• Title/Summary/Keyword: Breakfast

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Effect of School Breakfast Service on Attitudes Toward Breakfast and School Breakfast of Male Middle School Students (학교 아침급식이 남자 중학생의 아침식사 및 아침급식에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yi, Ga-Jin;Yoon, Ji-Hyun;Choo, Yun-Jeong;Chung, Sang-Jin;Kwon, Young-Hye
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to analyze the effect of male middle school students' eating school breakfast on their attitudes toward breakfast and school breakfast. In addition, the effect of school breakfast on breakfast-related eating behaviors and academic achievement was investigated. The study subjects were selected from a male middle school located in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Breakfast was provided at the school for 7 weeks during the 2nd semester of the year 2006. Two sophomore classes were selected for the experimental study. All the students from one class (n = 34; School Breakfast Eaters) have eaten school breakfast while none of the students from the other class (n = 33; School Breakfast Non-eaters) have done so. About two weeks after the school breakfast service was terminated, questionnaires were distributed to the two classes and the responses were analyzed. The results showed that School Breakfast Eaters had more positive attitudes toward breakfast and school breakfast than School Breakfast Non-eaters. In addition, School Breakfast Eaters perceived the positive effect of eating breakfast on their school life more highly than School Breakfast Non-eaters. However there was no significant difference between the two groups in their breakfast eating behaviors in terms of breakfast skipping when the breakfast service was not available. No significant difference was found between the two groups with regards to math score variation before and after school breakfast service. In conclusion, school breakfast for 7 weeks had positive effects on male middle school students' attitudes toward breakfast and school breakfast, although the effect was not confirmed in their breakfast-related eating behaviors after the school breakfast service was terminated

A Study of Teachers' Breakfast and Ideal Breakfast Types (교사들의 아침식사행동 및 이상적 아침식사 유형을 위한 연구)

  • 황혜선;이진실
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.575-586
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    • 1999
  • We studied teachers' breakfast habits and their preferences on various breakfast types so that we will furnish data to nutrition education including ideal breakfast habit and development of various menus. The meal considered as most importantly were dinner (66.2%), fellowed by lunch(21.6%), all three meals(6.4%) and breakfast(5.8%). Men considered breakfast more importantly than women. On the contrary, women considered dinner more significantly compared to men. The group aged 45 and over emphasized breakfast and all three meal. 78.1% of subjects answered that breakfast is necessary and 61.5% of subjects ate breakfast regularly. Those who have breakfast regularly was lower in women(50.0%) than in men(71.3%). Instead, those who eat breakfast irregularly or skipping it was higher among women(50.0%) than among men(29.7%). The percentages of having breakfast regularly was higher in older groups. For breakfast, 82.1% of subjects had conventional meal which included rice, soup and Kimch. On the other hand, 13.9% of subjects had Western style breakfast such as bread, cornflakes and milk. The major reason for eating breakfast regularly was answered as 'maintain health(71.8%)'. The major reason for eating breakfast irregularly or skipping was 'don't have enough time to eat(48.0%)', 'poor appetite(28.6%)'. The major physical discomfort after skipping breakfast was 'experience brash(35.6%)', 'lack of physical strength(35.1%)'. Subjects answered that breakfast served as 'source of physical strength(64.9%)', 'provides nutritional balance for a day(21.1%)' and 15.0% of subjects ate out breakfast. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers as well as school children be provided breakfast and snack in school. The preference and opinion regarding breakfast types wer conventional food including rice, soup and Kimch(67.0%). There was a little preference in Western style food such as bread, milk and coffee(14.3%), cereals mixture and porridge(10.7%). It was noticeable that 49.1% of females and those who reside in Seoul(42.2%) selected various breakfast types excluding conventional food. Therefore it will be accepted to working women as breakfast if it is nutritionally balanced and cook well in short time.

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Relationship between Nutrient Intake and Biochemical Index with Breakfast Eating in Korean Adults: Analysis of Data from the 2007 National Health and Nutrition Survey (아침식사 섭취에 따른 성인들의 영양 및 혈액지표 연구 - 2007년 국민건강영양조사 자료 분석 -)

