• Title/Summary/Keyword: Brachytherapy

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Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in brachytherapy planning of uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거할 치료계획의 비교)

  • Shim JinSup;Jo JungKun;Si ChangKeun;Lee KiHo;Lee DuHyun;Choi KyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Although Improve of CT, MRI Radio-diagnosis and Radiation Therapy Planing, but we still use ICRU38 Planning system(2D film-based) broadly. 3-Dimensional ICR plan(CT image based) is not only offer tumor and normal tissue dose but also support DVH information. On this study, we plan irradiation-goal dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-goal dose on ICRU 38 point(ICRU38 plan) by use CT image. And compare with tumor-dose, rectal-dose, bladder-dose on both planning, and analysis DVH Method and Material : Sample 11 patients who treated by Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy external radiation therapy, ICR plan established. All the patients carry out CT-image scanned by CT-simulator. And we use PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. We draw CTV, rectum, bladder on the CT image. And establish plan irradiation-$100\%$ dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-$100\%$ dose on A-point(ICRU38 plan) Result : CTV volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $21.8{\pm}26.6cm^3$, rectum volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3$, bladder volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $116.1{\pm}40.1cm^3$ sampled 11 patients. The volume including $100\%$ dose is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ on CTV plan. On ICRU planning, the other one's $22.0cm^3$ CTV volume who residual tumor size excess 4cm is not including $100\%$ isodose. 8 patient's $12.9{\pm}5.9cm^3$ tumor volume who residual tumor size belows 4cm irradiated $100\%$ dose. Bladder dose(recommended by ICRU 38) is $90.1{\pm}21.3\%$ on ICRU plan, $68.7{\pm}26.6\%$ on CTV plan, and rectal dose is $86.4{\pm}18.3\%,\;76.9{\pm}15.6\%$. Bladder and Rectum maximum dose is $137.2{\pm}50.1\%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8\%$ on ICRU plan, $107.6{\pm}47.9\%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8\%$ on CTV plan. Therefore CTV plan more less normal issue-irradiated dose than ICRU plan. But one patient case who residual tumor size excess 4cm, Normal tissue dose more higher than critical dose remarkably on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated rectal dose(V80rec) is $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated bladder dose(V80bla) is $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ on CTV plan. Likewise, CTV plan more less irradiated normal tissue than ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : Although, prove effect and stability about previous ICRU plan, if we use CTV plan by CT image, we will reduce normal tissue dose and irradiated goal-dose at residual tumor on small residual tumor case. But bigger residual tumor case, we need more research about effective 3D-planning.

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Literature Analysis of Radiotherapy in Uterine Cervix Cancer for the Processing of the Patterns of Care Study in Korea (한국에서 자궁경부알 방사선치료의 Patterns of Care Study 진행을 위한 문헌 비교 연구)

  • Choi Doo Ho;Kim Eun Seog;Kim Yong Ho;Kim Jin Hee;Yang Dae Sik;Kang Seung Hee;Wu Hong Gyun;Kim Il Han
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Uterine cervix cancer is one of the most prevalent women cancer in Korea. We analysed published papers in Korea with comparing Patterns of Care Study (PCS) articles of United States and Japan for the purpose of developing and processing Korean PCS. Materials and Methods: We searched PCS related foreign-produced papers in the PCS homepage (212 articles and abstracts) and from the Pub Med to find Structure and Process of the PCS. To compare their study with Korean papers, we used the internet site 'Korean Pub Med' to search 99 articles regarding uterine cervix cancer and radiation therapy. We analysed Korean paper by comparing them with selected PCS papers regarding Structure, Process and Outcome and compared their items between the period of before 1980's and 1990's. Results: Evaluable papers were 28 from United States, 10 from the Japan and 73 from the Korea which treated cervix PCS items. PCS papers for United States and Japan commonly stratified into $3\~4$ categories on the bases of the scales characteristics of the facilities, numbers of the patients, doctors, Researchers restricted eligible patients strictly. For the process of the study, they analysed factors regarding pretreatment staging in chronological order, treatment related factors, factors in addition to FIGO staging and treatment machine. Papers in United States dealt with racial characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics of the patients, tumor size (6), and bilaterality of parametrial or pelvic side wail invasion (5), whereas papers from Japan treated of the tumor markers. The common trend in the process of staging work-up was decreased use of lymphangiogram, barium enema and increased use of CT and MRI over the times. The recent subject from the Korean papers dealt with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (9 papers), treatment duration (4), tumor markers (B) and unconventional fractionation. Conclusion: By comparing papers among 3 nations, we collected items for Korean uterine cervix cancer PCS. By consensus meeting and close communication, survey items for cervix cancer PCS were developed to measure structure, process and outcome of the radiation treatment of the cervix cancer. Subsequent future research will focus on the use of brachytherapy and its impact on outcome including complications. These finding and future PCS studies will direct the development of educational programs aimed at correcting identified deficits in care.

