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Brewing and Quality Characteristics of Korean Traditional Grape Wine (한국 전통포도주의 제조와 품질특성)

  • Kang, Seong-Gook;Yang, Eun-Jung;Jo, Gwang-Ho;Park, Yang-Kyun;Jung, Soon-Teck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.1030-1036
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    • 2008
  • In Korea, many types of traditional grape wine have existed starting from seven hundred years ago and horse-blossom-like-grape (mayu-podo) was mainly cultivated. Korean traditional wine (KTW) was manufactured by a unique method in which grape juice-added porridge made from glutinous rice was fermented by nuruk as a starter for brewing. Unfortunately, KTW making was discontinued in 20th century; thus, restoration of Korean wine culture is needed. KTWs were prepared by four traditional methods, and their qualities were compared to commercial wine made by sugaring grape juice. Ethyl alcohol contents, total acidity, pH and amino acid of the four KTWs were $9.2{\sim}11.2%$, $0.93{\sim}1.20\;mg$/100 mL, $3.02{\sim}3.48$ and $0.80{\sim}0.88\;mg$/100 mL respectively. The KTWs showed higher values in total acidity and amino acid than those of commercial grape wine. KTWs were rich in maltose, acetic acid and lactic acid. L, a and b value in Hunter's color value ranged $3.59{\sim}3.69$, $20.63{\sim}38.06$, and $1.20{\sim}1.56$, respectively. Sensory quality properties in color, flavor, taste and overall of KTWs were not different from commercial dry wine. Contents of total phenolic compounds and free radical scavenging activity using DPPH of KTWs were $599.6{\sim}652.2\;mg$/100 mL and $50.59{\sim}56.75%$, respectively.

The causative organisms of pediatric empyema in Korea (소아 농흉 원인균에 대한 다기관 연구(1999. 9-2004. 8))

  • Yum, Hye-yung;Kim, Woo Kyung;Kim, Jin Tak;Kim, Hyun Hee;Rha, Yeong Ho;Park, Yong Min;Sohn, Myung Hyun;Ahn, Kang Mo;Lee, Soo Young;Hong, Su Jong;Lee, Hae Ran
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : In spite of medical advances, empyema is a serious complication of pneumonia in children. Vaccination practices and antibiotic prescribing practices promote the change of clinical manifestations of empyema and causative organisms. So we made a nationwide clinical observation of 122 cases of empyema in children from 32 hospitals during the 5 year period from September 1999 to August 2004. Methods : Demographic data, and clinical information on the course and management of empyema patients were collected retrospectively from medical records in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Korea. Results : One hundred twenty two patients were enrolled from 35 hospitals. The most frequent age group was 1-3 years, accounting for 48 percent of all cases. The male to female sex ratio was 1.2:1. The main symptoms were cough, fever, respiratory difficulty, lethargy and chest pain in order of frequency. Hematologic findings on admission revealed decreased hemoglobin levels ($10.4{\pm}1.6g/dL$) and increased leukocyte counts ($16,234.3{\pm}10,601.8/{\mu}L$). Pleural fluid obtained from patients showed high leukocyte counts ($30,365.8{\pm}64,073.0/{\mu}L$), high protein levels ($522.3{\pm}1582.3g/dL$), and low glucose levels ($88.1{\pm}523.5mg/dL$). Findings from pleural fluid cultures were positive in 80 cases(65.6 percent). The most common causative agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae. The majority of patients were treated with antibiotics and closed drainage. Some patients needed open drainage (16.4 percent) or decortication (3.3 percent). The mean duration of hospitalization was $28.6{\pm}15.3days$. Conclusion : We analyzed childhood empyema patients during a period of 5 years in Korean children. The most frequent age group was 1-3 years and the most common causative agent was Streptococcus pneumoniaeiae. The majority of patients were treated with antibiotics and close drainage.