  • Lee, Seok-Hwa;Chung, Sang-Jin;Choi, Kyung-Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 2011
  • We examined the relationship between breakfast eating, nutrient intake, and health outcomes using dietary intake, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements in Korean adults. Data from the 2007 National Health and Nutrition Survey were obtained, and 2,514 adults aged 20 to 64 years were analyzed. The prevalence of skipping breakfast, using a 24-hour diet recall, was 54.5% in the 20-29 age group, 31.2% in the 30-49 age group, and 19.2% in the 50-64 age group. In the 20-29 age group, waist circumstance and serum cholesterol were significantly higher in breakfast skippers than in breakfast eaters. In the 30-49 age group, breakfast skippers had higher triglyceride levels than breakfast eaters. Energy intake of breakfast skippers in every age group was significantly lower than that of breakfast eaters. Furthermore, in the 20-29 and 30-49 age groups, the percent of energy from carbohydrates in breakfast skippers was significantly lower than that of breakfast eaters, whereas the percent of energy from lipids in breakfast skippers was significantly higher than that of breakfast eaters. Additionally, in the 20-29 and 30-49 age groups, breakfast eaters showed higher carbohydrate and iron intake per 1,000 kcal than breakfast skippers and lower lipid intake per 1,000 kcal than that of breakfast skippers. Breakfast skippers showed intakes of less nutrients than EAR was higher than breakfast eaters except vitamin B2 and calcium intake in males of the 20-29 age group. In conclusion, nutrition education, and policy should be implemented to teach the importance of breakfast, appropriate dietary intake, and proper food choice for each age group.

Effects of Skipping Breakfast on Nutrition Status, Fatigue Level, and Attention Level among Middle School Students in Gyunggi Province, Korea (아침 결식이 경기지역 남녀 중학생의 영양섭취상태, 피로자각도 및 주의집중력에 미치는 영향)

  • Yim, Kyeong Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.464-475
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    • 2014
  • Eating breakfast provides crucial nutrition for brain function and helps promote overall health. It is especially critical in growing adolescents, as it is known to form good eating habits and better study habits. This study investigated the effects of skipping breakfast on nutritional state, fatigue level, and attention level. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on total of 828 adolescents composed of 414 boys and 414 girls. Students who ate breakfast never to twice per week were placed in the breakfast-skipper group while students who ate breakfast more than five times per week were included in the breakfast-eater group. Students performed a self-reported questionnaire on food behaviors, amount of food consumption, fatigue level, attention deficient hyperactivity disease (ADHD) level by Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scales, depression scale, and self-esteem level. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SAS program (version 9.1). A total of 135 boys (32.6%) and 138 girls (33.3%) were included in the breakfast-skipper group, whereas 241 boys (58.2%) and 223 girls (53.9%) were included in the breakfast-eater group. The breakfast-skipper group showed irregular food behaviors and lacked nutrients. Specifically, energy (p< .001), protein (p< .001), dietary fiber (p< .001), calcium (p< .01), vitamin A (p< .01), thiamin (p< .05), niacin (p< .001) levels in boy breakfast-skippers were statistically lower compared to boy breakfast-eaters. Intakes of all nutrients except fat in girl breakfast-skippers were statistically lower than in girl breakfast-eaters. Girl breakfast-skippers (41.3%) showed significantly higher fatigue risks compared to girl breakfast-eaters (21.5%). Low attention level was also observed only in girls in the breakfast-skipping group. Moreover, students in the breakfast-skipper group showed higher scores for depression and low self-esteem (p< .001). In conclusion, skipping breakfast has effects on young adolescents' nutrition, manifesting as high fatigue level and low attention level, especially in girls.

Factor related to regularity of breakfast of middle school students (중학생들의 아침식사 규칙성과 관련요인)

  • Park, Jong;Ryu, Yeon-So;Kang, Myeong-Guen;Min, Soon;Kim, Hye-Sook;Kim, Eun-A
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.89-103
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study is descriptive research that confirms regularity of breakfast and related factor. Methods : The duration for investigation took place from April to May 2007 and 550 middle students of 6 middle school who lived in G city participated in investigation. The contents of the questionnaire consist of general trait, diet trait, life pattern and health state. Results : The significant variables of regularity of breakfast habit have some gender differences. For male students, recognition of importance of the breakfast, breakfast preparer, spare time before attendance and one's parents' breakfast habit are significant variables. On the other hand, for female students, recognition of importance of the breakfast, breakfast preparer and an income level are significant variables(p<.05). For male students, the cross ratio has 3.52 for recognition of importance of breakfast, 2.72 for one's parents' breakfast habit, 2.05 and 3.13 when one's mother prepare breakfast. For female students, the cross ratio is 3.24 score when one's mother prepare breakfast. Conclusion : The regularity of breakfast habits is related to recognition of importance of breakfast, mother's breakfast preparation and his or her parents'breakfast habit. It is necessary to propose the importance of breakfast to improve the regularity of breakfast habit and concern of parents for breakfast.

