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Determination of Heterocyclic Amines in Roasted Fish and Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization/Mass Spectrometry (Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry를 이용한 가열 조리된 어패류에서의 heterocyclic amines 함량 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Back, Yoo-Mi;Lee, Kwang-Geun;Shin, Han-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.326-333
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    • 2009
  • Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that are formed during the heating of protein-rich foods. HCAs are generally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which requires sophisticated analysis. In this study, HCAs were extracted from lyophilized fish and shellfish samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The HCA recoveries in the fish and shellfish ranged from 15.7 to 74.7% with standard deviations from 0.2 to 7.63%. And HCA concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 1,117.7 $ng/g^{-1}$ in cooked food samples. 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were the most abundant HCAs formed in the muscle of fried mackerel, at levels of 1,117.7, 926.6, and 133.7 ng/g, respectively. 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-aminodipiryrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole(A${\alpha}$C), 2-amino-3methyl-9H-pyrido [1,2-a:3,2-d]imidazole(MeA${\alpha}$C), 2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (TriMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline(7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were only detected by small quantities ranged from 1.5 to 98.6 ng/g. Overall, this study provides useful information on HCA levels in fish and shellfish products consumed in Korea.

Estimation of Surface Solar Radiation using Ground-based Remote Sensing Data on the Seoul Metropolitan Area (수도권지역의 지상기반 원격탐사자료를 이용한 지표면 태양에너지 산출)

  • Jee, Joon-Bum;Min, Jae-Sik;Lee, Hankyung;Chae, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Sangil
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.228-240
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    • 2018
  • Solar energy is calculated using meteorological (14 station), ceilometer (2 station) and microwave radiometer (MWR, 7 station)) data observed from the Weather Information Service Engine (WISE) on the Seoul metropolitan area. The cloud optical thickness and the cloud fraction are calculated using the back-scattering coefficient (BSC) of the ceilometer and liquid water path of the MWR. The solar energy on the surface is calculated using solar radiation model with cloud fraction from the ceilometer and the MWR. The estimated solar energy is underestimated compared to observations both at Jungnang and Gwanghwamun stations. In linear regression analysis, the slope is less than 0.8 and the bias is negative which is less than $-20W/m^2$. The estimated solar energy using MWR is more improved (i.e., deterministic coefficient (average $R^2=0.8$) and Root Mean Square Error (average $RMSE=110W/m^2$)) than when using ceilometer. The monthly cloud fraction and solar energy calculated by ceilometer is greater than 0.09 and lower than $50W/m^2$ compared to MWR. While there is a difference depending on the locations, RMSE of estimated solar radiation is large over $50W/m^2$ in July and September compared to other months. As a result, the estimation of a daily accumulated solar radiation shows the highest correlation at Gwanghwamun ($R^2=0.80$, RMSE=2.87 MJ/day) station and the lowest correlation at Gooro ($R^2=0.63$, RMSE=4.77 MJ/day) station.

A Study on the Characteristics of Vegetation Landscape of Fortress of Jeonju District in Represented on the (<전주지도>에 표현된 조선 후기 전주부성의 식생경관상)

  • Kang, In-ae;Rho, Jae-hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to find out the characteristics of the vegetation landscape characteristics and system which led the formation of the urban image in Jeonju in the late Joseon period connected with urban spatial structure, using designated as treasure No. 1586 which was made in the middle of 18C. The vegetation landscape characteristics of Jeonju in the late Joseon Dynasty derived from the analysis of are summarized as follows. Firstly, the vegetation landscape system in Jeonju is composed of the natural vegetation around mountain area of Jeonju-Buseong, the independent vegetation or cluster planting forests linked with the main facilities, the Bibo-Forests connected with topographical characteristics of Jeonju, and the vegetation combined with a private garden. Secondly, planting landscape was specialized using flag species and local species. Thirdly, the garden-type plantation centered on the back yard or front of main facilities, with the background of natural vegetation landscape combined with the mountain area and the vegetation combined with a private garden, dominates vegetation landscape of Jeonju Buseong as objects. Fourthly, in order to overcome the defects of topographical characteristics, the Bibo-Forests were emphasized as an important planting landscape element in addition to the vegetation landscape elements connected with main facilities. Fifth, ecological vegetation landscape technique was taken considering the topographical characteristics. The characteristics of vegetation landscape of Jeonju Buseong, which is derived from , have an important meaning to restore and reproduce Jeonju's historical features. Especially, the vegetation communities of the non-booming concept combined with the geographical features, the ecological landscape harmonizing with the topography, the round house type landscape mixed with the private house, and the specialization of vegetation landscape using local species are important factors in securing the city image based on the historical characteristics and creating a city brand that utilizes vegetation landscape.

