• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amphibians and Reptiles

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Assessing Compliance with the Wildlife Crossing Guideline in South Korea

  • Woo, Donggul;Park, Heebok;Seo, Hyeong-Soo;Moon, Ho-Gyeong;Song, Euigun;Lim, Anya;Choi, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.176-179
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    • 2018
  • To restore the connectivity of fragmented habitats, 415 wildlife crossings have been built between 1998 and 2014 in South Korea. However, their effect on wildlife conservation is still in doubt. As a first step to examine the effectiveness, our study aims to assess compliance with the guideline for wildlife crossing construction and management, developed by the Ministry of Environment Korea that provides fundamental information to understand the status and the problem of wildlife crossings in Korea and thus to provide practical guidance for the improvement. According to our survey, the Korea National Park Service complied with the guideline best (62.5%) while local government followed the guideline least (46.1%). In addition, the compliance rate was the highest for wildlife crossings in national roads (53.6%) followed by highways (53.2%) and local and municipal roads (52.2%). For the overpass wildlife crossings, the compliance rates for installation of an escaping facility in the drainage and prevention of pedestrian and vehicle access were particularly low. In case of underpass wildlife crossings, small ditches for amphibians and reptiles were not sufficient, and the linkage between wildlife fences and underpass were weak. In order to ensure the effectiveness of wildlife crossings, the effort to increase the compliance rate with the guideline is critical, and mandating the guideline could be a practical way to enforce the compliance.

Study on Crossing Tendencies of Birds by Road Type for Validation of Wildlife Crossing Structures Targeting Avian Species

  • Song, Eui-Geun;Lee, Hwa-Su;Park, Hee-Bok;Woo, Dong-Gul;Park, Tae-Jin;Chun, Su-Won;Sim, Seung-Woo;Cha, Hyoun-Gi;Lim, Anya;Choi, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the bird crossing of roads by type (Expressway 1, railroad-provincial road and Highway 4) and the crossing of roads according to the size of birds. The greatest number of avian species and individuals crossing road per 10 minutes were found on railroad-provincial road ($8.96{\pm}1.92$ and $29.33{\pm}11.94$, respectively), while the lowest number of avian species and individuals were found on Expressway 1 ($2.96{\pm}1.04$ and $6.13{\pm}2.89$, respectively), which has the widest width. In addition, the number of small-sized bird (<20 cm) crossing the Expressway 1, railroad-provincial road, and Highway 4 was lower than that of the medium-sized bird (${\geq}20cm$). Current wildlife crossing structures have been focused on mammals, amphibians and reptiles, but future structures should also consider birds.

Korea Road-Kill Observation System: The First Case to Integrate Road-Kill Data in National Scale by Government

  • Kim, Kyungmin;Woo, Dong-Gul;Seo, Hyunjin;Park, Taejin;Song, Eui-Geun;Choi, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.281-284
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    • 2019
  • Efficient management of road-kill data is difficult at national scale when there are many organizations that are in charge of different road types. Here, we described the first case to integrate road-kill data through Korea Road-kill Observation System (KROS) by the Korean government. The system was launched in June 2018 to approximately 3,000 road menders. During 15 months, 5,812 road-kill observations were registered on KROS including mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Of them, about 86 % was occupied by five species (Hydropotes inermis, Felis catus, Capreolus pygargus, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Canis lupus familiaris) listed in number of occurrences. The observed road-kill frequency rapidly increased until April 2019 and peaked on May 2019. However, as the system is just starting, the results from KROS cannot be treated as the exact representation of road-kill trend in the country. Although the efficient method to manage national road-kill statistic is arranged, still there are some limitations to overcome to make the system stable.

Habitat Potential Evaluation Using Maxent Model - Focused on Riparian Distance, Stream Order and Land Use - (Maxent 모형을 이용한 서식지 잠재력 평가 - 하천으로부터의 거리, 하천의 차수, 토지이용을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Dong-Kun;Kim, Ho-Gul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 2010
  • As the interest on biodiversity has increased around the world, researches about evaluating potential for habitat are also increasing to find and comprehend the valuable habitats. This study focus on comprehending the significance of stream in evaluating habitat's potential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate habitat potential with applying stream as a main variable, and to comprehend the relationship between the variables and habitat potential. Basin is a unit that has hydrological properties and dynamic interaction with ecosystem. Especially, biodiversity and suitability of habitat in basin area has direct correlation with stream. Existing studies also are proposing for habitat potential evaluation in basin unit, they applied forest, slope and road as main variables. Despite stream is considered the most important factor in basin area, researchers haven't applied stream as a main variable. Therefore, in this study, three variables that can demonstrate hydrological properties are selected, which are, riparian distance, stream order and land use disturbance, and evaluate habitat potential. Habitat potential is analyzed by using Maxent (Maximum entropy model), and vertebrate's presence data is used as dependent variables and stream order map and land cover map is used as base data of independent variables. As a result of analysis, habitat potential is higher at riparian and upstream area, and lower at frequently disturbed area. Result indicates that adjacent to stream, upstream, and less disturbed area is the habitat that vertebrate prefer. In particular, mammals prefer adjacent area of stream and forest and reptiles prefer upriver area. Birds prefer adjacent area of stream and midstream and amphibians prefer adjacent area of stream and upriver. The result of this research could help to establish habitat conservation strategy around basin unit in the future.

