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Crystallograpbic and Magnetic Properties of $Ni_{0.65}Zn_{0.35}Cu_{0.3}Fe_{1.7}O_4$ ($Ni_{0.65}Zn_{0.35}Cu_{0.3}Fe_{1.7}O_4$의 결정학적 및 자기적 특성 연구)

  • 김우철;김삼진;김철성;이승화
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 1999
  • $Ni_{0.65}Zn_{0.35}Cu_{0.3}Fe_{1.7}O_4$ has been studied with x-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The crystal structure is found to be a cubic spinel with the lattice constant $a_0=8.403{\AA}$. Mossbauer spectra of have been taken at various temperatures ranging from 12 K to 665 K. as the temperature increases toward $T_N$ a systematic line broadening effect in the Mossbauer spectrum is observed and interpreted to originate from different temperature dependencies of the magenetic hyperfine fields at various iron sites. Also, by using binomial distribution equation we obtained the hyperfine fields of tetrahedral[A] and octahedral sites[B], $H_{hf}(A)=470\;kOe,\; H_{hf}(B0)=495 \;kOe,\; H_{hf}(B1)=485\;kOe, \;H_{hf}(B2)=453\;kOe,\; H_{hf}(B3)=424\;kOe,\; H_{hf}(B4)=390\;kOe,\; H_{hf}(Bavr)=451\;kOe$ respectively at room temperature. The isomer shift indicates that the iron ions are ferric at tetrahedral[A] and octahedral sites[B], respectively. The Neel temperature is determined to be $T_N=665\;K$. The results of the VSM data gave the magnetic moment and coercivity values of $M_S=66\; emu/g\;and\;H_C=36\;Oe$.

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Palladium(II) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Allylamine and Vinylaniline

  • Uh, Yoon-Seo;Zhang, Hai-Wen;Vogels, Christopher M.;Decken, Andreae;Westcott, Stephen A.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.986-990
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    • 2004
  • Condensation of salicylaldehyde $(2-HOC_6H_4C(O)H)$ with allylamine afforded the unsaturated salicylaldimine, $2-HOC_6H_4C(H)=NCH_2CH=CH_2$. Similar reactivity was observed with substituted salicylaldehydes. Further reaction of these Schiff bases with palladium acetate or $Na_2PdCl_4$ afforded complexes of the type $PdL_2$, where L = deprotonated Schiff base. The molecular structure of the parent salicylaldimine palladium complex $[trans-(2-OC_6H_4C(H)=NCH_2CH=CH_2)_2Pd]$ (1) was characterized by an X-ray diffraction study. Crystals of 1 were monoclinic, space group $P2_1/n,\;a\;=\;14.0005(9)\;{\AA},\;b\;=7.2964(5)\;{\AA},\;c\;=\;17.5103(12)\;{\AA},\;{\beta}\;=\;100.189(1)^{\circ}$, Z = 4. Analogous chemistry with 4-vinylaniline also gave novel palladium complexes containing a pendant styryl group. Crystals of $[trans-(2-HOC_6H_4C(H)=N-4-C_6H_4CH=CH_2)_2Pd]$ (4) were monoclinic, space group $P2_1/c$, a = 13.7710(14) ${\AA}$, b = 11.0348(11) ${\AA}$, c = 7.8192(8) ${\AA}$, ${\beta}\;=\;98.817(2)^{\circ}$, Z = 2.

Characterization of Bacillus licheniformis as a Probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis의 생균제로서의 특성)