Molecular Genetic Evaluation of Korean Native Pig Populations Based on Microsatellite Markers (초위성체 표지를 이용한 한국재래돼지 집단의 분자유전학적 고찰)

  • Lee, Poong-Yeon;Wee, Mi-Soon;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Son, Jun-Kyu;Lee, Seung-Soo;Jin, Hyun-Ju;Yeon, Seong-Heum;Yoo, Yong-Hee;Cho, Chang-Yeon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2011
  • The study was conducted to select and optimize microsatellite (MS) markers for evaluation of Korean native pig (KNP) populations in order to provide standard for the classification and breed definition of the indigenous breeds. The study also aimed to characterize and classify each KNP populations. A total of 648 pigs from 17 pig populations including six KNP, four Chinese native pig and four commercial pig populations were analyzed with 26 MS markers. KNP populations formed separate cluster from those of Chinese native pig and introduced pig populations. Expected heterozygosity (He) of KNP populations were 0.48~0.55 except two populations with 0.65. Genetic distances between KNP populations were relatively shorter: 0.12-0.34. Among six KNP populations, three showed high genetic uniformity, two showed lower uniformity and one showed high level of impurity and heterozygosity. The results can be used to evaluate and manage animal genetic resources at national scale.

Analytical Studies on The Useful Characters Affecting The Lodging Resistance of Wheat and Barley Varieties (맥류의 도복에 관여하는 유용형질의 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Chang-Hwan Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.11
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    • pp.105-117
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    • 1972
  • This experiment has been made to study the relationship between several characters affecting the field lodging and to establish some useful standards for selection of lodging resistant varieties and to classify the degree of lodging resistance in wheat and barley varieties of different sources. The experiment was carried at the Crop Experiment Station, Suwon in 1968. The results obtained are summarized as followings. a. The lodging index modified with bending moment of culm at breaking seemed to be the most useful character in checking the lodging resistance. Highly significant positive correlation (Barley; r=0.40-0.67, Wheat; r=0.46-0.68) was obtained between the lodging index and actual field lodging. b. Between two essential components expressing bending stiffness of the culm, the bending moment at breaking and secondary moment of inertia, a highly significant positive correlation (Barley; r=0.59, wheat; r=0.46-0.53) was observed. c. The bending stiffness of culm got stronger as the dry weight per unit culm, which express the quantity of accumulated dry matters in culm, increased. The correlation coefficient between those two factors was 0.35 to 0.40 in barley and 0.33 to 0.76 in wheat respectively. d. In both wheat and barley, highly significant negative correlation between lodging index and the other factors such as dry weight per unit culm (Barley; r=-0. 51 to -0.70, Wheat; r=-0.65 to -0.83) and bending moment of culm at breaking (Barley; r=-0.29 to -0.69, Wheat: r=-0.54 to -0.89) were observed. Particulary, weight of culm at breaking, secondary moment of inertia and section modulus showed significant negative correlation with lodging index in wheat. e. Outside diameter of culm expressed more intimate relationship with physical characteristics of culm than inside diameter and also showed highly significant correlation with weight of culm at breaking (Barley; r=0.42-0.56, Wheat; r=0.39-0.44) and with bending moment of culm at breaking (Barley; r=0.40-0.41, Wheat; r=0.38-0.49) and with secondary moment of inertia (Barley; r=0.56-0.57, Wheat; r=0.28-0.98) and with section modulus (Wheat; r=0.22-0.96). Between the thickness of culm and physical characteristics of culm also showed the positive correlation. f. There was positive correlation between the culm length and actual field lodging in several groups of variety among the varieties tested. But the culm length seemed to undesirable as a selection measure for the selection of the lodging resistant variety considering the stiffness of culm. g. In classification of lodging resistance for the varieties tested, many Korean barley varieties expressed excellent lodging resistant than wheat, but most of the wheat and barley varieties from Japan considered quite resistant to lodging. h. In selection of lodging resistant varieties, lodging index lower than 1.67 in barley and 1. 76 in wheat considered highly resistant to actual field lodging.

