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The Resistance of Bacillus subtilis in Makgeolli to Hydrostatic Pressure (막걸리에 접종한 Bacillus subtilis의 초고압에 대한 저항력)

  • Lee, Eun-Jung;Kim, Joo-Sung;Oh, Se-Wook;Kim, Yun-Ji
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2012
  • In order to understand the effect of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on Bacillus subtilis isolated from makgeolli, the survival of B. subtilis after HP treatment (400 MPa for 5 min) in various substrates including phosphate buffer, tryptone soya broth at pH 7 and 4, and makgeolli at pH 4 was evaluated depending on bacterial forms (spores and vegetative cells) and adaptation conditions ($25^{\circ}C$ for 3 h, or $10^{\circ}C$ for 24 h). Spores were generally resistant to HP (<1 log reduction) regardless of conditions. In contrast, vegetative cells were generally susceptible to HP (up to 3 log reduction-except makgeolli) and were more susceptible after 3 h at $25^{\circ}C$ compared to 24 h at $10^{\circ}C$. In vegetative cells inoculated makgeolli (7 log CFU/mL), the colonies were not detected after 24 h at $10^{\circ}C$. Consequently, B. subtilis in makgeolli easily existed as spores and the spores were resistant to HP. Results demonstrate that HP was more promising in the inactivation of vegetative cells.

Crystal Structure of Isoimperatorin, $C_{16}H_{14}O_4$ (Isoimperatorin, $C_{16}H_{14}O_4$의 결정구조)

  • 김문집;신준철
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 1997
  • The crystal structure of isoimperatorin, f-[(3-methyl-2-butenyl)oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g][1] benzopyran-7-one, has been determined from single crystal x-ray diffraction study; C16H14O4, Monoclinic, P21/c, a=8.865(1) Å, b=9.331(1) Å, c=16.156(1) Å, β=98.12(1)', V=1322.9(2) Å3, T=293(2)K, z=4, Cu Kα(λ=1.5418 Å). The structure was solved by direct method and refined by full-matrix least squares to a final R=5.72% for 1922 unique observed Fo>4o(F0) reflections and 182 parameters.

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Differences in Optimal pH and Temperature for Cell Growth and Antibody Production Between Two Chinese Hamster Ovary Clones Derived from the Same Parental Clone

  • Kim, Sung-Hyun;Lee, Gyun-Min
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.712-720
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    • 2007
  • To investigate clonal variations of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary(rCHO) clones in response to culture pH and temperature, serum-free suspension cultures of two antibody-producing CHO clones(clones A and B), which were isolated from the same parental clone by the limiting dilution method, were performed in a bioreactor at pH values in the range of 6.8-7.6, and two different temperatures, $33^{\circ}C\;and\;37^{\circ}C$. In regard to cell growth, clone A and clone B displayed similar responses to temperature, although their degree of response differed. In contrast, clones A and B displayed different responses to temperature in regard to antibody production. In the case of clone A, no significant increase in maximum antibody concentration was achieved by lowering the culture temperature. The maximum antibody concentration obtained at $33^{\circ}C$(pH 7.4) and $37^{\circ}C$(pH 7.0) were $82.0{\pm}2.6$ and $73.2{\pm}4.1{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. On the other hand, in the case of clone B, an approximately 2.5-fold increase in maximum antibody concentration was achieved by lowering the culture temperature. The enhanced maximum antibody concentration of clone B at $33^{\circ}C$($132.6{\pm}14.9{\mu}g/ml$ at pH 7.2) was due to not only enhanced specific antibody productivity but also to prolonged culture longevity. At $33^{\circ}C$, the culture longevity of clone A also improved, but not as much as that of clone B. Taken together, CHO clones derived from the same parental clone displayed quite different responses to culture temperature and pH with regards antibody production, suggesting that environmental parameters such as temperature and pH should be optimized for each CHO clone.

