• Title/Summary/Keyword: Bedding Material

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Preferences and animal welfare of mice for type of bedding material (마우스 사육에 있어서 깔짚의 종류에 따른 물리적.화학적 성상의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lim Jun-Sung;Shin Dong-Seok;Cho Jin-Youn;Kim Hyun-Seok;Kim Min-Su;Im Hyun;Ahn Jae-Bum;Song Ji-Yae;Kim Hyeon-Cheol;Jung Ki-Soo;Lee Mi-Sook;Park Young-Jae;Shin Myung-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2006
  • The type of bedding material has been reported affect the environment and animal well-being. Therefore, it has an impact on the health. So, bedding material is the most Important factor in mouse environments. If it is not properly treated, experimental results are unreliable. In this study, various types of bedding material were evaluated in terms of physical characteristics and preference. It was found that bedding material consisting of large fibrous particles and wide inter-particular gap were preferred. The characteristics of bedding material were further investigated by scanning the size and shape of particles. The results show that physical characteristics such as shape, ammonia absorption, particle size effect on experimental data.

Evaluation of Dairy Manure Production in Bedded Pack Barn (깔짚우사 내 젖소분뇨 발생량 평가)

  • Jo, Hyun-Soo;Lee, Seung-Hun;Lee, Jae-Hee;Ahn, Hee-Kwon
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the amount of manure production from Holstein dairy cattle raised in bedded pack barn and the appropriate bedding material removal time. Total six heads of dairy cows (about 715 kg weight) were raised in three pens (two heads per pen) for 62 days. Average daily production of manure containing sawdust bedding was 21.2 kg per head and that of manure excluding bedding was 18.7 kg. Moisture content of bedding materials were significantly increased up to 86% of water holding capacity (WHC) of sawdust during the first 30 days. It kept very stable level after 30 to 50 days. Theoretically, 30 days after adding fresh bedding seems to be proper removal time only based on WHC. On the other hand, from a practical perspective, maximum 50 days after adding new bedding would be fine by comprehensively considering various factors such as bedding material purchasing cost, feeding environment and manure treatment.

Relationships among bedding materials, bedding bacterial composition and lameness in dairy cows

  • Li, Han;Wang, Xiangming;Wu, Yan;Zhang, Dingran;Xu, Hongyang;Xu, Hongrun;Xing, Xiaoguang;Qi, Zhili
    • Animal Bioscience
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.1559-1568
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    • 2021
  • Objective: Bedding materials directly contact hooves of dairy cows and they may serve as environmental sources of lameness-associated pathogen. However, the specific composition of bacteria hidden in bedding materials is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect bedding material and its bacterial composition has on lameness of Holstein heifers. Methods: Forty-eight Holstein heifers with similar body weights were randomly assigned into three groups including sand bedding (SB), concrete floor (CF), and compost bedding (CB). Hock injuries severity and gait performance of dairy cows were scored individually once a week. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment and bedding material samples were collected once a week for Illumina sequencing. Results: The CF increased visible hock injuries severity and serum biomarkers of joint damage in comparison to SB and CB groups. Besides, Illumina sequencing and analysis showed that the bacterial community of CB samples had higher similarity to that of SB samples than CF samples. Bacteria in three bedding materials were dominated by gastrointestinal bacteria and organic matter-degrading bacteria, such as Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and norank JG30-KF-cM45. Lameness-associated Spirochaetaceae and Treponeme were only detected in SB and CB samples with a very low relative abundance (0% to 0.08%). Conclusion: The bacterial communities differed among bedding materials. However, the treponemes pathogens involved in the pathogenesis of lameness may not be a part of microbiota in bedding materials of dairy cows.