Correlation between Sleep Disorders and Sleepy Drivers (수면장애와 졸음운전의 상관성)

  • Kim, Ki-Bong;Sung, Hyun-Ho;Park, Sang-Nam;Kim, Bok-Jo;Park, Chang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.216-224
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    • 2015
  • This study aims to identify the prevalence of sleep related disease in those who experienced car accidents caused by drowsy driving. To this end, a survey of usual sleep habits, polysomnography, and multiple sleep latency tests were conducted in 34 persons who experienced an accident after normal sleep (Group 1), 22 persons who experienced an accident after abnormal sleep (Group 2), and 17 persons who was proven to be normal as a result of polysomnography and had no accident (Group 3). In all, 192 persons responded to the preliminary survey and the results were compared and analyzed. Crossover analysis was conducted to test the homogeneity of statistical characteristics, and the physical characteristics by age were analyzed. In the survey of sleeping habits, there was a significance between groups in how often they woke up while asleep (p<0.01), how difficult it was to go back to sleep again after waking up from sleep (p<0.05), how early they woke up in the morning (p<0.05), how difficult it was to get up in the morning (p<0.05), how sleepy they felt in the daytime (p<0.01), and how tired they felt in the daytime (p<0.01). Furthermore, among 56 subjects who had an accident during drowsy driving, 94.6% (53 persons) were found to have sleep related diseases. This suggests that car accidents during drowsy driving is not simply caused by temporary lack of sleep but by sleep related diseases even when sleep is adequate, leading to car accidents. Therefore, this study is significant identifying the association between car accidents during drowsy driving and sleep related disorders. Furthermore, the data would be considered basic to prepare social measures against drowsy driving related to such sleep related disorders.

Cartoon Criticism; The subject and the gaze based on Lacan' s theory otherness of vision : focusing on KUBRICK of Kang, Do-Ha (라캉의 시각의 타자성(대상 a)에 근거한 만화비평으로서의 주체와 응시 : 강도하의 큐브릭을 중심으로)

  • Yang, Seung-Kyu
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.79-108
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    • 2012
  • This thesis is on the purpose of seeking for the possibility of a mechanism in interpreting, analyzing and criticizing cartoons which are applied to the concept of "the gaze" based on "the otherness of vision", which states a pluralistic visual world. It proves that cartoons are in line with other art works that are the subject to "lack and desire"; the gaze, greets reality and acts as an important criterion of analyzing and criticizing the trend in contemporary art, in which the cartoon expresses the gaze in harmony within its work of art. In this thesis, the artist, Kang Doh-ha structuralized ambiguous and difficult forms of art as he has cumulated experimental minds by working in an indie cartoon plane for a long period of time. Among his works of art, he identified the "invisible world" through his piece "Kubrik". Therefore, he represented: a metaphor and a metonymy, an ambiguously situational expression, an intentional and emotional error, the structure of individuality and integration, and finally tension beyond its meaning through use of 'the gaze' that is both the cause and the subject of a desire in the visible world which Lacan academized when he interpreted and analyzed "Kubrik". The concept of the gaze can be used in a variety of ways to display one another's presence in relation each character, revealing a spot of lack by staring back at readers or audiences and furthermore, to analyze and criticize the hidden side of the art piece by critics. The most important details are the artist's gaze, which is seen in the eyes of the analysis and also his or her criticism of the cartoon, which functions as a metaphoric screen in which the subject himself or herself betrays the law of desires thus enabling the violent and cruel reality to be masked and indulged in plays. This will serve as an element that will lead into an art as well as control the degradation to just a piece of enjoyment with the cartoon remaining only within the visual world.

