• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antineoplastic drug

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The Effects of Safe Handling Education of Antineoplastic Drug on Knowledge and Performance of Clinical Nurses (항암제 안전관리의 지식과 수행에 대한 항암제 안전관리지침 교육의 적용 효과)

  • Chang, Sun Ju;Lee, Hyun Ok;Kwon, Ji Hyun;Lee, Seung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of safe handling education of antineoplastic drug on knowledge and performance of clinical nurses. Methods: This was a nonequivalent control-group pretest-posttest study. A total of 49 nurses (25 for the experimental group and 24 for the control group) who dealt with antineoplastic drug within the previous 1 week participated in the study. The guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs and antineoplastic drugs side effects were provided to the experimental groups whereas only antineoplastic drugs side effects was given to the control groups. Knowledge and performance in reference to antineoplastic drug handling were measured before and 8-week after interventions. Results: The knowledge scores between the pretest and posttest were not statistically significant in both groups. However, the performance scores in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: The given education of safe handling of antineoplastic drugs had an effect on improving clinical nurses' performance. Thus this education could be routinely administered in practice for those who deal with antineoplastic drugs in their everyday practice.

Analysis of Pharmacogenetic Information in Korea Drug Labels (국내 허가사항에 반영된 약물 유전정보 분석)

  • Lee, Mijin;Kim, Sukyung;Yee, Jeong;Gwak, Hye Sun;Choi, Kyung Hee
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2021
  • Background: Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic mutations in patients affect their response to drugs. Pharmacogenomic studies aim to maximize drug effects and minimize adverse drug events. The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency published guidelines for pharmacogenetics in 2005 and 2006, respectively; the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety followed suit in 2015. Methods: This study analyzed pharmacogenomic information in the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety's integrated drug information system to evaluate whether domestic pharmaceutical products reflect the current research on pharmacogenomic differences. Results: In June 2020, the Korean pharmacogenomic database contained genomic data on 90 compounds. Of these, 45 compounds were classified as "Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents." The other 45 non-antineoplastic agents were in the following categories: Anti-infectives, Mental & behavior disorder, Hormone & metabolism related diseases, Cardiovascular system, Skin & subcutaneous tissue disease, Genito-urinary system and sex hormones, Blood and blood forming organs, Nervous system, Alimentary tract and metabolism, Musculo-skeletal system, and Other conditions including the respiratory system. In addition, 30 additives unrelated to the main ingredient were associated with genetic precautions. Conclusion: This study showed that antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents accounted for half the drugs associated with pharmacogenetic information. For antitumor and immunomodulatory drugs, genomic tests were recommended depending on the indication; this was in contrast to genomic testing recommendations for non-antineoplastic medications. Genomic tests were rarely requested or recommended for non-antineoplastic medications because the relationships between genotype and efficacy among those drugs were relatively weak.

Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Identification of Job Categories Potentially Exposed throughout the Hospital Medication System

  • Hon, Chun-Yip;Teschke, Kay;Chua, Prescillia;Venners, Scott;Nakashima, Lynne
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.273-281
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Studies examining healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs have focused on the drug preparation or drug administration areas. However, such an approach has probably underestimated the overall exposure risk as the drugs need to be delivered to the facility, transported internally and then disposed. The objective of this study is to determine whether drug contamination occurs throughout a facility and, simultaneously, to identify those job categories that are potentially exposed. Methods: This was a multi-site study based in Vancouver, British Columbia. Interviews were conducted to determine the departments where the drugs travel. Subsequent site observations were performed to ascertain those surfaces which frequently came into contact with antineoplastic drugs and to determine the job categories which are likely to contact these surfaces. Wipe samples were collected to quantify surface contamination. Results: Surface contamination was found in all six stages of the hospital medication system. Job categories consistently found to be at risk of exposure were nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy receivers. Up to 11 job categories per site may be at risk of exposure at some point during the hospital medication system. Conclusion: We found drug contamination on select surfaces at every stage of the medication system, which indicates the existence of an exposure potential throughout the facility. Our results suggest that a broader range of workers are potentially exposed than has been previously examined. These results will allow us to develop a more inclusive exposure assessment encompassing all healthcare workers that are at risk throughout the hospital medication system.