Effect of Dietary Energy Levels and Bedding Materials on Performance, Meat Quality and Foot Pad Score of Male and Female Slow-Growing Korean Meat-Type Chicken (Hanhyop 3) (사료 에너지 수준과 깔짚 종류가 한협 3호 육계의 암·수별 성장, 육질, Foot Pad Score에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jun Yeop;Lee, Myung Ho;Song, Yong Han;Lee, Jong In;Ohh, Sang Jip
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.273-283
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    • 2018
  • Two diet energy levels (high or low) and two bedding material (rice husk or saw dust) treatments were designed for either male or female slow-growing Korean meat-type chicken (Hanhyop 3) to make totally eight treatments for 11~75 d feeding trial. Body weight gain (BWG) were influenced by energy levels, sex of bird and bedding material type. There were interaction effect among those three factors. Feed intakes (FI) by male bird during each and overall periods were higher than those by female. Diet energy levels and bedding material affected the FI only during final 56~75 d period, of which FI of high energy diet was higher in male whereas that of low energy diet was higher in female. Although feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved by high energy diet, the better FCR has dissipated during 41~75 d, when the most of overall BWG were achieved. Apparent total tract retention (ATTR) of nutrients were higher in male than those in female birds with exception on fat ATTR. Fat ATTR was improved when fed low energy diet regardless of the sex of birds. Both energy levels and sex of bird influenced the color of breast. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of female thigh was higher than that of male. Levels of moisture and P in female thigh were lower although level of fat in female breast was higher than those in male, respectively. This study showed that diet energy levels for Hanhyop 3 chicken, especially during 41~75 d, should be differently formulated between male and female bird.

Cacao bean husk: an applicable bedding material in dairy free-stall barns

  • Yajima, Akira;Owada, Hisashi;Kobayashi, Suguru;Komatsu, Natsumi;Takehara, Kazuaki;Ito, Maria;Matsuda, Kazuhide;Sato, Kan;Itabashi, Hisao;Sugimura, Satoshi;Kanda, Shuhei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1048-1053
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of cacao bean husk as bedding material in free-stall barn on the behavior, productivity, and udder health of dairy cattle, and on the ammonia concentrations in the barn. Methods: Four different stall surfaces (no bedding, cacao bean husk, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw) were each continuously tested for a period of 1 week to determine their effects on nine lactating Holstein cows housed in the free-stall barn with rubber matting. The lying time and the milk yield were measured between d 4 and d 7. Blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration and teat swabs for bacterial counts were obtained prior to morning milking on d 7. The time-averaged gas-phase ammonia concentrations in the barn were measured between d 2 and d 7. Results: The cows spent approximately 2 h more per day lying in the stalls when bedding was available than without bedding. The milk yield increased in the experimental periods when cows had access to bedding materials as compared to the period without bedding. The lying time was positively correlated with the milk yield. Bacterial counts on the teat ends recorded for cows housed on cacao bean husk were significantly lower than those recorded for cows housed without bedding. Ammonia concentration under cacao bean husk bedding decreased by 6%, 15%, and 21% as compared to no bedding, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw, respectively. The cortisol concentration was lowest in the period when cacao bean husk bedding was used. We observed a positive correlation between the ammonia concentrations in the barn and the plasma cortisol concentrations. Conclusion: Cacao bean husk is a potential alternative of conventional bedding material, such as sawdust or chopped wheat straw, with beneficial effects on udder health and ammonia concentrations in the barns.

Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

  • Kim, Eunjong;Lee, Dong-Hyun;Won, Seunggun;Ahn, Heekwon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.753-758
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    • 2016
  • Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg $O_2/g$ VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

Technique for Using Fly Ash as a Bedding Materials at Livestock House (석탄회의 축사 깔짚 이용기술)

  • 고영두;김재황;김두환;고병두;이수칠;이종찬;김삼철
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to improve utilization of substitute fly-ash in bedding material of animal waste treatments. The amount used of fly-ash used in a pigpen or beef stall was 50% lower than that of existing bedding material of animal waste treatments. From the results, substitution effect of fly-ash put over the floor of the stable became much better. Effects of processed fly ash as a spread straw decreased ammonia(NH3) and Hydrogensulfide (H2S) gas at beef stall, but there was no benefit of replacement terms. Effect of processed fly ash as a spread straw increased 4∼5 times replacement terms more than control NH3 and H2S gas was decreased. A lot of maggots and porasites were grown at sawdust pig farm, but fly ash inhibited to grow maggots and paraeters. In conclusion, as substituting fly-ash for 5% sawdust(DM basis) in making animal waste into a compost with fly ash, we can reduce the sawdust purchasing costs and produce the high quality of a compost, especially a pollutant as NH3 and H2S gas, etc. from the process of biodegradation, and as substituting fly-ash(1,540 won per ton ; can be extended the replacement period of spreading straw approximatively 4∼5 times) for sawdusts(111,000 won per ton) will increase a real income in livestock house.

