• Title/Summary/Keyword: Bioretention

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Evaluation on the suspended solids and heavy metals removal mechanisms in bioretention systems

  • Geronimo, Franz Kevin F.;Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C.;Hong, Jungsun;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Membrane and Water Treatment
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2019
  • Application of bioretention systems in Korea is highly considered due to its minimal space requirements, appropriateness as small landscape areas and good pollutant removal and peak hydraulic flow reduction efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of two lab-scale bioretention types having different physical properties, media configuration and planted with different shrubs and perennials was investigated in reducing heavy metal pollutants in stormwater runoff. Type A bioretention systems were planted with shrubs whereas type B were planted with perennials. Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (A-CL) and Aquilegia flabellata var. pumila (A-AP) respectively were planted in each type A bioretention reactors while Rhododendron indicum linnaeus (B-RL) and Spiraea japonica (B-SJ), respectively were planted in each type B bioretention reactors. Results revealed that the four lab-scale bioretention reactors significantly reduced the influent total suspended load by about 89 to 94% (p<0.01). Type B-RL and B-SJ reactors reduced soluble Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb by 28 to 45% that were 15 to 35% greater than the soluble metal reduction of type A-CL and A-AP reactors, respectively. Among the pollutants, total Cr attained the greatest discharged fraction of 0.52-0.81. Excluding the effect of soil media, total Pb attained the greatest retention fraction in the bioretention systems amounting to 0.15-0.34. Considering the least discharge fraction of heavy metal in the bioretention system, it was observed that the bioretention systems achieved effectual reduction in terms of total Cu, Zn and Pb. These findings were associated with the poor adsorption capacity of the soil used in each bioretention system. The results of this study may be used for estimating the maintenance requirements of bioretention systems.

The Effect of Connected Bioretention on Reduction of Surface Runoff in LID Design (LID 설계시 식생체류지간 연결에 의한 강우유출수 저감 효과분석)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Seo, Seong-Cheol;Park, Chan-Gi
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.562-569
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    • 2016
  • Recently, Low Impact Development (LID) is being used in Korea to control urban runoff and nonpoint source pollution. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of surface runoff from a study area, as the effect of connecting three bioretention as LID-BMP. Surface runoff and storage volume of bioretention is estimated by the Curve Number (CN) method. In this study, the storage volume of bioretention is divided by the volume of surface runoff and precipitation which directly enters the bioretention. The ratio of captured surface runoff volume to storage volume is highly influenced by the ratio of drainage area to surface area of bioretention. The high bioretention surface area-to-drainage area ratio captures more surface runoff. The ratio of 1.2 captures 51~54% of the total surface runoff, ranging from 5-30cm of bioretention depth; a ratio of 6.2 captures 81~85%. Three connected bioretentions could therefore captures much more runoff volume, ranging from $35.8{\sim}167.3m^3$, as compared to three disconnected bioretentions at their maximum amount of precipitation with non-effluent from the connecting three bioretentions. Hence, connecting LID-BMPs could improve the removal efficiencies of surface runoff volume and nonpoint source pollution.

The Effects of Infiltration Rate of Foundation Ground Under the Bioretention on the Runoff Reduction Efficiency (식생체류지의 원지반 침투율이 유출량 저감효과에 미치는 영향모의)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Jung, Kwang-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2019
  • Soil type in LID infiltration practices plays a major role in runoff reduction efficacy. In this study, the effects of infiltration rate of foundation ground under bioretention on annual runoff reduction rate was evaluated using LIDMOD3 which is a simple excel based model for evaluating LID practices. A bioretention area of about 3.2 % was required to capture surface runoff from an impervious area for a 25.4 mm rainfall event. The relative error of runoff from bioretention using LIDMOD3 is 10 % less than that of SWMM5.1 for a total rainfall event of 257.1 mm during the period of Aug. 1 ~ 18, 2017, hence, the applicability of LIDMOD3 was confirmed. Annual runoff reduction rates for the period 2008 ~ 2017 were evaluated for various infiltration rates of foundation ground under the bioretention which ranged from 0.001 to 0.600 m/day and were converted to annual runoff reduction for hydrologic soil group. The runoff reduction rates within hydrologic soil group C and D were steeply increased through increased infiltration rate but not steep within hydrologic A and B with reduction rates ranging from 53 ~ 68 %. The estimated time required to completely empty a bioretention which has a storage depth of 0.632 m is 3.5 ~ 6.9 days and we could assume that the annual average of antecedent rainfall is longer than 3.5 ~ 6.9 days. Therefore, we recommended B type as the minimum hydrologic soil group installed LID infiltration practices for high runoff reduction rate.

