• Title/Summary/Keyword: Brachytherapy

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Options in Intracoronary Radiation Therapy (관동맥혈관 내 방사선 근접 치료: 치료 방법의 비교와 선택)

  • Moon, Dae-Hyuk;Oh, Seung-Jun;Lee, Hee-Kyung;Yi, Byong-Yong;Kim, Eun-Hee;Park, Seong-Wook
    • 대한핵의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.209-221
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    • 1999
  • Coronary restenosis is still regarded as Achilles' Hill of interventional cardiology despite relentless efforts of many investigators. Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that both gamma and beta radiation can reduce restenosis after angioplasty. Currently, intracoronary brachytherapy for the prevention of restenosis has become a new evolving treatment modality in interventional cardiology. This report discusses a physical aspect of gamma and beta radiation, initial clinical results and delivery systems used in intracoronary brachytherapy. We shall take a brief overview of methods and their advantages in intra-coronary brachytherapy. Future work should provide further insight for the best way of treating restenosis.

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Evaluation Absorbed Dose During the Breast Cancer Brachytherapy in Canine Phantom (반려견 팬텀에서 유방암 근접방사선치료 시 흡수선량 평가)

  • Kim, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Deuk-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2020
  • The application of breast cancer, which has the highest incidence in females among cancer that is the number one cause of death for dogs, was to be evaluated the absorbed dose during brachytherapy using simulation. MCNPX program was used for simulation, and a small size canine phantom was produced to measure absorbed dose. The results of the absorbed dose was the highest at 192Ir to 1.02E-12 Gy/# for tumors, and the same tendency was shown for internal and external absorbed dose. Therefore, the selection of appropriate sources for dog breast cancer should be considered in brachytherapy, taking into account dog breeds and exposures.

Conceptual Source Design and Dosimetric Feasibility Study for Intravascular Treatment: A Proposal for Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy (혈관내 방사선치료를 위한 이론적 선원 설계 및 선량적 관점에서의 적합성 연구: 출력변조를 이용한 근접치료에 대한 제안)

  • Kim Siyong;Han Eunyoung;Palta Jatinder R.;Ha Sung W.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.158-166
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To propose a conceptual design of a novel source for intensity modulated brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The source design incorporates both radioactive and shielding materials (stainless steel or tungsten), to provide an asymmetric dose intensity in the azimuthal direction. The intensity modulated intravascular brachytherapy was performed by combining a series of dwell positions and times, distributed along the azimuthal coordinates. Two simple designs for the beta-emitting sources, with similar physical dimensions to a $^{90}Sr/Y$ Novoste Beat-Cath source, were considered in the dosimetric feasibility study. In the first design, the radioactive and materials each occupy half of the cylinder and in the second, the radioactive material occupies only a quater of the cylinder. The radial and azimuthal dose distributions around each source were calculated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. Results: The preliminary hypothetical simulation and optimization results demonstrated the 87$\%$ difference between the maximum and minimum doses to the lumen wall, due to off-centering of the radiation source, could be reduced to less than 7$\%$ by optimizing the azimuthal dwell positions and times of the partially shielded intravascular brachytherapy sources. Conclusion: The novel brachytherapy source design, and conceptual source delivery system, proposed in this study show promising dosimetric characteristics for the realization of intensity modulated brachytherapy in intravascular treatment. Further development of this concept will center on building a delivery system that can precisely control the angular motion of a radiation source in a small-diameter catheter.

Result of Radiotherapy in Non-metastatic Esophageal Cancer (원격전이의 증거가 없는 식도암의 방사선치료 성적)