  • Kim Jin-Wook;Jun Kyoung-Dong;Kang Jae-Seon;Jang Jung-Su;Ha Bae-Jin;Lee Jae-Hwa
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.359-362
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    • 2005
  • Bacillus licheniformis was an useful material for improvement of fecal microflora. The stability of Bacillus licheniformis in low pH (pH 2, 3, 4, 6, 7), artificial bile acid, high concentration of salt (0, 5, 10, 20, $30\%$), and ethanol (0, 4, 8, 16, $32\%$) was investigated in this study. The viability of Bacillus licheniformis was stable for pH 3, 4, 6, 7 Final viability of Bacillus licheniformis was confirmed below $25\%$, in the bile acid. In high concentration of salt, Bacillus licheniformis showed optimal viability in $10\%$ of salt. The viability of Bacillus licheniformis was over $95\%$ in condition of ethanol concentration $4\%,\;8\%,16\%,\;32\%$ contrast with uncontained ethanol at $37^{\circ}C$ for 4h. It was verified that Bacillus licheniformis was stable for pH 4, 6, 7, high concentration of salt and ethanol but was unstable in pH 2 and bile acid.

Metabolism of Soyasaponin I by Human Intestinal Microflora and Its Estrogenic and Cytotoxic Effects

  • Chang, Seo-Young;Han, Myung-Joo;Han, Sang-Jun;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.430-437
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    • 2009
  • Metabolites of Soyasaponin I, a major constituent of soybean, by human intestinal microflora were investigated by LC-MS/MS analysis. We found four peaks, one parental constituent and three metabolites: m/z 941 [M-H]$^-$, m/z 795 [M-rha-H]$^-$, m/z 441 [aglycone-$H_2O$+H]$^+$, and m/z 633 [M-rha-gal-H]$^-$, which was an unknown metabolite, soyasapogenol B 3-$\beta$-D-glucuronide. When soyasaponin I was incubated with the human fecal microbial fraction from ten individuals for 48 h, soyasaponin I was metabolized to soyasapogenol B via soyasaponin III and soyasapogenol B 3-$\beta$-D-glucuronide or via soyasaponin III alone. Both soyasaponin I and its metabolite soyasapgenol B exhibited estrogenic activity. Soyasaponin I increased the proliferation, mRNA expression of c-fos and pS2, in MCF7 cells more potently than soyasapogenol B. However, soyasapogenol B showed potent cytotoxicity against A549, MCF7, HeLa and HepG2 cells, while soyasaponin I did not. The cytotoxicity of soyasapogenol B may prevent its estrogenic effect from increasing dose-dependently. These findings suggest that orally administered soyasaponin I may be metabolized to soyasapogenol B by intestinal microflora and that soyasapogenol B may express a cytotoxic effect rather than an estrogenic effect.

The Structure of Econazole Nitrate (에코나졸 나이트레이트의 구조)

  • Seo, Il-Hwan;Jo, Seong-Il;Park, Gwon-Il
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 1990
  • Econazole nitrate, 1-{2-[(4-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) ethy1}-1H-imidazole mono-nitrate.C18 H16 CI13 N3 O4 Mw=444.7 Monoclinic P/2₁c,a=17.337(4)A, b=15.191(5), c=7.601(3)A, β=91.72(2)', V=2000.9A3, Z=4, Dc=1.49g/cm3, Dm=1.45g/cm3(mo-ka)= 0.7107A, μ=4.31cm-1, F(000)=912.0, T=298'K, final R=0.061 for 1330 unique observed reflection. Each of the three ring system for the stars with B,A and C ring in order whilst A and C ring of econazole lie close to the same plane which is nearly 60˚with B ring. The hydrogen binding nitrogen of C ring and oxygen of nitrate contributes to stailization of econazole nitrate. Intr and intermolecular distances and angles are within the values recorded for simiar compounds.

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Synthesis of Adriamycin-related System (1) -Synthesis of the Derivative of Tetrahydrobenzo(b)phenazine as a Potential Isostere of Anthracyclinone- (아드리아마이신의 유사제제 합성 (1) -안트라싸이클리논의 Isostere 로서 Tetrahydrobenzo(b)phenazine 유도체의 합성-)

  • Jahng, Yurng-Dong;Chang, Sun-Young
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 1990
  • 7,8-Dihydro-6,11-dihydroxy-9(10H)benzo(b)phenazinone was prepared from 1,2,3,4-tetra-hydrophenazine as a potential isostere of anthracyclinone. The attempts to functionalize at $C_9$ were not successful due to the unstability of the above ketone.

