• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back Analysis

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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Back School Program for Occupational Low Back Pain Patients (직업성 요통환자에서 재활 프로그램(Back School Program) 도입의 비용-편익분석)

  • Ju, Yeong-Su;Ha, Mi-Na;Han, Sang-Hwan;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Cho, Soo-Hun;Kim, Chang-Yup;Kim, Sun-Min
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.347-357
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    • 1996
  • Although occupational low back pain accounts for $20\sim40%$ of all occupational illness and injury, there are limited numbers of studies regarding the effectiveness of back school program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of back school program for early return to work of occupational low back pain patients in the current occupational injury compensation and management system. The cost-benefit analysis in this study was conducted to evaluate the relative magnitude of benefit to cost. The total cost was estimated by calculating the value of components in back school program according to governmental budget protocol. The back school program was consisted of three major approaches, pain center, work-hardening program and funcional restoration program and each of components had various facilities and experts. The total amount of cost was estimated as 250,866,220 won per year. The most promising type of back school program were quite intensive (a 3 to 5-week stay in a specialized center), therefore, if we adopted the 5-week stay course, 10 courses could be held in a year. Following to the medical act, 20 patients per doctor could participate in a each course, ie, total 200 patients in a year. As a result, we could estimate the cost of 1,254,331 won a patient. We estimated the benefit by using data of a few local labor offices about average medical treatment beneficiary and off-duty beneficiary of 46 occupational low back pain patients in 1994. Ullman and Larsson (1977) mentioned that the group of chronic low back pain patients who participated in back school program needed less time to recover by 48.4% of beneficiary duration. And in the trying to estimate the benefit, we asked 10 rehabilitation board certificate doctors about reduction proportion of treatment cost by introducing back school program. The answered reduction proportions were in the range of $30\sim45%$, average 39%. As a final result, we could see that the introduction of back school program in treatment of chronic occupational low back pain patients could produce the benefit to cost ratio as 3.90 and 6.28. And we could conclude that the introduction of back school program was beneficial to current occupational injury compensation and management system.

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Effectiveness of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation of Chronic Low Back Pain -A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Studies in Korea- (만성허리통증의 고유수용성신경근촉진법 효과 -국내연구의 메타분석과 체계적 고찰-)

  • Kim, Beom-Ryong;Kang, Tae-Woo
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study compares and examines the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on patients with chronic low back pain through systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Methods: Domestic literature was searched with combinations of keywords including "proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation," "PNF," "back pain," and "low back pain" using the Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), and Korean Medical Database (KMbase). Six studies (n=148) were finally included in the analysis through a selection and exclusion process. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results: According to the meta-analysis results, the low back pains of the PNF group and the contrast group showed a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 2.21 (95% CI: -3.35, -1.07, p=0.01, $I^2=83%$) after intervention. Thus, the PNF group showed a statistically significant decrease in low back pain compared with the control group. In addition, the SMDs of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), lung function, and the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were -1.34 (95% CI: -1.88, -0.79, p<0.01, $I^2=35%$), 1.14 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.79, p=0.01, $I^2=0%$), and -1.59 (95% CI: -2.56, -0.62, p=0.01, $I^2=46%$), respectively. Thus, the PNF group showed statistically significant differences from the control group. Conclusion: At present, there is some limit to obtaining definite results about effect sizes because there are relatively few randomized controlled experiments that analyze the effects of PNF exercise in patients with chronic low back pain. Therefore, continuous efforts should be made to conduct randomized clinical trials and long-term efficacy studies in the future.

Behavior and Reduction of Spring-back in a Thin Cold-Forged Product (두께가 얇은 냉간단조품의 스프링백 거동 및 저감설계)

  • Kim, D.W.;Shin, Y.C.;Choi, H.J.;Yoon, D.J.;Lee, G.A.;Kim, Y.G.;Lim, S.J.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.397-402
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    • 2012
  • The flange hub is a main component in an automotive steering system. In general, the flange hub are fabricated by mechanical machining, which is a process where material waste is inevitable. It is well-known that a net-shape cold forging cannot only reduce material waste but can also improve the mechanical strength of the final product. Thus, a forging process design was conducted for production of a flange hub. Significant spring-back occurs around the flange due to its small thickness in conjunction with the residual stresses after forging. In order to achieve the required dimensional accuracy, a process design with appropriate spring-back control is needed. In this study, a modification of the forging die was designed based on FE analysis with the purpose of spring-back compensation. Four kinds of different die designs were evaluated and the optimum design has two times less spring-back than the initial design. The compensation angle of the optimum design is 0.5 degrees. The results have been experimentally confirmed by cold forging of a flange hub and comparing the amount of spring-back between the actual component and the FE analysis.

Estimation of replacement depth by consolidation back analysis considering gradual step loading (점증재하를 고려한 압밀침하 역해석에 의한 강제치환량 추정)

  • Jeon, Sang-Ok;Kang, Byeong-Yoon;Eam, Sung-Hoon;Jeong, In-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.155-158
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    • 2003
  • In this study consolidation back analyses were performed with the data measured in the reservoir construction field. some effects due to gradual step loading were considered carefully in this back analysis. the replacement depth of soft ground was estimated from the difference between the measured and the back analyzed data

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Diagnostic significance of body component analysis test for low back pain (요각통(腰脚痛)에 대(對)한 체성분(體成分) 분석검사(分析檢査)의 진단적(診斷的) 의의(意義))

  • Roh, Jeong-Du;Yook, Tae-han
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 2002
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate water distribution differences of the right and left low limb in patients who had low back pain with sciatica or not. Methods : Water distribution differences of the right and left low limb by body composition(INBODY 2.0, Biospace, seoul, korea) were analysed in the views of groups(low back pain with and without sciatica) and duration of disease. Results : 1. In the case of low back pain patient, there was no significance in variance of water distribution of the right and left lower limbs regardless of suffering period, but significance difference in patients that have suffered low back pain with one side sciatica showed according to suffering period. 2. Within 2 weeks, there was no significant deflection between low back pain with and without sciatica in water distribution of the right and left lower limbs, More than 2 weeks significant deflection showed. Conclusion : Loss of lower limb's muscle that ensue in contracting a disease period was observed in Low Back Pain with Sciatica. The continuos studies about pathological change of lower limb in low back pain have to be perfomed.