Status of Children's Breakfast Skipping and Their Mothers' Needs for Breakfast Service at Child Care Centers (관악구 보육시설 이용 유아의 아침결식 여부에 따른 식생활 특성 및 보육시설 아침급식에 대한 어머니의 니즈)

  • Lee, Ki-Won;Yoon, Ji-Hyun;Shim, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.682-692
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of children's breakfast skipping and their mothers' needs for breakfast service at child care centers. A survey was conducted with mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years and attending child care centers in Gwanak-gu, Seoul. Out of 960 questionnaires distributed to the caregivers at 32 child care centers, 633 were returned (66% response rate), and 449 were analyzed (47% analysis rate) after excluding data from the respondents not meeting the selection criteria for this study: mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years. Over 2/3 (69%) of children ate breakfast every weekday (Breakfast Eaters) and almost 1/3 (31%) of children skipped breakfast one time or more often on weekdays (Breakfast Skippers). The collected data were compared between Breakfast Eaters and Breakfast Skippers. The average Good Dietary Practice Score of Breakfast Skippers was significantly lower than that of Breakfast Eaters, implying poorer dietary habits. A higher percentage of mothers of Breakfast Skippers (62%) responded that breakfast service was 'necessary' or 'very necessary' at child care centers than those of Breakfast Eaters (27%). A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors affecting mothers' needs for breakfast service at child care centers. The result showed that the children's ages, mothers' occupational status, household monthly income, frequencies of eating breakfast on weekdays and satisfaction level with morning snack provided at child care centers affected mothers' needs for breakfast service at child care centers. In particular, mothers who had a full-time job (OR = 2.06) than housewives, mothers whose children did not eat breakfast at al (OR = 3.54), ate $1{\sim}2$ times (OR = 5.50) or ate $3{\sim}4$ times (OR = 3.80) on weekdays than those whose children ate breakfast every weekday were more likely to have needs for breakfast service at child care centers than housewives. In conclusion, Breakfast Skippers tended to have poorer dietary habits than Breakfast Eaters and Full-time working mothers had higher needs for breakfast service at child care centers. This study results suggest that child care centers consider serving breakfast to children as the number of working mothers increases.

A Study of Female College Students' Behavior and Ideal Breakfast Types -II. Dining-out Behavior of Breakfast and Preference on Breakfast Menu- (여대생의 아침식사 실태와 이상적 아침식사 유형을 위한 연구 -II. 아침식사 외식양상과 아침식단에 대한 기호도-)

  • Lee, Jin-Sil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.466-474
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the dining-out behavior of breakfast and preference on the menu of female college students. 500 questionnaires were distributed and 417 were used for statistical analysis(SAS program). This survey was conducted from June, 2000 to October, 2000. 72.8% of the respondents thought there were problems in eating breakfast. The problems were 'skipping breakfast frequently(33.1%)', 'short eating time(20.9%)', 'simple menu(18.8%)'. Preference of dining-out breakfast menus were 'bread & milk(43.8%)', 'conventional menu(34.7%)', 'snack(15.5%)', soup or 'porridge(6.0%)'. A general preference of breakfast menus were conventional (63.7%), 'bread & milk(21.1%)', 'milk and breakfast cereal(8.7%)', 'soup or porridge(6.5%)'. Increase on the amount of monthly allowance decreased the preference of conventional type of breakfast(P<0.05). The questions about the breakfast were 'what is the best menus for breakfast(49.2%)', 'alternative to rice(17.1%)', 'the amounts of breakfast(12.1%)'. But there was no significant difference among these variables. In conclusion, development of convenient & well-balanced breakfast model and nutritional education are needed to increase the nutritional status of female college students.

Eating Out Status according to Skipping and Type of Breakfast among Male High School Students in Incheon (인천지역 남자 고등학생의 아침식사의 결식 유무와 식사유형별 외식 실태)