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Biokinetics of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Normal Laying Hen [Part 1] -Determination of Turnover of Glucose- (정상산란계(正常産卵鷄)에 있어서 탄수화물(炭水化物)과 지질대사(脂質代謝)의 생동역학(生動力學) 제1보[第一報] -포도당 대사회전(代謝回轉)의 측정(測定)-)

  • Chiang, Y.H.;Riis, P.M.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 1977
  • The pool size of plasma glucose, turnover rate and other concerned items for glucose metabolism in normal laying hen were investigated by a single-injection method using $U-C^{14}-glucose$. The 11.6 nCi of pure dose was injected to a hen normally fed through the wing vein. The glucose concentration in plasma sample taken at 5 minutes after injections was 214mgper 100ml. From the plottings of logarithmic standard specific activities of plasma taken from 5 to 120 minutes against the time after injection and from the regresion analysis, metabolic states were determined. The pool size was 1.07g, turnover rate was 0.024 per minute, turnover time was 41 minutes, utilization rate was 26mg/min. (0.83 g/hr/kg B.W. 3/4) and glucose space(extracellular fluid volume) was 25.3 per cent of body weight. The values obtained from. 10-50 minutes samples were similar to those described above, which we from 5-120 minutes samples.

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Investigation on Korean Local Maize Lines VI. Use of a Korean Local Maize Line for Silage Production (재래종 옥수수 수집종에 대한 특성조사 제6보 청예를 위한 재래종 옥수수의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Choe, B.H.;Park, J.S.;Kim, Y.R.;Chung, S.K.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.251-256
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    • 1981
  • Silage yield and nutritional values of a locally collected Korean corn line with high tillering and earing characteristics were investigated at plant densities from 2778 to 8333 plants/ l0a. This line and a non-tillering and nonprolific corn as a check were grown at four plant densities and at three planting dates. The Korean local line abbreviated as MET had the highest dry matter per l0a. The highest dry matter of the MET line compared with the check hybrid was due to the highest dry leaf weight of the MET line. The highest dry leaf weight of the MET line was due to the increased number of tillers of the MET line. Other plant parts such as ear weight, kernel weight and cob weight of the MET line were lower than those of the check hybrid. The dry husk weight per l0a of the MET line was higher than that of the check hybrid, probably due to the increased number of ears in the MET line. The total embryo production per 10 a of the MET line was significantly higher than that of the check hybrid. The increased portion of embryo of the MET line is probably responsible for the higher TON values of the MET line. No interaction between variety x planting dates or planting density was found, indicating that the MET line and check hybrid were both the same in effects of planting dates and densities. Both line and hybrid showed the highest dry matter production when the planting density was high and planting dates was early. When silage was made from either MET line or check hybrid the nutritional values in terms of crude protein, crude fat, fiber, and ash contents of the MET line were similar to those of the check hybrid. But the TON of the MET line was higher than that of the check hybrid, while the OCP of the MET line lower than that of the check hybrid. Amino acid contents of the MET line were also comparable to those of the check hybrid, while lysine content of the MET line was 10% higher than that of the check hybrid.

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Management Guideline and Avifauca of Odaesan area in Odaesan National Park (오대산 국립공원 오대산 지역의 야생조류상 및 관리 방안)