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Back Analysis Method for Material Properties of Multi-layers Ground Considering Multiple Unknown Variables (다중 미지변수를 고려한 다층지반 역해석)

  • Kim, Se-Jin;Kim, Moon-Kyum;Won, Jong-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2009
  • A core procedure of the direct search method used in this study is optimizing a difference between objective function and real displacement and correcting unknown variables. Because the research procedure comes from back-analyzing of the unknown variable of each layer, back-analyzing results need an additional optimization to minimize interferential effects of unknown variables. Therefore, the direct search method Is used to obtain optimized solutions without a partial differentiation of an objective function. The object of this research is developing the back analysis technique for multi-unknown variables by modeling the soil including underground structure Into upper and lower layer. In order to minimize interferent errors, repeated back analysis is performed and applicability on the real tunnel is examined. Consequently, the multi-layer analysis model is more precise in describing the real behavior of underground structure. It shows the validity of back analysis far multi-layer model which is the understructure placed on multi-layer boundaries.

Stability Estimation of NATM Tunnel due to Excavation using Back Analysis (역해석기법을 통한 NATM 터널의 안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae-Ho;Kim, Young-Su;Jin, Guang-Ril;Park, Jin-Kyu;Park, Si-Hyun;Choi, Chil-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.494-504
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    • 2008
  • Successful design, construction and maintenance of NATM tunnel demands prediction, control, stability estimation and monitoring of surface settlement, gradient and ground displacement with high accuracy. Back analysis using measured data and forward analysis have been and are indispensable tools to achieve this goal. Sakurai provided the hazard warning levels for assessing the stability of tunnels using the relation of critical strain and apparent Young's modulus. This paper performed the estimation of tunnel stability on construction. Firstly, the apparent Young's modulus concept and back analysis method is introduced for the assessment of tunnel safety during excavation a brief framework. Secondly, this paper deals with case study using "Apparent Young's modulus" and "Back analysis" for the purpose of estimating the stability of NATM tunnel in Korea. Finally, a general method that can be estimated the tunnel stability discussed by a flow chart.

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Back Analysis of Earth Retaining Wall Using Increment of Sequential Displacement (변위증분을 이용한 흙막이 벽의 역해석에 관한 연구)

  • 장범수;이승훈;김종민;김수일
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2003
  • In the back analysis of braced excavation based on displacement measurements, the accumulated errors of abnormal displacement caused by unexpected loads are usually observed. To minimize such errors, in this study, displacement increment was used fur back analysis rather than displacement for the conventional method. That is, the increment of sequential displacement is used as the objective function and the back analysis program is developed by taking advantage of sequential linear programming method by modified method of feasible directions. Based on small scale model test, the analysis of proposed method is verified.

Analysis of Lumbar Spine Load during Golf Swing in Pro. Golfer

  • Park, Sung-Kyu;Cho, Woong;An, Ho-Jung
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 2010
  • Low back pain is a common phenomenon among the golfers. In an attempt to understand low back pain, the kinematic changes and golf swing motion analysis has been performed to focus on lumbar spine in pro. golfers. According to the swing pattern, significant variations of the lumbar joint forces and loads has related with muscles activities so the motion analysis of lumbar spine were discussed. The purpose of this study was to analyze motion of lumbar spine and it was to compare joint force during golf swing in pro. golfers. The swing motion of the subjects was tracked using a 3D motion analysis system by Motion Analysis Ltd. and SIMM software. The angle changes of lumbar spine rapidly in vx direction during the top back swing and the finish and in vy direction during the follow through and in vz direction during the down swing and the impact(Subject A). The angle changes of lumbar spine rapidly in vx direction during the top back swing and in vy direction during the down swing, the impact and the follow through and in vz direction during the down swing(Subject B). In conclusion, subject A and B both show sudden angle changes between 1st-3rd lumbar spine and 4th-5th lumbar spine during the stage from address to top back swing which caused by over upper body twisting.

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Meta-analysis on the Effects of Exercise Therapy and Physiotherapy on Pain in Korean Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (만성요통환자를 대상으로 운동치료 및 물리치료가 통증에 미치는 효과에 대한 메타분석)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu;Lim, Bee-Oh
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate meta-analysis on the effects of exercise therapy and physiotherapy on pain in korean patients with chronic low back pain. Method: Meta-analysis was performed on the type and method of treatment. A total of 23 experimental studies were coding into 31 individual studies, into types, methods, visual analogue scale (VAS), each pre/post value of the effect size was calculated by meta-analysis. Results: Sling exercise, stretching, thermal therapy, kinesio-taping, lumbar stabilization exercise, electrotherapy is large effect size (ES ≥ .08). In addition, big effects occurred in order of treatment period is more than 9 weeks, three times a week. Conclusion: Our results indicated that persistent treatment of chronic back pain is the most effective method of self-sufficiency rather than temporary relief.