A Study on the Changes of Landscape Perception for 'Bejing-Palgyeong(北京八景)' in China (중국 역대 북경팔경(北京八景)의 경관인식 변화에 대한 고찰)

  • Kwon, Ji-Young;Kim, Sung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2020
  • This study closely analyzed poems and paintings related to Beijing-Palgyeong, as well as ancient maps and ancient writings. Through the study, people who read this study can consider, Beijing-Palgyeong's the process of changing times, changing landscape perception, physical and symbolic landscape elements, structural analysis, national management relationships, and finally how it was localized as symbolic place. The view point of the Beijing-Palgyeong is distributed in four places, one outside and one inside the city. Outside of the capital city of Beijing-Palgyeong were concentrated in Seosan(西山) where the resting place of the emperor and the center of the landscape view of Beijing. The view point of Beijing-Palgyeong inside the capital city is located in two places in the royal palace's Imperial Garden and in two villages around the fortress. In other words, Beijing-Palgyeong was selected as a place closely related to the imperial family, emperor, and royal palace from the time of its initial creation. Since then, many scholars, including the emperor, have used it for national management through Won(元), Ming and Qing Dynasty, and it have become more and more characteristic of 'The capital city of eight scenic views'. The two places inside the capital city praised the Gods and Emperors in the same way. Outside the capital city, the two sites depict the comfortable lives of the people who are governed by the emperor and depicting the village landscape around the city. In the end, it can be seen that most of the Beijing-Palgyeong are related to imperial palaces and emperors. If you look at the physical landscape of Beijing-Palgyeong by element, it mainly contains the contents of national management and the emperor's eulogy. Qianlong Emperor established the Beijing-Palgyeong in 1751 through the construction of a monument. A four-character on the front of the monument, and inscribed with a seven-word written by the person on the back. It can be said that Qianlong Emperor's Beijing-Palgyeong were intended to show off the results of Manchurian rule through the material symbol of the monument. Beijing-Palgyeong have been transformed into a landmark, and modern people use it as an indicator of the Beijing-Palgyeong.

A Study on the Change of Materials and Fabrication Techniques of Stone Figures in Royal Tombs of the Joseon Period - Focusing on Shindobi, Pyo-Seok, and Sang-Seok - (조선시대 왕릉 석물의 재료와 제작 방법 변화에 관한 연구 - 신도비와 표석, 상석을 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Moonsung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.56-77
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    • 2019
  • Bi-Seok is a treasure trove of funeral rites and an important cultural asset that can shed light on the historical and social history of calligraphy, but research of the topic is still insignificant. In particular, research on the production method of Bi-Seok remains an unproven field. The production of Bi-Seok can be roughly divided into ma-jeong (refining stone), sculpture, and the Buk-chil (process of engraving letters) process. This article reveals some facts: First, performing ma-jeong to the Sang-Seok, Honyu-Seok, Bi-seok, which are known to be God's things. This process is needed because of the change in the perception of the Honyu-Seok due to the settlement and propagation of Confucian ceremonial rituals in the times of hardship in 1592 and 1636. As the crafting process of ma-jeong did not remain concrete, it was only possible to examine the manufacturing process of Bi-Seok through its materials and tools. Second, the rapid proliferation of Oh-Seok and Sa-jeo-chwi-yong (purchase of things made by private citizens) in the Yeongjo era has great importance in social and cultural history. When the Gang-Hwa-Seok of the commodity were exhausted, the Oh-Seok that was used by Sadebu (upper civil class) were used in the tomb of Jangneung, which made Oh-Seok popular among people. In particular, the use of Oh-Seok and the Ma-Jeong process could minimize chemical and physical damage. Third, the writing method of the Bi-seok is Buk-chil. After Buk-Chil of Song Si-Yeol was used on King Hyojong's tomb, the Buk-Chil process ( printing the letters on the back of the stone and rubbing them to make letters) became the most popular method in Korea and among other East Asian countries, and the fact that it was institutionalized to this scale was quite impressive. Buk-Chil became more sophisticated by using red ink rather than black ink due to the black color that results from Oh-Seok. Fourth, the writing method changes in the late Joseon Dynasty. Until the time of Yeongjo's regime, when inscribing, the depth of the angle was based on the thickness of the stroke, thus representing the shade. This technique, of course, did not occur at every Pyo-Seok or Shindobi, but was maintained by outstanding artisans belonging to government agencies. Therefore, in order to manufacture Bi-Seok, Suk-seok, YeonJeong, Ma-jeong, Jeong-Gan, ChodoSeoIp, Jung-Cho, Ip-gak, Gyo-Jeong, and Jang-Hwang, a process was needed to make one final product. Although all of these methods serve the same purpose of paying respects and propagandizing the great work of deceased persons, through this analysis, it was possible to see the whole process of Pyo-Seok based upon the division of techniques and the collaboration of the craftsmen.