  • Chai, Gyu-Young;Jang, Jeong-Soon;Lee, Jong-Seok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : This study was done to evaluate preliminarily the role of intraluminal brachytherapy in the radiation treatment of non-metastatic esophageal cancer, Materials and Methods: We analyzed follow-up result of 21 patients treated at the dept. of therapeutic radiology in Gyeongsang national university hospital between April, 1989 and August, 1992. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy(5-FU, Cispl-atin). Fifteen Patients were treated with external beam alone, and in remaining 6 patients, the external beam radiotherapy followed by intraluminal brachytherapy was done. Results : Among 21 patients, 7 patients showed complete tumor regression after completion of radiotherapy. But 2 of these complete responder recurred at the site of primary disease, so ultimate local control rate was $23.8\%$(5/21). Local control rate according to radiation treatment modality was $6.7\%$(1/15) in patients treaed with external irradiation only, and $66.7\%$ in patients treated with combined external irradiation and intraluminal brachytherapy. The 2 year NED survival rate was $6.6.\%$ in the former and $66.7\%$ in the latter. Conclusion: Although there should be consideration about case selection for addition of intraluminal brachytherapy intraluminal brachytherapy may be considerded as one of the method to enhance the local control probability of esophageal cancer.

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Development of a Pelvic Phantom for Dose Verification in High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy

  • Jang, Ji-Na;Suh, Tae-Suk;Huh, Soon-Nyung;Kim, Hoi-Nam;Yoon, Sei-Chul;Lee, Hyoung-Koo;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.150-153
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    • 2002
  • High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the treatment of cervix carcinoma has become popular, because it eliminated many of the problems with conventional brachytherapy. In order to improve clinical effectiveness with HDR brachytherapy, dose calculation algorithm, optimization procedures, and image registrations should be verified by comparing the dose distributions from a planning computer and those from a humanoid phantom irradiated. Therefore, the humanoid phantom should be designed such that the dose distributions could be quantitatively evaluated by utilizing the dosimeters with high spatial resolution. Therefore, the small size of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips with the dimension of 1/8" and film dosimetry with spatial resolution of <1mm used to measure the radiation dosages in the phantom. The humanoid phantom called a pelvic phantom is made of water and tissue-equivalent acrylic plates. In order to firmly hold the HDR applicators in the water phantom, the applicators are inserted into the grooves of the applicator supporters. The dose distributions around the applicators, such as Point A and B, can be measured by placing a series of TLD chips (TLD-to- TLD distance: 5mm) in three TLD holders, and placing three verification films in orthogonal planes.

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Vaginal Dose, Toxicity and Sexual Outcomes in Patients of Cervical Cancer Undergoing Image Based Brachytherapy

  • Rai, Bhavana;Dhanireddy, Bhaswanth;Patel, Firuza Darius;Kumari, Reena;Oinam, Arun Singh;Simha, Vijai;Sharma, Suresh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3619-3623
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the vaginal dose and toxicity in patients of cervical cancer treated with image guided brachytherapy at our institute. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients treated with image based brachytherapy for cervical cancer were included. Vaginal contouring was done on MRI at brachytherapy and with CT scans of subsequent brachytherapy fractions. Dose volume parameters (DVH) were reported in accordance with the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. These were correlated with vaginal toxicity (assessed by CTCAE version 3) and quality of sexual life assessed at one year of completion of treatment. Results: Vaginal shortness was observed in 22 out of 30 (62.8%) patients, Nine (25.7%) had vaginal dryness and in 10 (28.5%) patients, there was contact bleeding. No association could be demonstrated between the dose volume parameters and vaginal toxicity in the present study. Conclusions: The lack of association between dose volume parameters of vagina with vaginal morbidity may be due to uncertainties involved in the delineation of vaginal wall and dosimetry. Future research is required to accurately define vaginal dose distribution to study its correlation with vaginal morbidity. Vaginal morbidity needs to be documented in order to improve the sexual outcome in these patients.

Clinical outcome of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy in patients with oral cavity cancer

  • Lee, Sung Uk;Cho, Kwan Ho;Moon, Sung Ho;Choi, Sung Weon;Park, Joo Yong;Yun, Tak;Lee, Sang Hyun;Lim, Young Kyung;Jeong, Chi Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) in patients with oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with oral cavity cancer treated with HDR remote-control afterloading brachytherapy using $^{192}Ir$ between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Brachytherapy was administered in 11 patients as the primary treatment and in five patients as salvage treatment for recurrence after the initial surgery. In 12 patients, external beam radiotherapy (50-55 Gy/25 fractions) was combined with IBT of 21 Gy/7 fractions. In addition, IBT was administered as the sole treatment in three patients with a total dose of 50 Gy/10 fractions and as postoperative adjuvant treatment in one patient with a total of 35 Gy/7 fractions. Results: The 5-year overall survival of the entire group was 70%. The actuarial local control rate after 3 years was 84%. All five recurrent cases after initial surgery were successfully salvaged using IBT ${\pm}$ external beam radiotherapy. Two patients developed local recurrence at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after IBT. The acute complications were acceptable (${\leq}grade$ 2). Three patients developed major late complications, such as radio-osteonecrosis, in which one patient was treated by conservative therapy and two required surgical intervention. Conclusion: HDR IBT for oral cavity cancer was effective and acceptable in diverse clinical settings, such as in the cases of primary or salvage treatment.