  • Choi, Eun-Jin;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.102-111
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The frequency of eating out among adolescents seems to be connected to a high rate of skipping breakfast and be interrelated to various nutritional problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits of breakfast and eating out and investigate their relationships in male adolescents. Methods: This study conducted a cross-sectional survey. Dietary habits and eating out status were surveyed among 510 male students at a high school in Incheon and compared according to their breakfast skipping and breakfast type. Results: The percentages of subjects in the breakfast skipping group and breakfast group were 41.0% and 59.0%, respectively, and the breakfast group comprised a Korean meal group (74%) and a convenience meal group (26%). In the breakfast skipping group, the percentage of subjects buying and eating snacks due to hunger was 39.7%. Reasons for eating breakfast among subjects who ate breakfast were because parents prepared breakfast (41.9%) and out of habit (31.5%) in the Korean meal group, in contrast to because parents prepared breakfast (36.7%) and due to hunger (29.1%) in the convenience meal group (P < 0.001). Breakfast preparer was mother (91.4%) in the Korean meal group, in contrast to mother (67.1%) and self (20.3%) in the convenience meal group (P < 0.001). A high proportion of the breakfast group woke up at 07~07:30 or 06:30-07, whereas a high proportion of the breakfast skipping group woke up at 07~07:30 or after 07:30, showing a significant difference according to breakfast skipping (P < 0.001). A high proportion of the breakfast group spent 10,000 won (32.5%) a week eating out while a high proportion of the breakfast skipping group spent 20,000 won or more (28.2%), showing a significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions: About 40% of male high school students skipped breakfast and consumed snacks as a solution after breakfast skipping. The students who skipped breakfast spent more money on eating out. These results show that breakfast status may be related to eating out. Therefore, practical education on food choice and meal preparation along with regular breakfast instruction is needed in male adolescents.

Assessment of Skipping Breakfast among Korean Children and Adolescents Aged 7-18 Years Using Various Alternate Definitions (다양한 기준으로 평가한 초중고 학생의 아침결식률)

  • Choe, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Yang-Sook;Park, Young-Hee;Kim, Hang-Ran;Kwon, Sung-Ok
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2008
  • Even though eating breakfast is an important factor in health and nutrition, especially during growth stages, skipping breakfast in children and adolescents has increased. An important issue to consider in skipping breakfast is the definition of an adequate or substantial breakfast. To examine what constitutes an adequate breakfast in Korean students, we analyzed breakfast consumption of children and adolescents using alternate definitions of breakfast based on calorie contents and food items eaten in the morning. A total of 1344 participants aged 7-18 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHNS) 1998 and 1942 participants from the KNHNS 2001 were included. 84% of students surveyed in 1998 consumed some food, while in 2001; it was down to 79.8%. Students that ate a breakfast which included food from at least two of the main five food groups and had a breakfast intake of food energy greater than 15% of the DRIs were 65.8% in 1998 and 53.1% in 2001. However, when breakfast was defined as the consumption of food from three or more food groups and a intake of food energy greater than 15% of the DRIs, students eating breakfast were 51.2% in 1998 and 39.6% in 2001. As the definition of eating breakfast becomes stricter and includes more foods or more calories, the percentage of students who eat breakfast declines. These results show that using various alternate definitions allow us to assess skipping breakfast in better detail and suggest references for the desirable breakfast.

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A Survey on the Breakfast Skipping Rate of Korean Adults Relative to Their Lifestyle and Breakfast Skipping Reasons and Dietary Behavior of Breakfast Skippers (일부 성인에서 라이프스타일에 따른 아침 결식률과 아침결식자의 결식 원인 및 식행동에 관한 조사)

  • Yun, Sun-Ju;Jeong, Hye-Ryeon;Kim, Mi-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.191-205
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the rates and reasons for breakfast skipping according to gender, age, and lifestyle related factors in Korean adults. The survey was conducted using questionnaires and the subjects included 1148 male and female adults aged 19-64. The rate of breakfast skipping (frequency of eating breakfast under 4 times/week) was 41.20% of the total subjects. The breakfast skipping rate of the male subjects was significantly higher than that of the female subjects (p < 0.001). As age and household income decreased, the breakfast skipping rate increased. Residents in small cities more frequently skipped breakfast than those in larger cities. The main reason for breakfast skipping was "lack of time for the preparation and consumption of food" and this reason was especially higher for office workers and younger adults among the participants. In addition, the proportion of habitual breakfast skippers increased with age. Among the answers regarding the person who prepares breakfast in their households, the highest proportion was for "family members" in the males and "myself" for the females. Of breakfast skippers, 77.63% answered that they consumed breakfast substitutes such as breads, dairy and fruits/vegetables. To summarize the results, the gender, age and lifestyle factors of adults were significantly related to the rates and reasons for breakfast skipping. Therefore, to reduce breakfast skipping in Korean adults, a differentiated nutritional education approach relative to gender, age, and lifestyle is needed along with the development of balanced breakfast substitutes.