A Study on Compliance of Hypertensive Patients Registered at Community Health Practitioner Post (보건진료소에 등록된 고혈압 환자의 순응도 연구)

  • Cha, Sun-Sook;Kim, Keon-Yeop;Lee, Moo-Sik;Na, Back-Joo;Park, Jung-Hwan;Yu, Taec-Soo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: This study was to evaluate the compliance of hypertensive patients and its related factors registered at Community Health Practitioner Post(CHCP). Methods: 304 patients were interviewed by trained nursing students during one month(June~July 2004). The questionnaire included general charactristics, knowledge of hypertension, health education experience, constructs of Health Belief Model, self efficacy and so on. Compliance group was defined "having regularly medication and good life style". Good life style included regular exercise, non-smoking, little alcohol, low salt diet, weight control. Results: In compliance group 90.3% of man and 93.3% of woman were regularly taking hypertensive medicine, and 45.2% of man and 56.4% of woman were having good life style (compliance group). In both man and woman, the group of higher education were more compliance group, but were statistically significant were in man(p<0.05). In woman, the compliance group have significantly higher score in knowledge of hypertension(p(0.05). The compliance group have significantly higher self-efficacy score in both man and woman (p<0.05). In Health Belief Model, susceptibility and benefit were statistically significant in man, seriousness, benefit and barrier in woman(p<0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, education level and self efficacy in man and knowledge of hypertension, self-efficacy and benefit in woman were significant variables (p<0.05). Conclusions: It is very important to evaluate and modify life-style adding to having regularly medication in hypertensive patients registered at CHCP. To this, health education programs about benefit to compliance and the methods to improve self-efficacy should be developed for this patients.

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Relationship between water and coffee intake on Health-related Physical Fitness and obesity of women's university student (여대생의 건강체력과 비만에 대한 물과 커피 섭취량과의 관계)

  • Lee, Lu-Ry;Ko, You-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.649-658
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to verify the difference in health and obesity according to water and coffee intake. The study subject is 900 female college students. Physical fitness factors measured in this study were physical strength(grip strength, back muscle strength), muscle endurance (sit-up), Flexibility(Sit & reach) and cardiopulmonary endurance(harvard step). The factors of body composition (intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, protein, mineral, body water content, muscle mass, lean body mass, body fat mass) and obesity (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal fat percentage, obesity) were measured with the Inbody equipment. SPSS program was used for all data analysis. Group differences were verified by two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA. The results are as follows. There was no interaction effect between water and coffee intake on health and obesity. Therefore, the difference of the dependent variables according to each independent variable was verified. There was no significant difference in physical fitness according to water intake and coffee intake, but there was a significant difference in body composition (intracellular fluid, protein, minerals, body water, muscle mass and lean body mass). Water drinking group more than 7 cups had significantly higher body composition than the 1-4 cups water drinking group. In the case of coffee, the body composition of the 3 cup intake group was significantly higher than that of the none intake group. Obesity was significantly higher than the none intake and 1-2 cup intake groups. Based on the study results, water intake was not related to obesity, but coffee was related. For further studies, it would be better to consider gender and age differences in drinking various beverages such as water and coffee and that would be used to suggest a desirable way of water intake according to individual characteristics of the better health.