Prevalence of Bacillus cereus from Fried Rice Dishes and Monitoring Guidelines for Risk Management (볶음밥의 Bacillus cereus 위해 수준 및 위해 관리를 위한 모니터링 기준 설정)

  • Chang, Hye-Ja;Lee, Ji-Hye
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2009
  • Contamination levels of aerobic colony counts, coliforms and pathogenic bacteria were tested in fried rice dishes to monitor quality for risk management. The prevalence of Bacillus cereus in dishes from 8 Chinese-style restaurants and 2 institutional foodservices was 10%, and the bacteria's contamination levels was 3.47 log CFU/g. Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella were not detected in any of the 10 samples. However, for their aerobic colony counts and numbers of isolated coliforms, the samples were 30% and 70% over the microbial criteria, respectively, for ready-to-eat foods presented in the Korean Food Code. This suggests that fried rice dishes, although cooked with oil at high temperature, require special care. For the prediction of the growth curve of B. cereus spp. in the fried rice samples, an experiment design of 3 storage temperatures ($7^{\circ}C$, $35^{\circ}C$, $57^{\circ}C$) x 5 storage times (0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h) was applied. The sample exposed to $35^{\circ}C$ showed no B. cereus spp. at 0 h; however, there was a tendency of slow growth (1.0 log CFU/g) after 4 hours of storage and then faster growth at 6 h (3.7 log CFU/g) and 12 h (4.7 log CFU/g), showing a growth rate of 0.56 log CFU/g/hr. These results indicate that fried rice, despite being heat-treated, can become heavily contaminated with B. cereus spp. when held over 2 hours at room temperature. However, the samples stored at $7^{\circ}C$ and $57^{\circ}C$ over 24 hours were not contaminated with B. cereus. Based on these results, management guidelines for controlling B. cereus are suggested.

Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Korean Style Meat Products (한국형 육가공 제품류의 물리적 및 관능적 품질 특성)

  • Kim, I.S.;Jin, S.K.;Hah, K.H.;Lyou, H.J.;Park, K.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2005
  • The Korean styled meat products such as grilled and/or roasted ham(Jikhwagui: J), Bulgogi ham(B), Kimbab ham(K) and sliced roasted ham(DDukgalbi: D) were obtained from different Korean meat processing companies and investigated for their salinity, saccharinity, pH, moisture and fat content, meat color and sensory evaluation. The results obtained were as follows; Percentage of saccharinity in J, B, K and D ranged 7.5 %(13) - 12.7% (J2), 5.3 0/«B2) -7.5 o/«BI), 5.2 0/«K4) - 6.6 o/«KI, K2, KS), and 6.60/«04) - 14.4o/«Dl), respectively. Percentage of salinity in J, B, K and D ranged 2.260/«13)- 2.38 0/«J4), 1.850/«B2) - 2.45 0/«B3), 1.94o/«KI) - 2.40% (K3), and 1.830/«02) - 2.19 o/«Dl), respectively. The pH value of J, B and K were ranged 6.30 - 6.44, 6.266.37 and 6.20 - 6.42, respectively, which are slightly higher than that of D(5.86 - 6.25). Content of average moisture were higher in B(61.0 %), K(59.94%) and J(59.63%) compared to the D(55.93%). In crude fat, B and D were ranged 14-21 %, which are very lower than those of K(59.94%) and J(59.63%). In meat color, $L^*$ value were above 50.0, except D2 and D3. $a^*$ value of B were slightly higher than those of other meat products. Compared to sensory evaluation, the overall acceptability of J is excellent in the range of saccharinity 12.7%, salinity 2.3 %, moisture 61 %, crude fat II - 12%, $L^*$ value 52 - 54, and $a^*$ value 12.3- 12.7. In the case of B, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 6.6 - 7.5 %, salinity 1.90- 2.45 %, moisture 60 %, crude fat 15 %, $L^*$ value 56, and $a^*$ value 15. In the case of K, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 6.5 %, salinity 2.4 %, moisture 61 %, crude fat 16%, $L^*$ value 53, and $a^*$ valuce 15. In the case of D, the overall acceptability is excellent in the range of saccharinity 14.0%, salinity 2.1 %, moisture 55%, crude fat 55%, $L^*$ value 50, and $a^*$ value 13.

Screening and Optimal Culture Conditions of Antibiotic-Producing Actinomycetes B-51 for Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (다제내성 Acinetobacter baumannii에 유효한 방선균 B-51의 탐색 및 이 균주가 생산하는 항생물질 발효 최적 배양 조건)

  • Rhee, Moon-Soo;Kim, Gwan-Pil;Bang, Byung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2010
  • With the increase of the use of antibiotics and invasive procedures, infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii(MRAB) are increasing. We screened the antibiotic producing strain B-51 for antibacterial activity against MRAB from the soils and studied the effects of culture medium on the antibiotic production of B-51. The medium conditions for maximum antibiotic productivity of B-51 was 2% glycerol, 0.5% soybean meal, 0.01% $CaCl_2$, 0.01% $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ and 0.01% $KH_2PO_4$ at an initial pH of 6.0, at $30^{\circ}C$ for 76 h.