The Role of Radiotherapy for Carcinomas of the Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Biliary Duct: Retrospective Analysis (담낭 및 간외담도계 악성종양의 방사선치료결과)

  • Jeong Hyeon Ju;Lee Hyun Ju;Yang Kwang Mo;Suh Hyun Suk;Kim Re Hwe;Kim Sung Rok;Kim Hong Ryong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Carcinomas arising in the gall bladder(GB) or extrahepatic biliary ducts are uncommon and generally have a poor prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rates are less than $10\%$. Early experiences with the external radiation therapy demonstrated a good palliation with occasional long-term survival. The present report describes our experience over the past decade with irradiation of primary carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary duct. Materials and Methods : From Feb. 1984 to Nov. 1995, thirty-three patients with carcinoma of the GB and extrahepatic biliary duct were treated with external beam radiotherapy with curative intent at our institution. All patients were treated with 4-MV linear accelerator and radiation dose ranged from 31.44Gy to 54.87Gy(median 44.25Gy), and three Patients received additional intraluminal brachytherapy(range, 25Gy to 30Gy). Twenty-seven Patients received postoperative radiation. Among 27 patients, Sixteen patients underwent radical operation with curative aim and the rest of the patients either had bypass surgery or biopsy alone. In seventeen patients, adjuvant chemotherapy was used and eleven patients were treated with 5-FU, mitomycin and leucovorin. Results : Median follow up period was 8.5 months(range 2-97 months). The overall 2-year and 5-year survival rates in all patients were $29.9\%$ and $13.3\%$ respectively. In patients with GB and extrahepatic biliary duct carcinomas, the 2-year survival rates were $34.5\%$ and $27.8\%$ respectively. Patients who underwent radical operation showed better 2-year survival rates than those who underwent palliative operation($43.8\%\;vs.\;20.7\%$), albeit statistically insignificant(p>0.05). The 2-year survival rates in Stage I and II were higher than in Stage III and IV with statistical significance(p<0.05). Patients with good performance status in the beginning showed significantly better survival rates than those with worse status(p<0.05). The 2-year survival rates in combined chemotherapy group and radiation group were $40.5\%$ and $22.0\%$ respectively. There was no statistical differences in two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion : The survival of patients with relatively lower stage and/or initial good performance was significantly superior to that of others. We found an statistically insignificant trend toward better survival in patients with radical operation and/or chemotherapy, More radical treatment strategies, such as total resection with intensive radiation and/or chemotherapy may offer a better chance for cure in selective patients with carcinoma of gall bladder and extrahepatic biliary ducts.

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Effect of Pelvic Irradiation on the Bone Mineral Content of Lumbar Spine in Cervical Cancer (자궁경부암 환자에서 방사선 치료가 골무기물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn Seon Min;Choi Tae Jin;Koo Eun Sil;Kim Ok Bae;Lee Seung Moon;Suh Soo Jhi
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To evaluate the loss of bone mineral contents(BMC) in lumbar spine within the radiation field for cervical cancer treatment, BMC in the irradiated patient group was compared with that of a normal control group. Method and materials : Measurements of BMC in the trabecular bone in lumbar spines(L3-L5) were performed in the both patient and normal control groups. Investigators used dual-energy quantitative computerized tomography(DEQCT) using Photon energy of 120 and 80kVp, The numbers of Patient and control groups were 43 in each with age distribution of fifth to seventh decade of women. The numbers of control group were 22 in fifth, 10 in sixth and 11 in seventh decade, those of patient group were 14 in filth, 14 in sixth, and 15 in seventh decade of women. The radiation field was extended to L5 spine for Pelvic irrdiation with 45-54Gy of external radiation dose and 30Gy of high dose rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer, Results : The BMC is decreased as increasing age in both control and patient groups. BMC in lumbar spine of patient group was decreased by about $13\%\;to\;40\%$ maximally. The BMC of L3 and L4 a region that is out of a radiation field for the Patient group demonstrated $119.5\pm30.6,\;117.0\pm31.7\;for\;fifth,\;83.3\pm37.8,\;88.3\pm46.8\;for\;sixth\;and\;61.5\pm18.3,\;56.2\pm26.6mg/cc$ for seventh, Contrasted by the normal control group has shown $148.0\pm19.9,\;153.2\pm23.2\;for\;fifth,\;96.1\pm30.2,\;105.6\pm26.5\;for\;sixth\;and\;73.9\pm27.9,\;77.2\pm27.2mg/cc$ for seventh decade, respectively The BMG of patient group was decreased as near the radiation field, while the lower lumbar spine has shown more large amounts of BMC in the normal control group. In Particular, the BMC of L5 within the radiation field was significantly decresed to $33\%,\;31\%,\;40\%$ compared with the control group of the fifth, sixth and seventh decades, respectively. Conclusion : The pelvic irradiation in cervical cancer has much effected on the loss of bone mineral content of lumbar spine within the radiation field, as the lower lumbar spine has shown a smaller BMC in Patient group with Pelvic irradiation in contrast to that of the normal control groups.