  • 이우신;박찬열;조기현
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the avifauna and to suggest the management discipline for the protection of bird community in Odaesan National Park. Field survey was carried over 2 main trails by line transect method from mid June to early December in 1996. The 1st section included the area from Woljongas to Sangwonsa 7km distance. The 2nd section survey started from Sangwonsa via Bukdaesa and the summit of Odaesan to Sangwonsa 9.8 km distance. The study results were as follows ; The observed birds belonged to 9 orders 22families 52species, they also had Black Woodpecker(Dryocopus martius)designated as natural monument No. 242, Chinese Sparrow Hawk(Accipiter soloensis) and Kestrel(Falco tinnunculus) as natural munumet No. 323, Scops Owl(Out scops)and Korean Wood Owl(Strix aluco) as No. 324. These birds also were classified into 25 species for residents, 16 species for summer visitors, 8 species for passage migrants, 3 species for winter visitors, respectionely. The 2nd section showed a high species richness and individuals in every season, however, had a difference in species composition with 1st section. Nesting guild of breeding bird community used highly in order of bush, hole, and canopy as a nest resources. It is suggested that high bush-nesting guild had a deep relationship with bush layer located in the ecotone of 1st section and that located in the high elevated zone in 2nd section. Hole-nesting guild such as Black Woodpecker(Dryocopus martius), Gray-headed Woodpecker(Picus canus) and Great Spotted Woodpecker(Dendrocopos major) were surveyed only in 2nd section, so it could be attribute to the small fragmentation and the growing of high diameter at breast height(D.B.H) tree in 2nd section. It is urgent that the management of camping ground and people for the conservation of brook in 1nd section, trail protection for the prevention from trail enlargement in 2nd section for the bird protection. Artificial food in snowy winter will provide the good breeding condition with the residents and migrants. And, the endeavor to lessen the habitat fragmentation will be beneficial to the birds who have a large home range such as Black Woodpecker(Dryocopus martius) and Korean Wood Owl(Strix aluco). For the control of Domestic Dove(Columba livia) populations, it could be recommended that the elimination of their nesting resources by net.

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Pulmonary Embolism In Childhood Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome (소아 미세변화 신증후군에서 폐색전증에 대한 연구)

  • Sung, Seung-Joon;Hong, Ki-Woong;Kim, Eun-Ryoung;Kim, Il-Soo;Cho, Byung-Soo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : We investigated the incidence and predisposing factors of pulmonary embolism in minimal change nephrotic syndrome(MCNS). Methods : Lung perfusion scan using 99mTC-MAA were done on 14 patients who were diagnosed to minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Group h: Five patients who had perfusion defects on scan, Group B; Nine patients who had no perfusion defect on scan. Between the two groups, the differences of platelet number, hematocrits, albumin, cholesterol, triglyceride, proteinuria were evaluated. Results : Five patients were found to have perfusion defect consistent with pulmonary embolism($35.7\%$). However, there were minimal or no respiratory symptoms and signs. In our laboratory studies, the mean proteinuria on admissions was $676{\pm}31\;mg/m2/hr$ in the group with pulmonary embolism, and $313{\pm}28\;mg/m2/hr$ in the group without pulmonary embolism. There were more severe proteinuria in group with pulmonary embolism(P<0.05). The mean platelet count at early stage of remission after steroid treatment was $746,600{\pm}280,000/mm3$ in the group with pulmonary embolism, $511,890{\pm}90,000/mm3$ in the group without pulmonary embolism. There were significant difference of platelet count between the two groups(P<0.01). In patients with pulmonary embolism, there were more higher and sustained increasement of platelet count. All cases of pulmonary embolism were treated with dipyridamole(5 mg/kg). In 4 cases the perfusion defects were improved in two weeks, however, one case showed persistent perfusion defect after 1 month. Conclusion : Our study suggested that pulmonry embolism might be one of tile major complications in childhood MCNS The occurrence rate was correlated with severity of proteinuria before treatment and sustained increasement of platelet counts in early remission state after steroid treatment. Therefore, the scintigraphic pulmonary perfusion study is mandatory in childhood MCNS, especially in the high risk patients, such as the patients with severe proteinuria and sustained increasement of platelet count. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2001;5 : 100-8)

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Prediction Model of Weed Population in Paddy Fields - II. Simple Prediction Method of Weed Population and Prediction Model of Weed Species (논 잡초(雜草) 발생예측(發生豫測) 모델 개발연구(開發硏究) - II. 간역(簡易) 잡초발생(雜草發生) 예측법(豫測法) 및 잡종별(雜種別) 예측(豫測)모델)

