• Title/Summary/Keyword: Bangladesh

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Carbon Forestry: Scope and Benefit in Bangladesh

  • Rahman, Md. Siddiqur;Akter, Salena
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2013
  • The aim of the study was to reveal the scope and benefits derives from establishing carbon forests in a country like Bangladesh. Carbon forestry is the modernized forestry practice that evolves no cutting of trees or vegetation rather conserves them in the wood. Trees might be the source of carbon sink at large scale by establishing carbon forests. To find out how and in what extent forests of Bangladesh could contribute to global emission reduction, tree species of economic importance were taken into account about their carbon sequestration potential. Data source was a secondary one. Bangladesh has subtropical evergreen and deciduous forest tree species. Here trees can sequester almost 45-55 percent organic carbon in their biomass. On an average, trees in different types of stands can sequester 150-300 tC/ha. Carbon value of these forests might be 7,500-15,000 USD per hactre (assuming 50 USD per equivalent $tCO_2$). Thus, accounting tree carbon credits of total forested lands of Bangladesh, there might be a lump sum value of $1.89{\times}10^{10}-3.79{\times}10^{10}$ USD. If soil carbon is added, this amount would jump. Alternatively, there are two times higher spaces as marginal lands than this for starting carbon forestry. However, carbon forestry concept is still a theoretical conception unless otherwise their challenges are addressed and solved. Despite of this, forests of Bangladesh might be the key showcase for conserving biodiversity in association with carbon capture. Protected areas in Bangladesh are of government wealth, however, degraded and denuded waste and marginal lands might be the best fit for establishing carbon forests.

Reproductive Disorders that Limits the Reproductive Performances in Dairy Cows of Bangladesh

  • Al Maruf, Abdulla;Paul, Ashit Kumar;Bonaparte, Napolean;Bhuyian, Mosharrof Hossain;Shamsuddin, Mohammed
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2014
  • The reproductive disorders are the major causes of reproductive infertility in cows that affect the total annual calf crop, resulting in great economic loss in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to find out the reproductive disorders (RD) in dairy cows that markedly influences the reproductive performances in aspect of Bangladesh. A total number of 1658 dairy cows were selected according to their body condition score (BCS) in different farms at the southern part of Bangladesh during the period of 2011 to 2012. The preliminary data (basic information) were collected directly from the dairy farmer's record books and asking questions according to a prescribed questionnaires as well as the diagnosis of RD was presumptively confirmed on the basis of history, clinical signs and examination of animals by ultrasonography and others necessary tools. There are thirteen major reproductive disorders were identified. Overall prevalence of reproductive disorders at that area were 23%, among of these anoestrus 5.1%, repeat breeder 3.7%, metritis 4.4%, poor heat detection 1.6%, ovarian cyst 0.36%, retain placenta 4.6%, dystocia 0.97% and pyometra 0.24%. It is indicated that anoestrus and retention of placenta after calving was most hazardous cause of infertility whereas the metritis and repeat breeder were the second line of consequence. RD had shown significantly higher incidence in low BCS (${\leq}2$) than that of fair (2.5) and very good (${\geq}3{\sim}3.5$). In conclusion, the highest RD especially anoestrus and retention of placenta is very alarming for reproductive loss which might be needed further research to identify the specific cause of these disorders for establishment a profitable dairying and dairy population.

Natural vs synchronized estrus: determinants of successful pregnancy in ewes using frozen-thawed Suffolk semen

  • Rahman, Md. Mahbubur;Naher, Nazmun;Isam, Md. Mofijul;Hasan, Moinul;Naznin, Farhana;Bhuiyan, Mohammad Musharraf Uddin;Bari, Farida Yeasmin;Juyena, Nasrin Sultana
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 2020
  • The pregnancy rate in indigenous ewes inseminated with frozen-thawed Suffolk semen following natural and synchronized estrus was determined. The serum Progesterone and Estrogen concentration and vaginal electrical resistance (VER) of ewes at the time of Artificial Insemination (AI) were observed as successful pregnancy determinants. 21 healthy ewes were selected for this experiment during January-April, 2017. 10 ewes were inseminated in natural estrus. Whereas, 11 ewes were inseminated after estrus synchronization using intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate. Trans-cervical Al (TCAI) was performed in all ewes within 12-16 hours of observed heat. Prostaglandin E1 analogue impregnated vaginal sponge was used for cervical relaxation 6-8 hours before insemination. Pregnancy was diagnosed through trans-abdominal ultrasonography after 40 days of AI. The pregnancy rate of ewes in synchronized estrus was higher (54.5%) than in natural estrus (30%). Higher serum Progesterone level (0.90 ± 0.02 ng/mL) and significantly (p < 0.001) lower VER (257.78 ± 10.11 ohm) were observed at the time of AI in ewes becoming pregnant. Results suggest that higher Progesterone concentration and lower VER could be considered as pregnancy indicators. Oestrous synchronization could be implemented to increase the pregnancy rate in ewes.

Seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in selected area of Bangladash

  • Uddin, Mohammad Jasim;Rahman, Md Siddiqur;Akter, Sayeda Hasina;Hossain, Mohammad Arif;Islam, Md Taohidul;Islam, Md Ariful;Park, Jin-Ho;Song, Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.511-525
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    • 2007
  • A seroprevalence study of small ruminant brucellosis was conducted in sheep and goat rearing selected areas of Mymensingh district and Dhaka district, Bangladesh, from March, 2005 to May, 2006. Sera from 62 sheep and 300 goats were tested by rose bengal plate test (RBPT), plate agglutination test (PAT), tube agglutination test (TAT) and mercaptoethanol test (MET). Out of the 62 sera tested 3.25% (n = 2) were positive to RBT, PAT and TAT and 4.84% (n = 3) were positive MET. In case of 300 goats, 1.67% (n = 5) were positive to RBT and PAT, 2% (n = 6) were positive to TAT and 2.33% (n = 7) were positive to MET. This investigation is the first of its type to be performed in small ruminants in Bangladesh. Higher prevalence rate (8.0 %) was found in BAU nutrition farm in case of sheep and 10 % in Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) Veterinary Clinic in case of goat while lower prevalence (0.0 %) was recorded in Pharmacology project and BAU adjacent villages in case of sheep and (0.0 %) in Dhamrai upazila in case of goats respectively. Brucella antibodies were more prevalent in sheep (8.84 %) than in goat (2.33 %).

Morphology, Morphometry, Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Pekin, Nageswari and Their F1 Crossbred Ducks under Intensive Management

  • Ahmad, Md. Tanvir;Nandita, Drishti;Maruf, Tanvir Mohammad;Pabitra, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman;Mony, Sabrina Islam;Ali, Md. Shawkat;Ahmed, Md. Sarwar;Bhuiyan, Mohammad Shamsul Alam
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2021
  • This study investigated the morphological features, growth, and meat yield performance of Pekin (P), Nageswari (N), and their reciprocal F1 crossbreds (P♂×N♀ and N♂×P♀). A total of 301-day-old ducklings were reared in four different pens up to 20 weeks of age under intensive management conditions. Feeding and management practices were similar for all individuals throughout the experimental period. The morphology and plumage pattern of F1 crossbreds were similar to those of indigenous Nageswari ducks because of the dominant inheritance of the extended Black allele (E locus). Genotype had significant differences (P<0.05) among the four genotypes in morphometric measurements, except wing and shank length. Growth performance was highly significant among the four genotypes (P<0.001) from one-day to 12 weeks of age. The average live weights of P, N, P♂×N♀ and N♂×P♀ crossbred genotypes at 12 weeks of age were 2038.35±29.74, 1542.44±33.61, 1851.85±28.59 and 1691.08±27.80 g, respectively. Meat yield parameters varied significantly (P<0.05) among the different genotypes for all studied traits, except for liver and gizzard weight. Moreover, no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between P and P♂×N♀ crossbred for important meat yield traits such as hot carcass weight, dressing%, back half weight, drumstick with thigh weight and breast meat weight. Remarkably, the P♂×N♀ crossbreed possesses 50% native inheritance, which contributes to better adaptation in a hot-humid environment. Our results revealed that the P♂×N♀ genotype could be suitable for higher meat production with better adaptability in the agro-climatic conditions of Bangladesh.