Analysis of Dust Concentration in Dairy Farm according to Sampling Location and Working Activities (유우사 내부 위치 및 작업 형태에 따른 분진 모니터링 및 분석)

  • Park, Gwanyong;Kwon, Kyeong-Seok;Lee, In-bok;Ha, Taehwan;Kim, Rack-Woo;Lee, Minhyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2017
  • Organic dust generated inside livestock facilities includes toxic organic matters such as bacteria and endotoxin. Dust can cause respiratory disease for worker and livestock, and consequently, degradation of welfare and productivity. Influence of dust on livestock workers has been studied since the 1970s. However, exposure limit for cattle farmer has not been established, unlike exposure limit for pig and poultry farmer. Furthermore, study on air quality inside livestock facility, especially inside dairy farm has been rarely conducted in Korea. In this study, dust concentration of TSP, PM10, inhalable and respirable dust has been monitored in the commercial dairy house according to location and working activities. Bedding material inside the stall was one of the major sources of dust. The amount of dust was related to water content level of the bedding material. Dust concentration was relatively high in leeward location, and the highest concentration was measured during TMR mixing process. The maximum value of inhalable dust concentration was 29.1 times higher than the reference value as fine particles drop to the TMR mixer. Dust generated by TMR mixing was presumed to decrease by adjusting moisture and drop height of feed.

Effects of Bedding Thickness of Sawdust on Environment of Cowshed Floor and Productivity of Hanwoo (깔짚 두께가 한우사 바닥환경과 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seung-Gi;Park, Byung-Ki;An, Jun-Sang;Park, Myung-Ho;Ra, Chang-Six;Shin, Jong-Suh
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.sup
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of bedding thickness of sawdust on feed intake, blood metabolites concentration and environmental condition of cowshed floor for Hanwoo. Feed intake was increased at thicker bedding groups (15 or 20cm), compared with thinner bedding group (10cm). The thicker bedding had a positive effect on concentration of serum total protein, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and ${\gamma}$-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Moisture content and the number of E. Coli in the bedding material were remarkably lower in 15 and 20 cm groups, compared with 10 cm group. Based on the data obtained in this study, approximately 20 cm bedding thickness or at least over 15 cm would be maintained to improve the health condition of Hanwoo and hence to enhance the productivity.

Effects of Bedding Materials and Season on the Composition and Production Rate of Broiler Litter as a Nutrient Resource for Ruminants

  • Park, K.K.;Yang, S.Y.;Kim, B.K.;Jung, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2000
  • Broiler litter can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants. Fifty seven litter samples collected from 47 farms in Kyungkee Province of Korea were analyzed to assess the effects of type and amount of bedding (rice hulls vs. sawdust), season (winter vs. summer) and drinkers (bell- vs. trough-type) on composition of broiler litter. Rearing conditions of broilers were also surveyed from the farms to estimate annual production rate of litter. Nutrient composition of broiler litter varied widely and moisture and ash concentrations were higher than observed by other researchers. Ash concentration was higher (p<0.05) for samples taken in winter than in summer and higher (p<0.05) in the rice hulls- than in the sawdust-based litter both in winter and summer. Only minor differences in litter composition were noted between drinkers. Ash was negatively correlated with crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). The estimated litter production rate was 2.7 kg per bird per flock on a wet basis (60% DM) and the annual production rate was 12.7 kg per bird per yr (60% DM). Therefore, the 42 million broilers per month grown in Korea in 1999 produced a total of 533,400 metric tons of litter.