• Title/Summary/Keyword: Brachytherapy

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Development of a cylindrical ultrasound applicator for Intracavitary Hyperthermia (강내온열 치료를 위한 원통형 초음파 치료기 개발)

  • Lee, Rena J.;Hyunsuk Suh
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2002
  • In this study, a cylindrical ultrasound applicator is developed for the treatment of vagina and rectum in combination with high dose rate brachytherapy. A cylindrical transducer (PZT-8, 1=1.5 cm, thickness=1.5mm OD=2.5 cm) was used as an energy source for induction of hyperthermia. Three single-element applicators were constructed to examine the performance of the PZT material. Vector impedance was measured to determine driving frequency. The efficiencies of the elements were determined using a radiation force technique to evaluate the feasibility of using the applicator as a hyperthermia source. A multi-element ultrasound applicator was designed using the PZT-8 material for the treatment of vagina. Results from the vector impedance measurements showed maximum magnitude at 1.78, 1.77, and 1.77 MHz for applicator 1,2, and 3, respectively. The radiation force measurements showed that the acoustic power of 40 watts was obtained in all three elements. The average efficiencies of the elements were 61.4, 65.2, and 54.0% for element 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The designed ultrasound hyperthermia applicator could be used in combination with high dose rate brachytherapy for the treatment of vagina and rectum. The use of this applicator with intracavitary brachytherapy could offer improved tumor control by increasing radiosensitiyity of the tumor.

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Determination of Exposure Dose Rate and Isotropic Distributions of Substitute High Dose Rate Ir-192 Source for Co-60 Brachytherapy Source (원격강내조사용 Co-60 선원의 대체용 Ir-192 선원의 조사선량결정 및 선량 등방성조사)

  • 최태진;원철호;김옥배;김시운;김금배;조운갑;한현수;박경배
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 1998
  • In recent, the demand of development of the high dose rate brachytherapy source increased for substitute for Co-60 source by iridium source, since the supplying Co-60 source is very depressed and the high dose rate brachytherapy sources are entirely imported from the abroad. This study investigated the exposure rates and isotropic dose distributions for the Ir-192 source produced from $\^$191/Ir(n,r)$\^$192/Ir by nuclear reactor in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The activity of source was obtained an 1.012 Ci (the initial activity without encapsulation was 2,87Ci) by measurement with encapsuled stainless steel. The exposure rate of provided Ir-192 source was determined on 6.36 ${\pm}$ 0.147 Rm$^2$/h-GBq (2.350 ${\pm}$ 0.054 Rcm$^2$/mCi-hr) within ${\pm}$ 2.2% discrepancy with IC-10 ion chamber (0.14 cc) which was mounted on the acrylic jig to 5, 10 and 20 cm from the center of source. The calculated doses with 22 most significant spectrum lines were corrected with intrinsic efficiency of the germanium detector were compared to measured exposure dose rates within ${\pm}$3.8 % discrepancy. The authors confirmed the high dose rate Ir-192 source could be replaced the long decayed Co-60 source via investigation of the isotropic dose distributions in lateral, source axis and diagonal direction of source center are very closed to within 3% uncertainties. Especially, this exposure rate constant and isotropic dose distribution will be fundamental to build the high dose rate source and develop the computed therapy planning system.

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The Role of Intraluminal Brachytherapy in Management of Esophageal Cancer (식도암 치료에 있어 관내근접치료의 역할)

  • Lee Chang Geol;Suh Chang Ok;Kim Gwi Eon;Chu Sung Sil;Chung Eun Ji;Kim Woo Cheol
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : To evaluate our clinical experience with the combination of teletherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy in patients with unresectable or inoperable esophageal cancers. Materials and Methods : From Nov 1989 to Mar 1993, twenty patients with esophageal cancer were treated with radical radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy at Yonsei Cancer Center. All patients had squamous histolgy and stage distribution was as follows: stage II, 4($20{\%}$)patients; III, 15 ($75{\%}$)patients; IV, 1($5{\%}$)patients. A dose of S-12Gy/1-3weeks with intraluminal brachytherapy (3-5Gy/fraction) to 5mm from the outside of the esophageal tube using high dose rate Iridium-192 remotely afterloading brachytherapy machine was given 2 weeks after a total dose of 59-64Gy with external radiotherapy. Induction chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-FU was performed in 13 patients with median 3 cycles(1-6 cycles), Response rate, local control rate, survival and complications were analysed retrospectively. Results : Two-year overall survival rate and median survival were $15.8{\%}$ and 13.5 months. Response rates were as follows complete remission(CR) 5($25{\%}$): partial remission a(PRa) 7($35{\%}$): partial remission b(PRb) 7($35{\%}$), no response(NR) 1($5{\%}$). Patterns of failure were as follows; local failure 13($65{\%}$), local and distant failure 3($15{\%}$), distant failure 0($0{\%}$). Ultimate local control rate was $20{\%}$. Treatment related complications included esophageal ulcer in two patients and esophageal stricture in one. Conclusion : Though poor local conrol rate, median survival was improved as compared with previous results of radiation therapy alone(8months) and chemoradiation combined treatment(11 months) in Yonsei Cancer Center High-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy following external irradiation is an effective treatment modality with acceptable toxicity in esophageal cancer.