Efficiency and Returns to Scale in the Bangladesh Banking Sector: Empirical Evidence from the Slack-Based DEA Method

  • Sufian, Fadzlan;Kamarudin, Fakarudin
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2014
  • The study provides new empirical evidence on the level of profit efficiency and returns to scale of the Bangladesh banking sector. We employ the Slack-Based Data Envelopment Analysis (SBM-DEA) method to assess the level of profit efficiency of individual banks over the years 2004 to 2011. The empirical findings indicate that the Bangladesh banking sector has exhibited the highest and lowest level of profit efficiency during years 2004 and 2011 respectively. We find that only eight banks have been profit efficient throughout the period under study. The empirical findings seem to suggest that most of the Bangladesh banks have been experiencing economies of scale due to being at less than the optimum size, or diseconomies of scale due to being at more than the optimum size. Thus, decreasing or increasing the scale of production could result in cost savings or efficiencies.

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Microfinance Institutions and Legal Status: An Overview of the Microfinance Sector in Bangladesh

  • Mia, Md Aslam
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2016
  • Although the microfinance sector in Bangladesh is mainly driven by Non-Governmental-Organizations (NGOs), there are other types of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) that also provide financial services to the poor. Despite the criticism of microfinance programs, the current poverty situation in Bangladesh still requires such programs for consistently battling poverty. Hence, the aim of this paper is to profile the microfinance sector based on their legal status and investigate any possible differences (if any) between them in various aspects. After a thorough investigation of the sector, it was found that around 33 million of the clients are being served by the mainstream MFIs (NGO and Grameen Bank) while another 10-15 million clients are served by other types of MFIs (financial cooperatives, credit unions, various ministries etc.), accounting for the one-third of the total population in Bangladesh. While the mainstream MFIs basically works with poor, other categories of MFIs are concerned with relatively wealthy clients. Looking into the financial performance and social intermediation of the MFIs, the NGO-MFIs performed better than other types of MFIs in the sector.

Coping with Climate Change by Using Indigenous Knowledge of Ethnic Communities from in and around Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh

  • Akhter, Sayma;Raihan, Farzana;Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam;Abu Syed, Md.;Das, Suman Kanti;Alamgir, Mohammed
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.181-193
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    • 2013
  • Climate change is considered to be one of the most serious threats and its impact is felt by the most vulnerable world's poorest countries including Bangladesh. In particular, ethnic communities, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. A case study was conducted in a fragile ecosystem of Lawachara national park of Bangladesh, to know the indigenous knowledge of the ethnic communities, how they adapt with the climate change impact by using indigenous knowledge. They use various IK to protect their crops from climate change impact. Thus, government should design policies which will be helpful to make them more resilience to face climate change impact.

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowering top of Rosa damascena

  • Alam, MA;Nyeem, MAB;Awal, MA;Mostofa, M;Alam, MS;Subhan, N;Rahman, M Mostafizur
    • Advances in Traditional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2008
  • The hepatoprotective activity of the alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena was studied against paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver damage was assessed by estimating serum enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and histopathology of liver tissue. Pre- and post-treatment with ethanolic extracts showed a dose-dependent reduction of paracetamol induced elevated serum levels of enzyme activity. The mechanism underlying the protective effects was assayed in vitro and the R. damascena extracts displayed dosedependent free radical activity using DPPH ($IC_{50}=162.525\;{\mu}g/ml$) and TBA method. The hepatoprotective action was confirmed by histopathological observation. The ethanolic extracts reversed paracetamol induced liver injury. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of R. damascena extracts are related to its antioxidative activity.

METACESTODES INFECTION IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS IN BANGLADESH

  • Islam, M.K.;Mondal, M.M.H.;Das, P.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 1995
  • In this study out of 3036 Black Bengal goats examined, 1755(57.80%) were infected with different types of metacestodes. The metacestodes were Cysticercus tenuicollis(54.54%), Coenurus cerebralis(6.32%) and hydatid cysts(11.13%). Animals > 18 months old were relatively more susceptible to Cysticercus tenuicollis and Coenurus cerebralis infection. On the contrary, animals > 8 months to 18 months old were more susceptible to hydatid infection, Both male and female goats were found to be equally infected with the metacestodes. A fully grown Coenurus cerebralis was also recovered from the abdominal muscles of a goat. In Cysticercus tenuicollis infection, pathological effects were not so marked. However, in few cases of Coenurus cerebralis infection the bones of the skull were found to become thin and soft. The hydatid cysts were found to develop in the vital organs by replacing the tissues, thus impairing normal functions.