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The Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-base Metallic Glasses Containing Cr in H2SO4 Solutions

  • Arab, Sanaa.T.;Emran, Khadijah.M.;Al-Turaif, Hamad A.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.448-458
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    • 2012
  • In order to develop alloy resistance in aggressive sulphat ion, the corrosion behavior of metallic glasses $Ni_{92{\cdot}3}Si_{4.5}B_{32}$, $Ni_{82,3}Cr_7Fe_3Si_{4.5}B_{3.2}$ and $Ni_{75.5}Cr_{13}Fe_{4.2}Si_{4.5}B_{2.8}$ (at %) at different concentrations of $H_2SO_4$ solutions was examined by electrochemical methods and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Microscopy (XPS) analyses. The corrosion kinetics and passivation behavior was studied. A direct proportion was observed between the corrosion rate and acid concentration in the case of $Ni_{92{\cdot}3}Si_{4.5}B_{32}$ and $Ni_{75.5}Cr_{13}Fe_{4.2}Si_{4.5}B_{2.8}$ alloys. Critical concentration was observed in the case of $Ni_{82,3}Cr_7Fe_3Si_{4.5}B_{3.2}$ alloy. The influence of the alloying element is reflected in the increasing resistance of the protective film. XPS analysis confirms that the protection film on the $Ni_{92{\cdot}3}Si_{4.5}B_{32}$ alloy was NiS which is less protective than that formed on Cr containing alloys. The corrosion rate of $Ni_{82,3}Cr_7Fe_3Si_{4.5}B_{3.2}$ and $Ni_{75.5}Cr_{13}Fe_{4.2}Si_{4.5}B_{2.8}$. alloys containing 7% and 13% Cr are $7.90-26.1{\times}10^{-3}$ mm/y which is lower about 43-54 times of the alloy $Ni_{92{\cdot}3}Si_{4.5}B_{32}$ (free of Cr). The high resistance of $Ni_{75.5}Cr_{13}Fe_{4.2}Si_{4.5}B_{2.8}$ alloy at the very aggressive media may due to thicker passive film of $Cr_2O_3$ which hydrated to hydrated chromium oxyhydroxide.

A Study on One-Piece Dress Pattern According to the Somatotype Alteration of Women in their 20s (20대 여성의 체형변화에 따른 원피스 드레스 원형연구)

  • Park, Ju-Hee;Hong, Jung-Min;Yoon, Jin-Kyung
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.407-412
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    • 2005
  • This study is to establish the pattern for one piece dress which fits well to the women somatotype with different drop value and is functional and has high body fitness. Selected 2 testers from classified 4 types who were close to the average value and took twice dressing test. After successive correction and revision, patterns of one piece dress for each somatotype were established. M type ; Bust line is established to B/4+1.7 cm. Waist line is W/4+1.5+2.5 cm(dart amount) for front pattern and W/4+0.8+2 cm(dart amount) for back. Hip line is H/4+0.8 cm for front and H/4+0.8 cm for back and the bust dart amount is 2.5 cm. A type ; Bust line is established to B/4+1.7 cm. Waist line is W/4+1.5+2.5 cm (dart amount) for front pattern and W/4+0.8+2 cm(dart amount) for back. Hip line is H/4+1.5 cm for front and H/4+1 cm for back and the bust dart amount is 2.2 cm. X type ; Bust line is established to B/4+1.5 cm for front pattern and B/4+2 cm for back. Waist line is W/4+2+2.5 cm (dart amount) for front and W/4+1+2+1.4 cm(for two darts amount) for back. Hip line is H/4+1 cm for front and H/4+1.3cm for back and the bust dart amount is 2.8 cm. H type; Bust line is established to B/4+1.5 cm for front pattern and B/4+2cm for back. Waist line is W/4+1.7+2.5 cm (dart amount) for front and W/4+0.8+2 cm(dart amount) for back. Hip line is H/4+2 cm for front and H/4+1.5 cm for back and the bust dart amount is 2.8 cm. In order to achieve the objective evaluation on a new pattern in this study, the sensory evaluation for both Imwonja pattern and a new pattern in this study was completed. As a result of sensory evaluation, a new pattern of this study could accomplished a good appearance in reflecting characteristics of each types and could achieved the functional superiority than comparison pattern.

