• Title, Summary, Keyword: Back Analysis

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A study on Somatotype Classification of the Early Middle-Aged Women (중년 전기 여성의 체형 유형화에 관한 연구)

  • 심정희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1386-1397
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to classify and analyze the somatotype of early middle-aged women and to provide its total data for clothing construction, and to improve clothing culture. The subjects were 277 early middle-aged women between 35 and 44 years old. Data were collected through anthropometry and photometry and analyzed by factor analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results were as follows; 1. The result of factor analysis indicated that 10 factors were extracted through factor analysis and those factors comprised 86.13 percent of total variance. 2. Using factor scores, cluster analysis was carried out and the subject were classified into 4 cluster. Type 1 is tall, slim, and X type in front. Type 2 is standard height and weight, short upper body, and hip-protruded on the side. Type 3 is standard height, thin, H type in front, back and hip are clearly protruded, and lean-back type on the side. Type 4 is standard height, fat, and long upper body. 3. According to the stepwise discriminant analysis, the 8 important iems is classifying the somatotype of early middle-aged women are as follows : bust girth, back length hip breadth-waist breadth, back protruded point depth(back)-back waist depth(back), hip tangent tilt, hip depth(back) waist dapth(back), bust depth-waist depth, and cervical hight, The correct classification rate for these items is as exact as 83.20%.

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Grain Burn-back Analysis using Face Offsetting Method (Face Offsetting Method를 사용한 그레인 Brun-back 해석)

  • Oh, Seok-Hwan;Roh, Tae-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.776-777
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    • 2017
  • The grain burn-back analysis has been required for the calculation of the solid propellant performance. The conventional grain burn-back analysis uses the level set method, but problems in the moving surface analysis may occur. In this study, the face offsetting method has been used for analyzing the moving surface. As results, the face offsetting method has been proven to be useful method for the grain burn-back analysis.

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Back Analysis of Tunnel for multi-step Construction (시공 단계를 고려한 터널의 역해석에 관한 연구)

  • 김선명;윤지선
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.479-484
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    • 2000
  • The reliable estimation of the system parameters and the accurate prediction of the system behavior are important to design tunnel safely and economically. Therefore, the back analysis using the field measurements data is useful to evaluate the geotechnical parameter for tunnel. In the back analysis method, the selection of initial value and uncertainty of field measurements influence significantly on the analysis result. In this paper, to overcome uncertainty of field measurements, we performed the back analysis using the displacement data gained at each step of excavation and support.

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Factor Analysis of Low Back Pain Patients (일부 요통환자의 인자분석)

  • Kang, Jeom-Deok
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate factor analysis of low back pain patients. Methods: The data were collected from hospital located in Daegu. Observation was made on 40 low back pain patients and factor analysis study was also performed in terms of their abnormal physical findings. Results: The low back pain patients occupied 20% of all clinical patients in male group and 20% in female group. The occurrence of acute low back pain in the first factor tended to be higher among in male group than among in female group. While it was significantly higher muscle weakness of the back in female group. The most prevailing abnormal finding among low back pain patients in the first factor were tender point on the back, While it was significantly lower Decreased tendon reflex in both sexes Conclusions: The factor pattern of abnormal physical findings in low back pain patients was much different between male and female patients, suggesting the different pattern of etiology. Although low back pain is one of the most common symptoms causing limitation activity, as yet there is no known specific effective treatment.

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Back Analysis of Field Measurements Around the Tunnel with the Application of Genetic Algorithms (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 터널 현장 계측 결과의 역해석)

  • Kim Sun-Myung;Yoon Ji-Sun;Jun Duk-Chan;Yoon Sang-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2004
  • In this study, the back analysis program was developed by applying the genetic algorithm, one of artificial intelligence fields, to the direct method. The optimization process which has influence on the efficiency of the direct method was modulated with genetic algorithm. On conditions that the displacement computed by forward analysis for a certain rock mass model was the same as the displacement measured at the tunnel section, back analysis was executed to verify the validity of the program. Usefulness of the program was confirmed by comparing relative errors calculated by back analysis, which is carried out under the same rock mass conditions as analysis model of Gens et at (1987), one of back analysis case in the past. We estimated the total displacement occurring by tunnelling with the crown settlement and convergence measured at the working faces in three tunnel sites of Kyungbu Express railway. Those data measured at the working face are used for back analysis as the input data after confidence test. As the results of the back analysis, we comprehended the tendency of tunnel behaviors with comparing the respective deformation characteristics obtained by the measurement at the working face and by back analysis. Also the usefulness and applicability of the back analysis program developed in this study were verified.