Investigation on the Factors Affecting Urban Stormwater Management Performance of Bioretention Systems (식생체류지의 도시 강우유출수 처리효율 영향인자 조사 연구)

  • Geronimo, Franz Kevin F.;Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C.;Hong, Jungsun;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Bioretention systems, an advance low impact development and green infrastructure approach were currently utilized in different parts of the world because it promotes biodiversity thereby mimicking and preserving the pre-developed state of an area. This study investigated and compared the capability of four bioretention systems to identify factors affecting the hydraulic capabilities and pollutant removal efficiencies of each system. The two bioretention type A referred as Type A-C and Type A-FC were planted with perennials such as Chrysanthemum and Fan columbine, respectively. On the other hand, the two type B bioretention systems referred as Type B-A and Type B-JM were planted with shrub plant species such as Azalea and Japanese Meadowsweet, respectively. Based on the results, TV, infiltration mechanism, filter media depth and plant species were identified as the factors affecting the difference in flow attenuation, retained volume and pollutant removal efficiency of Type A-C, Type A-FC, Type B-A and Type B-JM bioretention systems. The design of bioretention Type B-A and Type B-JM were advantageous considering greater volume retention, groundwater recharge, longer HRT and peak flow attenuation and greater pollutant removal efficiency. On the other hand, the design of bioretention Type A-C and Type A-FC was more appropriate for design considering reduced groundwater contamination.

Development and Evaluation of Bioretention Treating Stormwater Runoff from a Parking Lot (주차장 비점오염원 관리를 위한 식생체류지 개발 및 평가)

  • Yu, Gigyung;Choi, Jiyeon;Hong, Jungsun;Moon, Soyeon;Kim, Lee Hyung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2015
  • Urbanization increases the impervious cover, which affects the discharge of stormwater runoff and non-point source pollutants to the waterbodies. In order to improve the water quality and restore the aqua-ecosystem, the Ministry of Environment (MOE), Korea MOE introduced the Low Impact Development(LID) techniques on development projects. Therefore, research was performed to develop the bioretention technology for managing the stormwater runoff from urban areas. The test-bed was established on 2013 up to evaluate the performance of pollutant and runoff reduction. A total of 11 storm events have been monitored from November 2013 to present. Even though the SA/CA (surface area of bioretention/catchment area) is approximately 2.2%, the facility shows high pollutant and runoff reduction during storm events by increasing retention and infiltration capacities. The bioretention shows a 100% total runoff reduction at 0mm < R < 10mm rainfall range and more than 90% of runoff reduction at a rainfall range of 10mm < R < 20mm. Due to runoff volume reduction, more than 90% of nonpoint source pollutant were also removed by the bioretention.

Analysis of Effects for Water Quality Improvement Considering Volume of Storage Facilities and LID techniques (LID기법과 저류조 용량을 고려한 수질개선 효과 분석)

  • Kwon, Sang Hyun;Park, Young Ki;Kim, Se Min;Gwak, Gyu Dong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.344-344
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    • 2016
  • 최근 도시화에 따른 투수면적의 감소인한 우수 유출량의 증가로 비점오염 및 도시 침수피해에 대한 문제가 증가하고 이에 따른 유역관리에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 불투수면적의 특성으로 인한 도시 비점오염의 축적량 증가와 함께 적은 강우에도 유출이 발생되고 이로 인한 세척효과에 의해 고농도의 비점오염원을 하천으로 유출시키게 된다. 이러한 우수 유출 및 비점오염원 관리방안으로 저영향개발(LID;Low Impact Development) 기법에 의한 우수유출량의 저감과 수질개선효과를 연구할 필요가 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 전주시 송천동 지역을 대상으로 관측자료를 이용하여 SWMM모형을 구축하였고, 그 결과를 바탕으로 LID기법 중 하나인 Bioretention과 저류조용량(900, 1050, 1200, $1350m^3$)을 고려한 수질개선 효과를 분석하였다. 송천동 지역에 대한 저류조 및 Bioretention 적용에 따른 수질 개선효과를 비교한 결과 SS는 무시설의 경우 평균 100.08mg/L에서 1) 저류조의 경우 83.40mg/L(17% 감소), 2) 식생저류지의 경우 86.27mg/L(14% 감소), 3) 저류조와 식생저류지 연계 적용의 경우 79.43mg/L(21% 감소)로 평가되었다. BOD는 무시설의 경우 평균 15.24mg/L에서 1) 저류조의 경우 13.37mg/L(12% 감소), 2) 식생 저류지의 경우 12.29mg/L(19% 감소), 3) 저류조와 식생저류지 연계 적용의 경우 11.81mg/L(22% 감소)로 나타났다. T - P는 무시설의 경우 평균 1.09mg/L에서 1) 저류조의 경우 0.96mg/L(12% 감소), 2) 식생저류지의 경우 0.84mg/L(22% 감소), 3) 저류조와 식생저류지 연계 적용의 경우 0.78mg/L(28% 감소)로 수질이 개선되었다. 저류조와 식생저류지 적용에 따른 SS의 경우, 식생저류지를 적용했을 경우보다 저류조를 적용했을 경우 수질농도가 더 많이 저감되는 것으로 산정되었다. BOD와 T - P의 경우 저류조를 적용했을 경우보다 식생저류지를 적용했을 경우 수질농도가 저감 되는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 저류조와 식생저류지를 연계 적용했을 경우 각각 적용했을 경우보다 수질농도가 더 많이 저감되는 것으로 평가되며, 향후 유역 내 LID기법과 저류조 위치에 따른 효과에 대한 연구가 필요하다.