Studies on Anti-cancerous Substances from Higher Plane in East Asian Region

  • Takeya, Koichi
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.1-45
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    • 1999
  • To date many kinds of compounds have been obtained from plants kingdom as antineoplastic and anti-cancerous agents. However, there is no special type of compounds for ncancer therapy. Various types of substances are effective for various types of cancers and tumors: for instance, alkaloids, lignans, terpenes and steroids etc. Curcumol obtained from Curcuma aromatica was tested and noticed to be effective against cancer of the uterine cervix clinically Oridonin isolated from Rabdosia ssp.is now investigated for clinical trials in China. Moreover, camptothecine isolated from Camptotheca acuminata is also antineoplastic alkaloid, but is very toxic. Chemical modification has been tried to decrease its toxicity. This compound is now using as clinical agent. Harringtonin was investigated as an anticancerous drug in China. Taxol, a compound with a taxane ring isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia, has been demonstrated to have substantial anticancer activity in patients with solid tumors refractory standard chemotherapy. Supply of this drug has severely limited full exploration of its antineoplastic potential. Some efforts are continued in National Cancer Institute NCI) Washington for surveying various Taxus species for optimal taxol content, improvement in semi-synthesis from baccatin III, improvement in method of extraction, and development of alternative renewable resources. Further, there are many compounds which have been reported as antineoplastic agents. On the other hand, we have screened on higher plants collected in Japan, China, Korea, Southeast Asia and South America for antineoplastic activity, which has been done using Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice, P388 Iymphocytic leukemia in mice, Chinese hamster lung V-79 cells, P388 cells and nasopharynx carcinoma (KB) cells in our laboratory, as primary screening. In this meeting, I will present on antitumor and cytotoxic substances of the higher plants (Rubia cordifolia, Ailanfhus Vilmoriniana, Aster tataricus, Taxus cuspidata var. nana, Cephalotaxus harringtonia var drupacea, etc.) selected from above screening tests.

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Studies on Anti-Cancerous Substances from Higher Plants in East Asian Region

  • Takeya, Koichi
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-45
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    • 2000
  • To date many kinds of compounds have been obtained from plants kingdom as antineoplastic and anti-cancerous agents. However, there is no special type of compounds for cancer therapy. Various types of substances are effective for various types of cancers and tumors: for instance, alkaloids. lignans, terpenes and steroids etc. Curcumol obtained from Curcuma aromatica was tested and noticed to be effective against cancer of the uterine cervix clinically. Oridonin isolated from Rabdosia ssp. is now investigate for clinical trials in China. Moreover camptothecine isolated from Camptotheca acuminata is also antineoplastic alkaloid, but is very toxic. Chemical modification has been tried to decrease its toxicity This compound is now using as clinical agent. Harringtonin was investigated as an anticancerous drug in China. Taxol, a compound with a taxane ring isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifotia. has been demonstrated to have substantial anticancer activity in patients with solid tumors refractory standard chemotherapy. Supply of this drug has severely limited full exploration of its antineoplastic potential Some efforts are continued in National Cancer Institute(NCI) Washington for surveying various Taxus species for optimal taxol content, improvement in semi-synthesis from baccatin 111, improvement in method of extraction, and development of alternative renewable resources. Further, there are many compounds which have been reported as antineoplastic agents. On the other hand, we have screened on higher plants collected In Japan, China, Korea. Southeast Asia and South America for antineoplastic activity, which has been done using Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice, P388 Iymphocytic leukemia In mice, Chinese hamster lung V-79 cells, P388 cells and nasopharynx carcinoma(KB) cells in our laboratory, as primary screening. In this meeting, 1 will present on antitumor and cytotoxic substances of the higher plants(Rubis cordifolia, Ailanthus vilmoriniana, Aster tataricus, Taxus cuspidata var. nana, Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. drupacea, etc.) selected from above screening tests.

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Cost Analysis of Using a Closed-System Transfer Device (CSTD) for Antineoplastic Drug preparation in a Malaysian Government-Funded Hospital

  • Chan, Huan Keat;Lim, Yik Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.4951-4957
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    • 2016
  • Background: Apart from reducing occupational exposure to cytotoxic hazards, the PhaSeal(R) closed-system transfer device (CSTD) can extend the beyond-use dates (BUDs) of unfinished vials of antineoplastic drugs for up to 168 hours (seven days). In this study, the total material cost incurred by its use in a Malaysian government-funded hospital was calculated. Methods: A list of vial stability following initial needle punctures of 29 commonly-used antineoplastic drugs was compiled. The amount of the materials used, including drugs, infusion bottles, the PhaSeal(R) CSTD and other consumables, was recorded on a daily basis for three months in 2015. The total cost was calculated based on the actual acquisition costs, and was compared with that of a hypothetical scenario, whereby conventional syringe-needle sets were used for the same amounts of preparations. Results: The use of the PhaSeal(R) CSTD incurred a cost of MYR 383,634.52 (USD 92,072.28) in three months, representing an average of MYR 170.5 (USD 40.92) per preparation or an estimated annual cost of MYR 1,534,538.08 (USD 368,289.14). Compared with conventional syringe-needle approach, it is estimated to lead to an additional spending of MYR 148,627.68 (USD 35,670.64) yearly. Conclusion: Although there was a reduction of drug wastage achieved by extending BUDs of unfinished vials using the PhaSeal(R) CSTD, cost saving was not observed, likely attributable to the wide use of lower-priced generic drugs in Malaysia. Future studies should further evaluate the possibility of cost saving, especially in health settings where branded and high-cost antineoplastic drugs are more commonly used.

