• Title, Summary, Keyword: Amino-acid

Search Result 7,811, Processing Time 0.071 seconds

The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks

  • Wei, Hen-Wei;Kuo, Hsin-Mei;Chiu, Wen-Zan;Chen, Bao-Ji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.22 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1186-1194
    • /
    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.

Amino acid requirements in horses

  • Mok, Chan Hee;Urschel, Kristine L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.5
    • /
    • pp.679-695
    • /
    • 2020
  • Evaluating amino acid requirements, specifically threonine requirements, in horses will enable better feed formulation and result in economic production, improved animal health, and reduced environmental pollution. However, the current knowledge of protein and amino acid requirements in horses is still limited. Because horses have a unique digestive system and consume a variety of feed ingredients, their protein digestibility may be affected than other species by different feed composition, and thus amino acid requirements are susceptible to vary between situations. Therefore, a careful evaluation of amino acid requirements with a proper method is needed for various conditions. This review will also provide comprehensive information that needs to be considered when designing an amino acid requirement study in horses.

Regulation of Gene Expression for Amino Acid Biosynthesis in the Yeast, Sacchromyces cerevisiae

  • Lea, Ho Zoo
    • Proceedings of the Zoological Society Korea Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.82-82
    • /
    • 1995
  • Regulation of enzyme synthesis by transcriptional and translational control systems provides rather stable adaptation to change of amino acid level in the growth medium, while manipulation of enzyme activity through endproduct feedback inhibition represents rather short-term and reversible ways of adjusting metabolic fluctuation of amino acid level. Various control mechanisms interplay to regulate genes encoding enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis in the yeast, Sacchromyces cerevisiae. When amino acids are in short supply, genes under a cross-pathway regulatory mechanism Or general amino acid control (general control) increase their action, in which Gcn4p is the major positive regulator of gene expression. When cells are cultured in minimal medium, basal level expression is also regulated by supplementary control elements, where inorganic phosphate level is additionally involved. Most of amino acid biosynthetic genes are also regulated by the level of endproduct of the pathway. This pathway-specific regulatory mechanism is called specific amino acid control (specific controD, under which gene expression is reduced when endproduct is present in the medium. Derepression of a gene through general control can be usually overridden by repression through specific control, where the endproduct level of that particular pathway is high and not limiting. In this presentation, regulatory factors for basal level expression and general control of yeast amino acid biosynthesis will be discussed, m addition to pathway-specific repression patterns and interaction between CrOSS- and specific-control mechanisms. Preliminary results are also presented from the investigation of the cloned genes in the threonine biosynthetic pathway of the yeast. yeast.

  • PDF

Effects of Germination on Fatty Acid and Free Amino Acid Profiles of Brown Rice 'Keunnun'

  • Choi, Induck;Suh, Sae-Jung;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Lim
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.799-802
    • /
    • 2009
  • The effect of germination on hydration and germination properties, and on the changes of fatty acids and amino acids profiles of a brown rice 'Keunnun' (KN) with a large embryo was compared to 'Ilpumbyeo' (IP) with a normal embryo. A rapid germination up to 24 hr was observed in both brown rice cultivars, afterward decreased with germination time. At 60 hr, the KN ($86.0{\pm}4.24%$) showed slightly lower germination capability than the IP ($97.0{\pm}1.41%$). Lower water uptake during germination was also found in the KN ($1.22{\pm}0.02\;g$) compared to the IP ($1.59{\pm}0.05\;g$). Major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid accounting for more than 95% of total fatty acids. The most abundant amino acid in both types was oleic acid, which was decreased during germination, whereas palmitic and linoleic acids were increased. Eight amino acids were detected, and a remarkable increase in ${\gamma}-amino$ butyric acid (GABA) during germination was observed. The KN was characterized with higher tasty amino acids of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, and alanine.

Amino Acid Profiles of Tropical Legumes, Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), at Pre-blooming and Blooming Stages

  • Tokita, Norio;Shimojo, Masataka;Masuda, Yasuhisa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.651-654
    • /
    • 2006
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate amino acid composition of three tropical legumes (Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)) at two different stages (pre-blooming and blooming stages). Chemical composition and totally 16 amino acids of these plants were analysed for comparison of their composition among species at different growing stages and characterizing the amino acid pattern of these legumes. Crude protein content of the plants ranged from 16% to 27% on a dry matter basis. The total amount of 16 amino acids analyzed in this experiment was highest at 89.7 mg/16 g N in Cooper at pre-blooming and lowest at 80.9 mg/16 g N in Glycine at blooming stage. Total amount of amino acids in each legume species tended to slightly decrease with their maturity but no statistical difference was found. The percentage of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and proline in the total amount of amino acids was dominant at 9% to 13%, and that of methionine was less than 1.6%. In this experiment it was concluded that three tropical legumes were rich in crude protein content and characterized by 16 different amino acids with lower sulfur-containing amino acid as methionine.