Structural Similarity and Expression Differences of Two Pj-Vg Genes from the Pandalus Shrimp Pandalopsis japonica

  • Jeon, Jeong-Min;Kim, Bo-Kwang;Kim, Young-Ji;Kim, Hyun-Woo
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.22-30
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    • 2011
  • Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of vitellin (Vn), which is the major yolk protein in nearly all oviparous species, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, and most invertebrates. It is one of the most important factors during reproduction, and numerous studies have shown that Vg genes are markers of the reproductive cycle and effecter genes induced by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previously, we isolated two distinct cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 from Pandalus shrimp Pandalopsis japonica. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 were determined using a PCR-based genome walking strategy. Isolated Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 genes were 11,910 and 11,850 bp long, respectively. Both Pj-Vg genes had 15 exons and 14 introns, and the splicing sites were also the same, suggesting that they arose via gene duplication. The similar structural characteristics of decapod Vg genes suggest that they are all orthologs that evolved from the same ancestral gene. Analysis of Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 expression revealed that the relative copy numbers of Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 were similar in the hepatopancreas, whereas Pj-Vg2 transcripts were also detected in the ovary. Expression of both Pj-Vg genes was induced in hepatopancreas of mature individuals, whereas only Pj-Vg2 transcripts were upregulated in the ovaries from mature animals, suggesting that both Pj-Vgs are important for oocyte development. A strong positive correlation was found between Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2 transcripts in the same individual, indicating they are under the same control mechanisms. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between ovarian and hepatopancreatic Pj-Vg2 transcripts, suggesting that its dual expression is regulated by similar physiological conditions. Knowledge of the similarities and differences between the two vitellogenin-like genes, Pj-Vg1 and Pj-Vg2, would help us to understand their roles in reproduction and other physiological effects.

Constructing the Functional Models of Wetland Biotopes - Focused on the Bangdong Wetland - (습지형 비오톱 기능모델 구성 - 방동소택지를 사례로 -)

  • Koo, Bon-Hak;Kim, Kwi-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • This study is one of the processes to build the artificial wetlands in the urban area. The purpose of this study was to survey biotic or physical environments, and to review modelling techniques to find out the ecological structure and function. Case study site was the Bangdong wetland in the north west side of Taejon metropolitan city. The number of species of insects decreased during monitoring. But the number of individuals of insects decreased abruptly after increasing. And then biodiversity index dropped and dominance index increased. So the structure of biotopes was affected by weather conditions. And in the restricted area such as urban area, the changes of insects were affected sensitively by not physical but environmental changes. As for birds, the number of species was reduced a little, but the number of individuals increased abruptly. And dominance index increased slowly. The changes of water depth and increase of temperature affected the habitat condition of vegetations and birds, so the dominance index of specific species increased. In urban areas it is necessary to continue management for water environmental changes, such as the depth and area of water. The number of species of fishes was reduced a little, but the number of individuals increased abruptly. And dominance index and biodiversity index decreased slowly. But the water environments was so changeable that it is difficult to explain current status as some specific trends. The number of species of reptiles and amphibians changed little, but the number of individuals increased abruptly. And dominance and biodiversity were not changed. The changes of water depth and temperature affected the habitat of every species the environmental changes affected.

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An Ecological Restoration of Treatment Wetland and Urban Upper Stream for Reusing Sewage Treatment Water - In the case of Sustainable Structured Wetland Biotop System at Upper Part of Jaemin Stream in Gongju-si, Korea - (하수처리수의 재이용을 위한 처리습지 및 도시 상류하천 생태환경복원 - 공주시 제민천 생태적수질정화비오톱을 중심으로 -)

  • Byeon, Chan-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2014
  • The ecosystem of Jaemin stream, flowing into the center of Gongju-si, had been damaged by low water quality and lack of water quantity of the steam. However, after applying the SSB (Sustainable Structured wetland Biotop) system to the flood plain and the upstream of Jaemin stream, the efficiency of ecological water purification and ecological restoration are as follows. Through the constant maintenance and monitoring from year 2009 to year 2013 after restorative design and construction the average influent concentration of BOD5 was 4.2 mg/L, and the average effluent concentration was 1.8 mg/L, reaching ecological water purification rate of 57%. As for the T-N, the average influent concentration was 9.983 mg/L, and the average effluent concentration was 6.303 mg/L, showing the rate of 37%. For the T-P, the average influent concentration was 0.198 mg/L, and the average effluent concentration was 0.098 mg/L, being the rate of 51%. The vegetation of Jaemin stream monitored for 2 years after the restoration was composed of 51 species in 28 families which show high ratio of planted native species. As for the animals in the site, 5 species in 3 families of reptiles and amphibians, 34 species of 23 families of birds, and 3 species in 2 families of mammals were monitored, indicating that the bio-diversity of the site has improved, as well.