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High versus Low Dose-Rate Intracavitary Irradiation for Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부 선암 환자에서 고선량률 강내치료와 저선량률 강내치료의 비교)

  • Kim Woo Chul;Kim Gwi Eon;Chung Eun Ji;Suh Chang Ok;Hong Soon Won;Cho Young Kap;Loh JK
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2000
  • Purpose :The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is low. Traditionally, Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been used as a standard modality in the treatment for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effects of the High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix compared with the LDR. : From January 1971 to December 1992, 106 patients of adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix were treated with radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University with curative intent. LDR brachytherapy was carried out on 35 patients and 71 patients were treated with HDR brachytherapy. In LDR Group, 8 patients were in stage I, 18 in stage II and 9 in stage III. External radiation therapy was delivered with 10 MV X-ray, daily 2 Gy fractionation, total dose 40$\~$46Gy (median 48 Gy). And LDR Radium intracavitary irradiation was peformed with Henschke applicator, 22$\~$59 Gy to point A (median 43 Gy). In HDR Group, there were 16 patients in stage 1, 38 in stage II and 17 in stage III. The total dose of external radiation was 40$\~$61 Gy(median 45 Gy), daily 1.8$\~$2.0 Gy. HDR Co-60 intracavitary irradiation was peformed with RALS (Remote Afterloading System), 30 $\~$ 57 Gy(median 39 Gy) to point A, 3 times a week, 3 Gy per fraction. Conclusion : The 5-year overall survival rate in LDR Group was 72.9$\%$, 61.9$\%$, 45.0$\%$ in stage I, II, III, respectively and corresponding figures for HDR were 87.1$\%$, 58.3$\%$, 41.2$\%$, respectively (p>0.05). There was no statistical difference in terms of the 5-year overall survival rate between HDR Group and LDR Group in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. There was 11$\%$ of late complication rates in LDR Group and 27$\%$ in HDR Group. There were no prognostic factors compared HDR with LDR group. The incidence of the late complication rate in HDR Group stage II, III was higher than that in LDR Group(16.7$\%$ vs. 31.6$\%$ in stage II, 11.1$\%$ vs. 35.3$\%$ In stage III, p>0.05). Although the incidence of radiation induced late complication rate was higher in HDR Group stage II and III patients than that in the LDR Group, statistical significance was not detected and within acceptable level. Conclusion : There was no difference in terms of 5-year survival rate and failure pattern in the patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Even late complication rates were higher in the HDR group It was an acceptable range. This retrospective study suggests that HDR brachytherapy seems to replace the LDR brachytherapy in the adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. However, further studies will be required to refine the dose rate effects.

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Intracavitary Ultrasound Hyperthermia Applicators for Gynecological Cancer

  • Lee, Rena J. .;Suh, Hyun-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • 2003.09a
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    • pp.53-53
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    • 2003
  • For evaluating the feasibility of treating recurrent lesions in the vaginal cuff and cervix by hyperthermia, ultrasound applicators were designed, constructed, and characterized. For the treatment A half-cylindrical transducer Cd=1cm, length=lcm) and cylindrical transducer (d=2.5cm, length= 1.5cm) were used to construct ovoid type and cylindrical applicators. For the ovoid type applicator, each element was operated at 1.5MHz and characterized by measuring transducer efficiency and acoustic power distribution. Thermocouple probes were used to measure the temperature rise in phantom. The element sizes used in this study were selected to be comparable for high dose rate brachytherapy colpostat applicator. Each element was powered separately to achieve a desired temperature pattern in a target. The acoustic output power as a function of applied electric power of the element 1 and 2 was linear over this 1 to 40 W range and efficiencies were 32.2${\pm}$3.4% and 46.2${\pm}$0.8%, respectively. The temperature measurements in phantom showed that 6$^{\circ}C$ temperature rise was achieved at 2 cm from the applicator surface. As a conclusion, the ability of the ultrasound colpostat applicator to be used for hyperthermia was demonstrated by measuring acoustic output power, ultrasound field distribution, and temperature rise in phantom. Based on the characteristics of this applicator, it has the potential to be useful for inducing hyperthermnia to the vaginal cuff in clinic.

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Accuracy of Dose Estimation in High Dose Rate Intracavitary Radiotherapy of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암 고선량율 강내치료의 치료선량 정확도에 관한 연구)

  • Huh, Seung-Jae;Ha, Sung-Whan;Chai, Kyu-Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 1987
  • In brachytherapy of uterine conical cancer using a high dose rate remote afterloading system, it is of prime importance to deliver a accurate dose in each fractionated treatment by minimizing the difference between the pre-treatment planned and post-treatment calculated doses. The post-treatment calculated point A dose was not much different from the pretreatment planned dose (500 cGy). The $average{\pm}standard$ deviation was $500\pm18cGy$ and 84 percent of 82 intracavitary radiotherapy was within the range of $500\pm25cGy$.

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