Structural Properties of Social Network and Diffusion of Product WOM: A Sociocultural Approach (사회적 네트워크 구조특성과 제품구전의 확산: 사회문화적 접근)

  • Yoon, Sung-Joon;Han, Hee-Eun
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.141-177
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    • 2011
  • I. Research Objectives: Most of the previous studies on diffusion have concentrated on efficacy of WOM communication with the use of variables at individual level (Iacobucci 1996; Midgley et al. 1992). However, there is a paucity of studies which investigated network's structural properties as antecedents of WOM from the perspective of consumers' sociocultural propensities. Against this research backbone, this study attempted to link the network's structural properties and consumer' WOM behavior on cross-national basis. The major research objective of this study was to examine the relationship between network properties and WOM by comparing Korean and Chinese consumers. Specific objectives of this research are threefold; firstly, it sought to examine whether network properties (i.e., tie strength, centrality, range) affect WOM (WOM intention and quality of WOM). Secondly, it aimed to explore the moderating effects of cutural orientation (uncertainty avoidance and individuality) on the relationship between network properties and WOM. Thirdly, it substantiates the role of innovativeness as antecedents to both network properties and WOM. II. Research Hypotheses: Based on the above research objectives, the study put forth the following research hypotheses to validate. ${\cdot}$ H 1-1 : The Strength of tie between two counterparts within network will positively influence WOM effectivenes ${\cdot}$ H 1-2 : The network centrality will positively influence the WOM effectiveness ${\cdot}$ H 1-3 : The network range will positively influence the WOM effectiveness ${\cdot}$ H 2-1 : The consumer's uncertainty avoidance tendency will moderate the relationship between network properties and WOM effectiveness ${\cdot}$ H 2-2 : The consumer's individualism tendency will moderate the relationship between network properties and WOM effectiveness ${\cdot}$ H 3-1 : The consumer's innovativeness will positively influence the social network properties ${\cdot}$ H 3-2 : The consumer's innovativeness will positively influence WOM effectiveness III. Methodology: Through a pilot study and back-translation, two versions of questionnaire were prepared, one in Korean and the other in Chinese. The chinese data were collected from the chinese students enrolled in language schools in Suwon city in Korea, while Korean data were collected from students taking classes in a major university in Seoul. A total of 277 questionnaire were used for analysis of Korean data and 212 for Chinese data. The reason why Chinese students living in Korea rather than in China were selected was based on two factors: one was to neutralize the differences (ie, retail channel availability) that may arise from living in separate countries and the second was to minimize the difference in communication venues such as internet accessibility and cell phone usability. SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 7.0 were used for analysis. IV. Results: Prior to hypothesis verification, mean differences between the two countries in terms of major constructs were performed with the following result; As for network properties (tie strength, centrality and range), Koreans showed higher scores in all three constructs. For cultural orientation traits, Koreans scored higher only on uncertainty avoidance trait than Chinese. As a result of verifying the first research objective, confirming the relationship between network properties and WOM effectiveness, on Korean side, tie strength(Beta=.116; t=1.785) and centrality (Beta=.499; t=6.776) significantly influenced on WOM intention, and similar finding was obtained for Chinese side, with tie strength (Beta=.246; t=3.544) and centrality (Beta=.247; t=3.538) being significant. However, with regard to WOM argument quality, Korean data yielded only centrality (Beta=.82; t=7.600) having a significant impact on WOM, whereas China showed both tie strength(Beat=.142; t=2.052) and centrality(Beta=.348; t=5.031) being influential. To answer for the second research objective addressing the moderating role of cultural orientation, moderated regression anaylsis was performed and the result showed that uncertainty avoidance moderated between network range and WOM intention for both Korea and China, But for Korea, the uncertainty avoidance moderated between tie strength and WOM quality, while for China it moderated between network range and WOM intention. And innovativeness moderated between tie strength and WOM intention for Korea but it moderated between network range and WOM intention for China. As a result of analysing for third research objective, we found that for Korea, innovativeness positively influenced centrality only (Beta=.546; t=10.808), while for China it influenced both tie strength (Beta=.203; t=2.998) and centrality(Beta=.518; t=8.782). But for both countries alike, the innovativeness influenced positively on WOM (WOM intention and WOM quality). V. Implications: The study yields the two practical implications. Firstly, the result suggests that companies targeting multinational customers need to identify segments which are susceptible to the positive WOM and WOM information based on individual traits such as uncertainty avoidance and individualism and based on that, develop marketing communication strategy. Secondly, the companies need to divide the market on Roger's five innovation stages and based on this information, enforce marketing strategy which utilizes social networking tools such as public media and WOM. For instance, innovator and early adopters, if provided with new product information, will be able to capitalize upon the network advantages and thus add informational value to network operations using SNS or corporate blog.

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