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Low Dose Cisplatin as a Radiation Sensitizer in Management of Locally Advanced Scluamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix : Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Early Response (국소 진행된 자궁경부암의 방사선치료와 저용량 cisplatin 항암요법 동시치료시 급성독성 밀 초기반응 평가)

  • Kim Hunjung;Cho Young Kap;Kim Chulsu;Kim Woo Chul;Lee Sukho;Loh J K
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To evaluate possible acute toxicity and early response of concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin as a radiosensitizer in patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinomas. Materials and Method : From December 1996 to January 1999, 38 previously untreated Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (from stage IIB to stage IIIB) were treated at Inha University Hospital. All patients underwent standard pretreatment staging Procedures after the initial evaluation by gynecologists and radiation oncologists. Sixteen Patients with huge cervical mass (>4 cm) were submitted to the group treated with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin while the remainder was treated with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to whole pelvis (midline block after 3000 cGy), 900$\~$1000 cGy boost to involved parametrium, and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3000$\~$3500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the group treated with low dose cisplatin concurrently, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was measured according to expanded common toxicity criteria of the NCI (C) Clinical Trials. Early response data were analyzed at minimum 4 weeks' follow-up after completion of the treatment protocol. Results: Hematolgic toxici쇼 was more prominent in patients treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin. Six of 16 patients (37.5$\~$) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and one of 22 patients (4.5$\~$) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced grade 3 leukopenia. In Fisher's exact test, there was statistically significant difference between two groups regarding leukopenia (P=0.030). There was no apparent difference in the frequency of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity between two groups (P=0.066). Three of 16 patients (18.7$\~$) treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin and two of 22 patients (9.1$\~$) treated with radiation therapy alone experienced more than 5 kg weight loss during the treatment. There was no statistically significant difference on weight loss between two groups (P=0.63). Two patients on each group were not evaluable for the early response because of incomplete treatment. The complete response rate at four weeks' follow-up was 80$\~$(16/20) for the radiation therapy alone group and 78$\~$ (11/14) for the radiation therapy and cisplatin group. There was no statistically significant difference in early response between two treatment groups (P=0.126). Conclusion : This study led to the conclusion that the hematologic toxicity from the treatment with concurrent radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin seems to be more prominent than that from the treatment of radiation therapy alone. There was no grade 4 hematologic toxicity or mortality in both groups. The hematologic toxicity in both treatment groups seems to be well managable modically. Since the risk factors were not balanced between two treatment groups, the direct comparison of early response of both groups was not possible. However, preliminary results regarding early response for patients with bulky cervical tumor mass treated with radiation therapy and low dose daily cisplatin was encouraging. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the survival data. A phase III study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent daily low dose cisplatin with radiation therapy in bulky cervical cancer.

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Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in Brachytherapy Planning of Uterine Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거한 치료계획의 비교)