  • Lee, Han-Gyu;Lee, I.Y.;Ryu, G.H.;Lee, J.O.;Lee, E.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 1994
  • The experiment was conducted in 1993 to find out a simple prediction method of weeds and to make the prediction models of weeds in paddy fields. The annuals producing fine seeds were apt to emerge at sampling soil only, on the contrary the perennials and the annuals producing large seeds tended not to emerge at sampling soil due to the miss of seeds at sampling. There was no appropriate regression between a total number of weeds emerged at sampling soil and that of weeds occurred in fields. The important annual weeds occurring in fields were able to predict by the number of weeds emerged at sampling soil, but it was difficult to predict the important perennial weeds. In case of Bidens tripartita producing large seeds and Eleocharis kuroguwai producing large tubers, the prediction coefficients were high as above 1.0, and that of Echinochloa crus-galli and Sagittaria pygmaea were comparatively high as 0.175 and 0.172, respectively. However the coefficients of the other weeds were much low as below 0.08. The prediction models for 9 species were made. The model of six species including E. crus-galli, M. vaginalis, R. indica, B. tripartita, E. triandra and S. pygmaea were linear regression with high significance, however that of 3 species including C. difformis, S. juncoides and E. kuroguwai were curve regression with high significance.

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The Lung Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, TNF-$\alpha$ and Interleukin 6, in Early Periods of Endotoxemia (내독소혈증 유발 급성폐손상에서 폐장내 Proinflammatory Cytokines 발현에 관한 고찰)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik;Lee, Shin-Je
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.553-564
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    • 1998
  • Background: The immediate hoot response to LPS is the production of proinflammatory cytokines that act as intercellular mediators in inflammatory reactions, including acute lung injury. These "early response" cytokines transmit signals from recognition cells to target or effector cells. This host response is further amplified by the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, resulting in an array of proinflammatory events. This experiment was performed to define the lung origin of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-$\alpha$, IL 6 in early periods of endotoxin induced acute lung injury (ALI). Method: The healthy male Sprague-Dawley, weighted 150 - 250g, were divided into saline control (NC) and endotoxemia-induced ALI (ETX-), and leukopenic endotoxemia-induced ALI (CPA-ETX-Group) which was induced by cyclophosphamide, 70 mg/kg i.p. injection. Acute lung injury was evoked by LPS, 5 mg/kg, intravenously administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at 0, 3, 6 h after LPS-treated to estimate the influx of phagocytes and concentration of total protein, and cytokines as TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 by a bioassy using MIT method. We also examined the localization of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 protein in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue by immunohistochemical stain (IH). Results: The total cell, macrophage and PMN count in BALF were elavated in ETX group compared to NC(p<0.05). In CPA-ETX group, total cell and macrophage count in BALF were not changed compared to NC. but PMN count was markedly reduced and it took part in less than 0.1 % of total BAL cells (p<0.01). The protein concentration in BALF were significantly increased in ETX and CPA-ETX group Compared to NC (p<0.05), but there was significant difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group only at 6 h (p<0.05). This observation suggested that even if PMNs are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, their role cannot be viewed as essential The concentration of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 in BALF was significantly increased in the ETX- and CPA-ETX group compared to NC. There was no difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group. In IH, anti-TNF-$\alpha$- and anti-IL 6 antibody was strongly localized at interstitial monocytes and alveolar macrophages in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue. From above point of view, activated alveolar macrophage/monocyte considered as a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemia-challenged lung injury. Conclusion: The prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in early periods of endotoxemia-induced lung injury will be the activated resident macrophages like an alveolar macrophage and interstitial monocytes. The pulmonary macrophage/monocyte will impact the initiation and continuance of lung injury without PMNs's certain inflammatory role, particularly in endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

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