A Faunal Study in the Shihwa Constructed Wetland (시화호 인공습지 동물상 조사연구)

  • Lee, Woo-Shin;Woo, Kun-Suk;Shim, Jae-Han;Hur, Wee-Haeng;Choe, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sang-Chul;Kwun, Soon-Kuk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2004
  • The Shihwa wetland, a newly developed constructed wetland prototype in Korea with an area of approximately 104 ha, was established to improve the water quality severely polluted inflow streams into Lake Shihwa. Because this wetland could play a role as an ecological park in addition to improving the water quality, an ecological impact of the Shihwa constructed wetland has been a national concern. This paper focused on reporting the survey results for fauna among the entire investigation results for 3 years. A total of 129 terrestrial insect species have been observed from August 2001 to June 2002. Among them, Ischnura asiatica (Brauer) (order Odonata), Scymnus species (order Coleoptera) and Orthopteran species were frequently found in the reed bushes. A total of 77 bird species were recorded in a seasonal count, the maximum number of species was 34 in winter and the maximum number of individuals was 4,599 in summer. For the freshwater fish, only 4 species were found in 2000, however in 2001 and 2002, 12 species and 459 individuals were collected at four survey points. Among these 12 species, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus(36%), followed by Carassius auratus (25%) and Rhinogobius brunneus (22%). Meanwhile,12 individuals of Oryzias latipes were observed nearby, mostly downstream of the wetland. For the Herpetofauna at four survey areas, 3 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles were recorded. Because of remaining salinity in the soil of the Shiwha constructed wetland, Herpetofauna inflow to the wetland was scanty and mainly inhabited the upstream area. A total of 8 mammal species were recorded. Small-sized species were the striped field mouse, the Ussurian harvest-mouse, the Manchurian reed vole and the brown rat. Middle- and large-sized species were Korean water-deer, Korean raccoon dogs, Korean yellow weasels and feral cats.

The conditions of Fragmentation of Ecosystem and Ecological corridor building through the analysis of Environmental Impact Statements (환경영향평가서에 나타난 생태계 단편화 현황과 생태통로 조성 실태)

  • Kim, Kee-Dae;Kil, Ji-Hyun;Choi, Byung-Jin;Suh, Min-Hwan;Koh, Kang-Suk;Choi, Deng-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 1998
  • In order to assess the present status of the fragmentation of ecosystem and the building of ecological corridor, 79 EISs(Environment Impact Statements) which were conducted in Kyunggido and Kangwondo have been reviewed using 36 analysing factor. The results obtained from this study were as follows: a. The most frequently appearing type of ecosystem fragmentation was 'mountain vs. mountain type in topography' and '2 vs. 2 grades in the degree of green naturality.' b. The most frequently listed fauna in EISs included squirrels and wild rabbits for mammals, grass snake and pit viper for reptiles, and tree frog and true tree frog for amphibians. c. Among the EISs for 50 projects, the construction of ecological corridor mentioned in only 4 projects and other structures such as drainage duct and closed conduit in 14 projects were suggested as ecological corridor. There were no corridors suggested in 32 projects. Thus, in case of using other structures for wildlife animals but ecological corridors, it should be accompanied by incidental facilities for including animal movement.

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Studies on the Ecological Management and Stream Environment in Dorim Stream for Establishing Eco-wetland Parks (도림천 수변지역 조성을 위한 생태적 관리방안 및 하천환경 관리방안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Don;Kim, Seok-Chul
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2008
  • Urban streams are degrading functional role due to development and pollution. This study chose the representative stream of Do-rim and identified flora and fauna. The ecological survey aimed at identifying indicator of urban streams for measuring urban healthiness and we discussed the possibility of wetland conservation area. From the beginning of Dorim stream to An-yang mixture we were successfully identified 113 species of plants, 9 of mammals, 23 of birds, 4 of amphibians, 2 of reptiles and 2 of fish species. Terrestrial insects were 71 species. The wetland vegetation is quite various and we suggested 4 different vegetation zones (aquatic vegetation zone, emergent zone, riparian-meadow zone, riparian-woodland zone) depending on distance from the flowing water stream and vegetation characteristics for urban stream management.

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