The Molecular and Crystal Structure of tricyclazole, $C_9H_7N_3S$ (Tricyclazole, $C_9H_7N_3S$ 의 분자 및 결정구조)

  • Keun Il Park;Young Kie Kim;Sung Il Cho;Man Hyung Yoo
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.13 no.3_4
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2002
  • The molecular and crystal structure of Tricyclazole, C/sub9/H/sub7/N₃S, has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction study. Crystallographic data for title compound: Pca2₁, a=14.889(1) Å, b=7.444(1) Å, c=15.189(2) Å, V=1683.3(3) ų, Z= 8. The molecular structure model was solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares. The final reliable factor, R, is 0.047 for 1533 independent reflections (F/sub o//sup 2/)). The asymmetry unit contains two molecules which are in plate conformation, parallel to each other and related by a pseudo four-fold screw on the b-direction.

A Study on the Chemical Vapor Deposition of BPSG and its Thin Film Properties (B2O3-P2O5-SiO2 계 박막유리의 화학증착 및 물성에 관한 연구)

  • 김은산;양두영;김동원;김우식;최민성
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.517-524
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    • 1991
  • The CVD process of BPSG (BoroPhosphoSilicate Glass) and its thin film properties were studied. B2H6, PH3, SiH4 and O2 gases were reacted in a AP (Atmospheric Pressure) CVD system in the temperature range of 300℃ and 460℃. The interaction of B2H6 and PH3 was studied from the deposition rate and dopant incorporation change point of view. The dependency of BPSG step coverage on the temperature was changed with different O2/(B2H6+PH3+SiH4) ratio. Finally, the boundary which distinguishes the stable BPSG's from the ones that react with Di (Deionized) water or cleaning chemicals such as H2SO4, HCl, H2O2, NH4OH etc could be defined.

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Synthes is of 9,10-difluoro-5,6,6a,7,11b-pentahydroindano [2,1-c]isoquinoline (9,10- 디플루오르 -5,6,6a,7,11b- 펜타하이드로인다노[2,1-c] 이소퀴놀린의 합성)

  • Ma, Eun-Sook;Kim, Min-Jung
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.505-510
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    • 2000
  • The synthesis of pentahydroindanoisoquinoline (4) compound has been achieved via the cyclization of 2-(N-benzylamino)-5,6-difluoro-1-indanol (10a, 10b), which was prepared by condensation and reduction of 2-amino-1-indanol and benzaldehyde in ethanol. The stereochemistry of $H_{6a}$ and $H_{11b}$ of 9,10-difluoro-5,6,6a,7,11b-pentahydroindano[2,1-c]isoquinoline (4) was the trans B/C ring fusion.

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Efficient Synthesis of 2-Aminoindan and cis-(${\pm}$)-4,4a,5,9b-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-3(2H)-one (2-Aminoindan 및 cis- ( ${\pm}$ ) -4,4a,5,9b-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-3(2H)-one의 효율적 합성)

  • Kim, Min-Woo;Ma, Eun-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.403-408
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    • 2006
  • 1-Amino-5,6-dimethoxyindan hydrochloride was synthesized from 3- (3,4-dirnethoxyphenyl)propionic acid by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation, oximation with hydroxylamine, and reduction with an overall yield of 74%. 2-Amino-5,6-dimethoxyindan hydrochloride was synthesized from 3-(3,4-dirnethoxyphenyl)propionic acid by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation, oximation with isoamylnitrite, reduction in NaOH and reaction with HCI to form 5,6-dimethoxy-2-indanone, which was reacted with hydroxylamine and reduced with an overall yield of 42%. 5,6-Dimethoxyindan-1,2-dione-2-oxime, which was catalytically hydrogenated to afford cis-, and trans-1-amino-5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-ol as 3 : 1 ratio. This mixture was treated with Li and reacted with chloroacetyl chloride. Cis isomer was acylated and cyclized to synthesize rir -( ${\pm}$ )-7,8-dimethoxy-4,4a,5,9b-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-3(2H)-one, but trans isomer was just acylated to form amide.