higher knowledge about breast cancer screening (P=0.001). Women attending CBE and mammography screening also had significantly higher knowledge (P=0.001). There were significant associations between the practices and presence of positive breast cancer family history (P=0.002) and the level of education of husbands (P=0.024). The oldest women demonstrated higher performance rates of screening methods than the youngest (P=0.001). Lack of breast screening knowledge was identified among more than one third of the women, and 24.6% of women did not know any screening method. About a half of women harboured misconceptions about breast cancer screening, including the belief that breast cancer not treatable. Women residing in Gaza city (P=0.00) and with husbands less educated were more likely to have a high level of misconceptions (P=0.01).
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.