Mechanistic insights of metal acetylacetonate-aided dehydrocoupling of liquid-state ammonia borane NH3BH3

  • Pereza, Manon;Mieleb, Philippe;Demirci, Umit B.
    • Advances in Energy Research
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.177-187
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    • 2016
  • Ammonia borane $NH_3BH_3$ solubilized in organic solvent is a potential liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage material. In this study, metal acetylacetonates like $Fe(O_2C_5H_7)_3$, $Co(O_2C_5H_7)_2$, $Ni(O_2C_5H_7)_2$, $Pd(O_2C_5H_7)_2$, $Pt(O_2C_5H_7)_2$ and $Ru(O_2C_5H_7)_3$ are considered for assisting dehydrocoupling of ammonia borane in diglyme (0.135 M) at $50^{\circ}C$. The molar ratio between ammonia borane and metal acetylacetonate is fixed at 100. A protocol for the separation of the soluble and insoluble fractions present in the slurry is proposed; it consists in using acetonitrile to make the precipitation of metal-based compounds easier and to solubilize boron-based intermediates/products. The nature of the metal does not affect the dehydrocoupling mechanisms, the $^{11}B\{^1H\}$ NMR spectra showing the formation of the same reaction intermediates. The aforementioned metal acetylacetonates do mainly have effect on the kinetics of dehydrocoupling. Dehydrocoupling takes place heterogeneously and dehydrogenation of ammonia borane in these conditions leads to the formation of polyborazylene via intermediates like e.g., B-(cyclodiborazanyl) amine-borane and borazine. Our main results are reported and discussed herein.

Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Human Metapneumovirus Infections, in Comparison with Respiratory Syncytial Virus A and B (소아에서 발생한 Human metapneumovirus 감염의 임상-역학적 특징: Respiratory Syncytial Virus A and B 감염과의 비교)

  • Kang, Soo Young;Hong, Che Ry;Kang, Hyun Mi;Cho, Eun Young;Lee, Hyun Ju;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.168-177
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To identify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human metapneumovirus infections (hMPV) in children compared to respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A) and B (RSV B). Method: A retrospective review of medical records was performed in 36 patients with hMPV infection, 106 with RSV A infection, and 51 with RSV B infection, from September 2007 to July 2012. Results: The peak incidence of hMPV infection was observed in May, whereas for RSV infections in November and December. hMPV infection occurred in older patients compared to RSV A and B infection ($29.9{\pm}32.5$ months vs. $13.6{\pm}15.4$ months, P<0.001; $29.9{\pm}32.5$ months vs. $12.1{\pm}13.5$ months, P<0.001, respectively). hMPV infection was more often associated with fever compared to RSV A (97.2% vs. 67.9%, P<0.001), while wheezing was less frequent compared to RSV A and B infection (16.7% vs. 47.2%, P=0.001; 16.7% vs. 37.3%, P=0.037, respectively). hMPV infection was more often diagnosed as pneumonia compared to RSV A infection (72.2% vs. 50.0%, P=0.047) while bronchiolitis was less frequent than in RSV A (5.6% vs. 34.9%, P=0.001) or RSV B infection (5.6% vs. 29.4%, P=0.006). In addition, intravenous antibiotic was more often prescribed for patients with hMPV infection than those with RSV A and B (69.4% vs. 39.6%, P=0.002; 69.4% vs. 43.1, P=0.015, respectively). Conclusion: This study identified characteristics of hMPV infection compared to RSV A and B infection. Seasonality in spring, higher age group, and higher proportion of pneumonia in hMPV infections may be a useful guide for management of respiratory viral infections in children.

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