The Variation of Free Amino Acid during the Tomato Processing (토마토 가공(加工) 공정(工程) 중(中)에 있어서의 유리(遊離) 아미노 산(酸)의 변동(變動))

  • Kim, Seung Yeol;Kato, Hiromichi;Okitani, Akihiro;Hayase, Fumitaka
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.576-583
    • /
    • 1982
  • The variation of free amino acids during the tomato producing was studied using a tomato variety, Kagome 77. The concentration of free amino acids in fresh and heated pulp, and in puree and paste was analyzed by using automatic amino acid analyzer, Hitachi model KLA-5. 1. A significant difference in decomposition rate of glutamine and asparagine among amide group was recognized. For instance, the glutamine decomposed fast and no glutamine was found in the paste, while 56% of asparagine was found in the paste. 2. The diminishing quantity of glutamic acid among acid group was highest among all free amino acids. The quantity of aspartic acid was next to the glutamine. The percents of glutamic acid and aspartic acid left over were 38% and 24%, respectively. 3. Glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine and leucine of neutral amino acids tended to be reduced a little during the heating, concentrating process. 4. No apparent variation was found for the lysine and histidine belonging to basic amino acids. while arginine increased a little. 5. Tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophane of aromatic group seemed to increase a little during the heating process. But the variations of them during the concentrating process were not recognized. 6. The methionine content, sulfur containing amino acid decreased a little throughout the process. But the decrease of ${\gamma}-amino$ butyric acid of non-protein was not apparently recognized. 7. The amino acid contents of fresh pulp were found as following order: glutamic acid>${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid>glutamine>aspartic acid>asparagine. The amino acid contents of paste were as glutamic acid>${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid>aspartic acid and aspargine. The percent distribution of aromatic and basic amino acids increased, even it was not great. 8. When amino acids were analyzed by Hitachi KLA-5, unknown peak which was never app eared in the fresh pulp before tryptophane was appeared when processed. The peak became greater when heated and concentrated. Later it was known that the peak was not due to lysinoalanine or ornithine.

  • PDF

Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain

  • Yang, Pei;Li, Xuechun;Ni, Jian;Tian, Jingchen;Jing, Fu;Qu, Changhai;Lin, Longfei;Zhang, Hui
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.18 no.5
    • /
    • pp.371-376
    • /
    • 2014
  • Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-${\alpha}$-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ${\gamma}$-amino-n-butyric acid and L-${\alpha}$-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant.

Free Amino Acid Composition of Korean Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cultivars as Influenced by Different Harvesting Time

  • Yoon, Young-Eun;Kuppusamy, Saranya;Kim, Song Yeob;Kim, Jang Hwan;Lee, Yong Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.104-110
    • /
    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: There is lack of comprehensive compositional data of the amino acid profile of spinach with regard to different cultivars. A more detailed knowledge in this aspect will be of benefit in the future selection of spinach genotypes with improved nutritional quality.METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of cultivar type (Jeoncheonhu, Sagyejul, Namdongcho and Mustang) and harvest time (79th, 116th and 145th days after sowing or DAS) on the concentrations of free amino acids in field-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were examined. About 35 different free amino acids were detected and quantified by the amino acid analyzer. Glutamic acid and proline were identified as the major amino acids, while α -aminoadipic acid and α-aminobutyric acid were present in much lower concentrations. Spinach constituted 1468.4 mg/100 g total free amino acids (TAA), of which essential amino acids, neutral/acidic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids constituted around 15, 45 and 2% of the TAA, respectively. The most limiting amino acids among the leafy vegetables - cysteine was recorded only in Mustang harvested at 116 DAS. Free amino acid contents did not differ significantly among the spinach cultivars and also at different harvest times.CONCLUSION: The data show that, either of the spinach cultivars, preferably Mustang harvested on or after 116 DAS can serve as a significant source of nutritionally relevant amino acids to meet the demand of the growing populations.

Quantitative Analysis of Total Aimno Acids and Free Sugars in Lycii fructus (진도산(珍島産) 구기자(枸杞子)의 아미노산조성(組成)과 유리당(遊離糖)의 분석(分析))

  • Lee, Mung-Yul;Sheo, Hwa-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.249-252
    • /
    • 1986
  • This quantitative analysis was carried out in order to investigate the isolation and identification of total amino acids and free sugars in Lycii fructus by using amino acid autoanalyzer and HPLC. 17 kinds of amino acids were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer, that is, aspartic acid, proline, glyclne, analine, cystine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenyla lanine, histidine, lysine, arginine, threonine, serine and glutamic acid. Threonine (3,745mg/100g) was the richest among them and total amounts of the essential amino acid, which was 53.93% of total amino acids, was 10,773mg/100g. Free sugars isolated by HPLC wet·e glucose, fructose and saccharose.

  • PDF

Changes of Amino Acid Neurotransmitter Contents in Rat Brain by Toluene Inhalation (톨루엔 흡입이 뇌내 아미노산 신경전달물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이선희;신대섭;김부영
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.91-96
    • /
    • 1995
  • The effects of toluene inhalation on the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat brain were investigated and blood toluene concentrations inducing changes of behavior and amino acid neurotransmitter contents in rat brain were observed. Male wistar rats were exposed to toluene vapor (single dose : 1700, 5000 and 10000 ppm for 2 hrs, repeated dose : 1700 and 5000 ppm for 2 hrs/day$\times$6 days). Toluene concentrations in blood and the inhalation chamber were assayed by GC with headspace sampler. HPLC method following PITC derivatization was used to measure the amino acid contents in brain tissues such as frontal cortex, caudate, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid levels were increased by single inhalation of toluene (5000 ppm) in all the brain areas assayed in this experiment. In caudate and cerebellum, taurine levels were decreased by single inhalation of low dose toluene (1700 ppm), but increased by repeated administration. At high blood toluene concentration, GABA levels were increased in all the brain areas assayed in this experiment and the increasing extents of inhibitory amino acid contents measured in caudate and hippocampus were greater than those of excitatory amino acids. These results suggest that the changes of amino acid neurotransmitter contents in brain by exposure to toluene may modulate toluene-induced behaviors.

  • PDF