Identification of Knowledge Gaps Regarding Healthcare Workers' Exposure to Antineoplastic Drugs: Review of Literature, North America versus Europe

  • Hon, Chun-Yip;Barzan, Cris;Astrakianakis, George
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2014
  • We have been examining the issue of healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs for nearly a decade and have observed that there appears to be more publications on the subject matter originating from Europe than from North America. The concern is that findings from Europe may not be generalizable to North America because of differences in handling practices, regulatory requirements, and training. Our objective was to perform a literature review to confirm our observation and, in turn, identify gaps in knowledge that warrants addressing in North America. Using select keywords, we searched for publications in PubMed and Web of Science. All papers were initially classified according to the originating continent and then categorized into one or more subject categories (analytical methods, biological monitoring, occupational exposure, surface contamination, and probability of risk/exposure). Our review identified 16 papers originating from North America and 55 papers from Europe with surface contamination being the subject matter most often studied overall. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that North American researchers need to further conduct dermal and/or urinary drug contamination studies as well as assess the exposure risk faced by healthcare workers who handle antineoplastic drugs. Trends in exposure levels should also be explored.

Biological Monitoring on the Absorption of Antineoplastic Drugs in Nursing Personnel (항암제 취급간호사의 항암제 체내흡수에 관한 조사)

  • 김봉임
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.520-530
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    • 1997
  • Antineoplastic agents may exhibit effects not only in patients therapeutically exposed, but also in health workers who prepare and administer these drugs. This study was done to clarify whether nurses who handle anticancer drugs show signs of drug absorption. The experimental group was 14 nurses handling anticancer drugs at three medical wards of a hospital in J city ; the control group was 12 psychiatric nurses at the same hospital. The test materials were the nurses' 24hr urine specimens, which were concentrated by XAD-2 column chromatograpy. Tester strains were TA98(±S9mix), TA100(±S9 mix), TA1535(±S9 mix) and TA1537(±S9 mix) : the salmonella mammalian microsomal test (Ames test) was used for the urinary mutagenicity assay. The results are summarized as follow : 1. In qualitative analysis of the results, both experimental group and control group showed 15.4% urine toxicity. 2. The experimental group revealed significantly higher urinary mutagenicity both in the activation method test and non-activation method test of the tester strains TA98, TA100 and TA1535. In the case of TA1537, the two groups showed no difference in the non-activation method test, but the activation method revealed a difference. 3. In urinary mutagenicity of the experimental group by ward career, there was a significant difference between the group with more than 20 months experience and the group with less than 20 months on the tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1537. No Significant difference was found between two groups by the tester strain TA1535.

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Pharmacokinetic Study on BR-28702-2, a New Anticancer Drug, in Rats (흰쥐에서의 신규 항암제 BR-28702-2의 체내동태)

  • 용철순;이신웅;전철수;채희상;신원섭;백우현
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of BR-28702-2, a new antineoplastic agent which is the conjugate of nucleotide and phospholipid, and to compare them with those of ara-C. Male rats were cannulated in the left femoral vein and received a single i.v. bolus dose of either BR-28702-2 or ara-C. BR-28702-2 was also administered i.p. and plasma samples were analyzed by reversedphase HPLC. The t$_{1}$2($\beta$)/ of ara-C(1.22 hr.) was significantly smaller than that of BR-28702-2(4.420 hr.). The absolute bioavailability of BR-28702-2 after i.p. injection was 1.125%. This lower bioavailability, together with previous reports that marked antineoplastic activity was observed when given i.p., indicates that BR-28702-2 would act as a depot system to release active moieties. Further works, therefore, need to be done to characterize active metabolites.

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Effect of Podophyllotoxin Conjugated Stearic Acid Grafted Chitosan Oligosaccharide Micelle on Human Glioma Cells

  • Wang, Geng Huan;Shen, He Ping;Huang, Xuan;Jiang, Xiao Hong;Jin, Cheng Sheng;Chu, Zheng Min
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.63 no.6
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    • pp.698-706
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    • 2020
  • Objective : To study the physiochemical characteristics of podophyllotoxin (PPT) conjugated stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide micelle (PPT-CSO-SA), and evaluate the ability of the potential antineoplastic effects against glioma cells. Methods : PPT-CSO-SA was prepared by a dialysis method. The quality of PPT-CSO-SA including micellar size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency and drug release profiles was evaluated. Glioma cells were cultured and treated with PPT and PPT-CSO-SA. The ability of glioma cells to uptake PPT-CSO-SA was observed. The proliferation of glioma cells was determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptosis and morphology of U251 cells were observed by 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) dye staining. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The migration ability of U251 cells was determined by wound healing test. Results : PPT-CSO-SA had nano-level particle size and sustained release property. The encapsulation efficiency of drug reached a high level. The cellular uptake percentage of PPT in glioma cells was lower than that of PPT-CSO-SA (p<0.05). The inhibitory effect of PPT-CSO-SA on glioma cells proliferation was significantly stronger than that of PPT (p<0.05). The morphologic change of apoptosis cell such as shrinkage, karyorrhexis and karyopyknosis were observed. The percentage of U251 cells in G2/M phase increased significantly in the PPT-CSO-SA group compared with PPT group (p<0.05). Compared with the PPT group, the cell migration ability of the PPT-CSO-SA group was significantly inhibited after 12 and 24 hours (p<0.05). Conclusion : PPT-CSO-SA can effectively enhance the glioma cellular uptake of drugs, inhibit glioma cells proliferation and migration, induce G2/M phase arrest of them, and promote their apoptosis. It may be a promising anti-glioma nano-drug.