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Design of Structural BMPs for Low Impact Development (LID) Application and Modelling Its Effect on Reduction of Runoff and Nonpoint Source Pollution: Application of LIDMOD2 (저영향개발(LID)적용을 위한 구조적 BMPs의 유출량 및 비점오염저감 효과모의: LIDMOD2 적용)

  • Kim, Jung Jin;Kim, Tae-Dong;Choi, Donghyuk;Jeon, Ji-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.580-586
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    • 2011
  • Low impact development (LID) technique is recently proposed as new concept to reduce surface runoff and pollutant loading with various best management practices (BMPs). In this study, LIDMOD2, which is one of the model to evaluate LID, was applied at Mohyeon developing area to evaluate the redcution of annual runoff and pollution loading, cost-reduction efficient by LID with design of structural BMPs including bioretention, wet pond, and wetland. As a simulation results, the bioretention had the highest reduction efficiency for runoff (41.43%), and 22% for T-N and 22% for BOD. Wet pont had the highest reduction efficiency for T-P as showing 25% of reduction rate. As a results of cost-reduction efficient, wet pont represented the highest cost-effective for T-N and BOD with showing 0.43 T-P kg/million won and 17.37 BOD kg/million won, respectively, and bioretention represented the highest cost-effective for T-P with showing 2.52 T-P kg/million won. LID technology could reduce effectively surface runoff and nonpoint source pollution and construct sustainable development. LIDMOD2 could be suggested as useful tool to evaluate and design LID.

Evaluation of the applicability of Cockle shell and walnut shell in a bioretention facility (Bioretention 내 꼬막 및 호두껍질의 적용성 평가)

  • Jeon, Minsu;Geronimo, F.K.F.;Choi, Hyeseon;Kim, Lee-hyung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.203-203
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    • 2019
  • 도시화로 인한 불투수면의 증가는 물순환 왜곡, 비점오염원 발생 및 수생태계 건상성 훼손 등을 야기시키며, 이를 해결하기 위하여 다양한 LID 기법을 적용하고 있다. 일반적으로 LID 내 적용 되는 여재들은 무기성여재로 중량이 크고 미세공극의 부재로 물리화학적 및 생물학적 저감기능이 제한적이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 중량성이 낮은 생물폐자원을 선정하여 LID 시설 적용성평가를 수행하고자 한다. 생물폐자원은 발생량, 경량성 및 용이성을 고려하여 꼬막껍질(CS)과 호두껍질(WS)을 선정하였다. 생물폐자원의 산화부식을 고려하여 무기성 여재인 화산석과 혼합하여 Bioretention 시설에 적용하였으며, 여재 혼합비율에 따라 총 3가지의 Case 로 구성하였다. 식생은 구절초와 꽃댕강나무를 식재하였으며, 여재의 물리적 특성 분석을 위하여 적용 전과 후의 SEM(Scanning Electronic Microscope)을 수행하였다. 모니터링은 도로퇴적물 100g과 물 110L를 제조하여 인공강우유출수를 이용하여 수행하였으며, $0.0003{\sim}0.007m^3/sec$의 유속으로 주입하였다. 시설의 유입 및 유출부에서 유량 측정 및 수질 시료를 채취하였으며, 채취된 시료는 수질오염공정 시험법에 준하여 입자상 물질, 유기물, 영양물질 및 중금속 등을 분석하였다. Bioretention 시설의 모니터링 결과를 이용하여 물수지 및 TSS 저감 효율을 산정하였으며. 물수지 분석결과 시설의 저류율은 Case 1(soil) > Case 3(WS+RV) > Case 2(CS+RV) 순으로 나타났다. 시설 내 공극률이 가장 낮았던 Case 1에서 저류율이 약 55%로 가장 높게 것으로 분석되었다. Case 3(WS+RV)은 Case 2(WS+RV)와 시설 내 공극률이 유사함에도 불구하고 저류율이 약 10% 높은 것으로 분석되었다. 오염물질 저감효율 분석 결과, TSS와 TP의 제거효율은 모든 Case에서 약 75% 이상으로 높게 나타났으며, COD의 경우 모래를 적용한 Case 1에 비해 생물폐자원인 꼬막껍질과 호두껍질을 적용한 Case에서 약 1.3배 이상 높게 나타났다. 호두껍질과 꼬막껍질의 SEM 분석 결과 표면에 다공성이 형성되어 있는 것으로 조사되었다. 이는 여과 및 저류기작으로 인한 물순환 효과증대와 다공성과 돌기사이로 인한 입자상의 물질 여과 및 흡착으로 인하여 오염물질의 제거효율이 증대 된 것으로 평가된다. LID시설 내 생물폐자원과 무기성여재를 적절히 배합하여 복합여재로 조성할 경우 침하현상을 방지할 뿐만 아니라 저류 및 침투기능 향상과 미생물의 서식환경을 제공하기에 물순환 회복 및 비점오염물질 저감에 기여할 것으로 평가된다.