Short-term Results of Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Malignant Airway Obstructions (악성 기도 폐쇄에 대한 기관내 근접 조사 방사선치료의 단기 임상 경험)

  • Ahn Yong Chan;Lim Do Hoon;Choi Dong Rak;Kim Moon Kyung;Kim Dae Yong;Huh Seung Jae;Kim Ho Joong;Chung Man Pyo;Kwon O Jung;Rhee Chong Heon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 1996
  • Purpose : Respiratory symptoms related with malignant airway disease have been the main causes of lowered qualify of life and also sometimes may be life-threatening if not properly managed. The authors report the short-term experiences of endobronchial brachytherapy for symptomatic malignant airway obstruction using high dose rate after-loading brachytherapy unit. Materials and Methdos : Twenty-five Patients with symptomatic malignant airway obstruction were treated with endobronchial brachytherapy between the period of December 1994 and March 1996 at Department of Radiation Oncology of Samsung Medical Center Twenty-one ($84\%$) were patients with non-small cell lung cancer, three with tracheal malignancies, and one with recurrence of esophageal cancer. Twenty Patients were given elective external beam radiation therapy, while six were given endobronchial laser evaporation therapy on emergency bases in addition to endobronchial brachytherapy. Three procedures for each patient were planned and total of 70 procedures were completed. Results : Improvement rates of major respiratory symptoms after endobronchial brachytherapy procedures were $88\%$(22/25). $96\%$(22/23), $100\%$ (15/15), and $100\%$(9/9) for cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonia, respectively. ECOG performance scores were improved in $56\%$ of total patients group, while there was no case with worsened ECOG score. Fifteen patients died and the median interval from the start of treatment to death was 4 months (range: $1\~17$ months), while that of ten survivors was 9 months (range $5\~19$ months). There were five patients with controlled intrathoracic disease, who have survived over one rear. All deaths were associated with uncontrolled local and/or distant disease. Four Patients died of massive fatal hemoptysis, three of who received emergency endobronchial laser evaporation therapy before the start of endobronchial brachytherapy. Conclusion : Endobronchial brachytherapy has been confirmed as an excellent palliative treatment modality improving respiratory symptoms as well as patients' general performance status. Based on the current observations, use of endobronchial brachytherapy in curative setting as a boost technique may be warranted.

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Development and Application of Ir-192 Brachytherapy Source in Korea (국산 근접치료용 Ir-192 선원의 개발 및 실용화 동향)

  • Son, Kwang Jae;Jeong, Dong Hyeok
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.326-332
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    • 2012
  • Recently, there are difficulties in operating brachtherapy machine in the radiotherapy department because of increasing the source price with decreasing nuclear reactor in the world. The development and technical features of the Ir-192 HDR sources (4.5 mm, 1.1 mm in diameter) in Korea were described in this report. We expect that this report will be helpful for hospitals to make the long-term plan for operating and managing HDR brachytherapy machine.

Treatment Planning Software for High Dose Rate Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy of Uterine Cervical Cancer (Personal computer를 이용한 자궁경부암의 고선량을 강내치료 계획)

  • Huh, Seung-Jae;Kang, Wee-Saing
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.183-186
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    • 1986
  • In brachytherapy of uterine cervical cancer using the high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to determine the position of the radiation sources and to estimate the irradiation time. However, calculation with manual method is so time consuming and laborious, that authors designed a software as an aid to intracavitary radiotherapy Planning using the personal computer to obtain the precision of treatment without being too complicated for routine use. Optimal source arrangement in combination with dose rate at each specific points and irradiation time can be easily determined using this software in several minutes.

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