Study on Solid Propellant Grain Burn-back Analysis Applying Face Offsetting Method (Face Offsetting Method를 적용한 고체 로켓 모터 그레인 Burn-back 해석 연구)

  • Oh, Seok-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Bok;Kim, Yong-Chan;Cha, Seung-Won;Kim, Kyoung-Rae;Kim, Duk-Min;Lee, Hyoungjin;Ro, Tae-Seong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.81-91
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    • 2019
  • The 3-dimensional grain burn-back analysis is performed using the face offsetting method for calculating the solid rocket motor performance. The grain burning configuration analysis is a moving surface problem that calculates the regression of the burning surface. In the previous study, various moving interface analysis methods were applied for the grain burn-back analysis, but the results were imperfect. In this study, a 3-dimensional grain burn-back analysis module is developed using the face offsetting method, which combines the advantages of the existing moving interface analysis methods to increase the accuracy and robustness. As a result, the face offsetting method is proved to be efficient for the grain burn-back analysis.

Back Analysis of the Measured Displacements by the Coupled Method of Finite Elements-Boundary Elements in Tunnel (유한요소-경계요소 조합에 의한 터널 계측결과의 역해석)

  • 김문겸;장점범
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 1995
  • In order to construct underground structural systems safely and economically, exact identification of the system parameters and accurate analysis of the system behaviors are required. Therefore, necessity of back analysis which is able to identify material properties of underground structural systems is increased. In this study a back analysis program which can identify the system parameters is developed using the direct method to be combined with the forward analysis program. Results of the back analysis program show good agreement with that of Gens et al. Sensitivity of the accuracy and convergency of the back analysis program on the number of measuring points is investigated. Comparison between the results of the back analysis with measurement data and the obtained material properties from the field tests shows good agreement for the real construction site.

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Estimation of Internal Friction Angle by the Back Analysis on Collapsed Rock Slope (붕괴된 암반사면에서 역해석에 의한 내부마찰각의 추정)

  • 이달원;김갑중
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.172-182
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the back analysis was performed by means of stereo-net, plane failure and block failure method to collapsed fields among the rock slopes designed by standardized criterion, and the internal frictions from the back analysis were compared with those used to reinforcement design. It was concluded that in the result of the analysis by means of stereo net, plain failure and block failure methods, the internal frictions used to re-design of collapsed slope underestimated 10$^{\circ}$, 5$^{\circ}$ and 10$^{\circ}$ in average. At present, the internal friction on the design is used the experience value according to the state of weathering, but internal friction angle by the back analysis on collapsed slope with various methods were more reliable values than those from the present method. And it was concluded that re-design was made extravagantly because the internal friction used to re-design for reinforcement of the collapsed slope was less than back analysis.

Study on Solid Propellant Grain Burn-back Analysis Using Analytical Method (Analytical Method를 이용한 고체 추진제 그레인의 Burn-back 연구)

  • Sohn, Jihyun;Jang, Jinsung;Oh, Seokhwan;Roh, Taeseong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 2014
  • The grain burn-back analysis has been performed for the internal ballistics analysis code to be used for the optimal design of the space launch vehicles. The grain burn-back has been used to calculate the burning surface that is essential to the internal ballistics. The calculation of internal ballistics code used in the optimal design is repeated until satisfying the required performance through the change of the design parameter. Therefore, the burn-back method applied to the internal ballistics analysis should be easy to change the design parameter and calculation time should be short. In this study, a burn-back analysis code has been developed using the analysis method. Also, geometric parameters of the grain have been selected and organized. The developed code has been verified by comparison of results of a numerical method.

Adult women's back type classification and Development of the Basic Bodice Pattern (성인여성의 등면형상 유형화와 길 원형 설계)

  • 최선윤;이정란
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.758-769
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    • 2003
  • In this research, I classified adult women's back types through anthropometric measurement and photographic measurement to present a judging individual body size according to the type. Also, Ⅰ calculated regression fomula by types and presented the basic bodice pattern. The results were as follows: 1. The result of factor analysis indicated that 5 factors were extracted and those factors comprised 75.89% of total variance. 2. According to the cluster analysis, Ⅰclassified the back types into 6 types. Type 1 was passive posture in the upper and the lower parts of the back. Type 2 was active posture in the upper and the lower parts of the back. Type 3 had the lowest protrusion of the back. Type 4 had the upper part of the back which is mostly bent downward. Type 5 was the most suitable shape. Type 6 had the lower part of the back which was turned over the most. 3. Ⅰconducted a discriminant analysis to judge the body types of individuals. 4. For the calculation of measurements necessary for the basic bodice pattern, Ⅰpresented regression formulas by each type. 5. By conducting the wearing experiments, Ⅰsuccessfully made the final basic bodice patterns by types. As a result of comparative experiments between the basic bodice patterns and comparison bodice pattern, the suitability of basic bodice patterns were more highly assessed.