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Assessment of Performances of Low Impact Development (LID) Facilities with Vegetation (식생이 조성된 LID 시설의 효율 평가)

  • Hong, Jung Sun;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2016
  • Low impact development (LID) facilities are established for the purpose of restoring the natural hydrologic cycle as well as the removal of pollutants from stormwater runoff. Improved efficiency of LID facilities can be obtained through the optimized interaction of their major components (i.e., plant, soil, filter media, microorganisms, etc.). Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the performances of LID facilities in terms of runoff and pollutant reduction and also to provide an optimal maintenance method. The monitoring was conducted on four LID technologies (e.g., bioretention, small wetlands, rain garden and tree box filter). The optimal SA/CA (facility surface area / catchment area) ratio for runoff reduction greater than 40% is determined to be 1 - 5%. Since runoff reduction affects the pollutant removal efficiency in LID facilities, SA/CA ratio is derived as an important factor in designing LID facilities. The LID facilities that are found to be effective in reducing stormwater runoff are in the following order: rain garden > tree box filter > bioretention> small wetland. Meanwhile, in terms of removal of particulate matter (TSS), the effectiveness of the facilities are in the following order: rain garden > tree box filter > small wetland > bioretention; rain gardens > tree box filter > bioretention > small wetland were determined for the removal of organic matter (COD, TOC), nutrients (TN, TP) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn). These results can be used as an important material for the design of LID facilities in runoff volume and pollutant reduction.

Hydrologic and Hydraulic Factors Affecting the Long-term Treatment Performance of an Urban Stormwater Tree Box Filter (도시 강우유출수를 처리하는 나무여과상자의 장기 처리효율에 영향을 주는 수리학적 및 수문학적 인자 연구)

  • Geronimo, Franz Kevin F.;Hong, Jungsun;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.715-721
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    • 2017
  • Tree box filters, an example of bioretention systems, were compacted and versatile urban stormwater low impact development technique which allowed volume and water quality treatment performance to be adjusted based on the hydrologic, runoff quality and catchment characteristics. In this study, the overall performance of a 6 year-old tree box filter receiving parking lot stormwater runoff was evaluated. Hydrologic and hydraulic factors affecting the treatment performance of the tree box filter were also identified and investigated. Based on the results, the increase in rainfall depth caused a decrease in hydrologic and hydraulic performance of the tree box filter including volume, average flow, and peak flow reduction (r = -0.53 to -0.59; p<0.01). TSS, organics, nutrients, and total and soluble heavy metals constituents were significantly reduced by the system through media filtration, adsorption, infiltration, and evapotranspiration mechanisms employed in the tree box filter (p<0.001). This significant pollutant reduction by the tree box filter was also found to have been caused by hydrologic and hydraulic factors including volume, average flow, peak flow, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and runoff duration. These findings were especially useful in applying similarly designed tree box filter by considering tree box filter surface area to catchment area of less than 1 %.