  • Cho, Jung-Ken;Han, Tae-Jong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.105-110
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : In spite of recent remarkable improvement of diagnostic imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and PET and radiation therapy planing systems, ICR plan of uterine cervix cancer, based on recommendation of ICRU38(2D film-based) such as Point A, is still used widely. A 3-dimensional ICR plan based on CT image provides dose-volume histogram(DVH) information of the tumor and normal tissue. In this study, we compared tumor-dose, rectal-dose and bladder-dose through an analysis of DVH between CTV plan and ICRU38 plan based on CT image. Method and Material : We analyzed 11 patients with a cervix cancer who received the ICR of Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy of external beam radiation therapy, ICR plan was established using PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. CT scan was done to all the patients using CT-simulator(Ultra Z, Philips). We contoured CTV, rectum and bladder on the CT image and established CTV plan which delivers the 100% dose to CTV and ICRU plan which delivers the 100% dose to the point A. Result : The volume$(average{\pm}SD)$ of CTV, rectum and bladder in all of 11 patients is $21.8{\pm}6.6cm^3,\;60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3,\;111.6{\pm}40.1cm^3$ respectively. The volume covered by 100% isodose curve is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.0001), respectively. In (On) ICRU planning, $22.0cm^3$ of CTV volume was not covered by 100% isodose curve in one patient whose residual tumor size is greater than 4cm, while more than 100% dose was irradiated unnecessarily to the normal organ of $62.2{\pm}4.8cm^3$ other than the tumor in the remaining 10 patients with a residual tumor less than 4cm in size. Bladder dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $90.1{\pm}21.3%$ and $68.7{\pm}26.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan respectively(p=0.001) while rectal dose recommended by ICRU 38 was $86.4{\pm}18.3%$ and $76.9{\pm}15.6%$ in ICRU plan and in CTV plan, respectively(p=0.08). Bladder and rectum maximum dose was $137.2{\pm}50.1%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8%$ in ICRU plan and $107.6{\pm}47.9%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8%$ in CTV plan, respectively. Therefore, the radiation dose to normal organ was lower in CTV plan than in ICRU plan. But the normal tissue dose was remarkably higher than a recommended dose in CTV plan in one patient whose residual tumor size was greater than 4cm. The volume of rectum receiving more than 80% isodose (V80rec) was $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.02). The volume of bladder receiving more than 80% isodose(V80bla) was $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ in ICRU plan and $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ in CTV plan(p=0.005). According to these parameters, CTV plan could also save more normal tissue compared to ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : An unnecessary excessive radiation dose is irradiated to normal tissues within 100% isodose area in the traditional ICRU plan in case of a small size of cervix cancer, but if we use CTV plan based on CT image, the normal tissue dose could be reduced remarkably without a compromise of tumor dose. However, in a large tumor case, we need more research on an effective 3D-planing to reduce the normal tissue dose.

Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation Therapy 3-Dimension plan of the uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 3차원 치료계획 시 Packing의 유용성 분석)

  • Si, Chang-Keun;Jo, Jung-Kun;Lee, Du-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Yeung;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : An effect of a packing to uterine treatment of a cervical cancer using a dose-volume histogram for a point dose and a volume dose of the bladder and the rectum was analyzed by establishing a three-dimensional treatment plan using a CT image. Materials and methods : Reference points of the bladder and the rectum were marked, respectively at a treatment plan device (plato brachytherapy V14.2.4) by photographing CT(marconi, USA) when the packing was used and removed under the same condition and a treatment plan was performed to Apoint depending on ICRU38. However, in case of the rectum, a maximum point was looked up and compared with the above point because the point presented from the ICRU is not proper as a representative value of a rectum point dose. Further, the volume dose depending on volume of $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder was measured. The measured values were used to analyze the effect of the packing through a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (a SAS statistical analysis process program). Result : The reference points at the bladder and rectum doses when the packing was removed were $116.94\;35.42\%$ and $117.59\;21.08\%$, respectively. The points when the packing was used were $107.08\;38.12\%$ and $95.19\;21.32\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the reference points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $9.86\%$ and $22.4\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $164.51\;50.89\%,\;128.81\;33.05\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $142.31\;44.79,\;110.08\;37.03\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $22.2\%$ and $18.73\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $48.62{\pm}18.09\%,\;16.12{\pm}11.15\%,\;and\;7.51{\pm}6.63\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $23.41{\pm}14.44\%,\;6.27{\pm}4.28\%,\;2.79{\pm}2.27\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $40.33{\pm}16.72,\;11.63{\pm}8.72,\;and\;4.87{\pm}4.75\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $18.96{\pm}8.37\%,\;4.75{\pm}2.58\%,\;and\;1.58{\pm}1.06\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were decreased by $8.29\%,\;4.49\%,\;and\;2.64\%$, respectively and its bladder volume were decreased by $4.45\%,\;1.52\%,\;and\;1.21\%$, respectively. Conclusion : Values at Reference point doses of the bladder and the rectum recommended from the ICRU 38 were 0.0781 and 0.0781, respectively and values of their maximum point doses were 0.0156 and 0.0156, respectively, as a result of which an effect of the packing using at the uterine intracavitary treatment of an uterine cervical cancer through the three-dimensional treatment plan used CT were measured. That is, the values at reference point doses and the values at maximum point doses show similar difference. However, P value was 0.15 at over $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ volume doses and the value shows no similar difference. In other words, the effect of the packing looks like having a difference at the point dose, but actually shows no difference at the volume dose. The reason is that the volume of the bladder and the rectum are wide but the volume of the packing is only a portion. Therefore, the effect of decreasing the point dose was not great. Further, the farer the distance is, the more weak the intensity of radiation is because the intensity of radiation is proportional to inverse square of a distance. Therefore, the effort to minimize an obstacle of the bladder and the rectum by using the packing should be made.

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