• Title, Summary, Keyword: Algal oxygen demand

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Effect of Algal Inoculation on COD and Nitrogen Removal, and Indigenous Bacterial Dynamics in Municipal Wastewater

  • Lee, Jangho;Lee, Jaejin;Shukla, Sudheer Kumar;Park, Joonhong;Lee, Tae Kwon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.900-908
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    • 2016
  • The effects of algal inoculation on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and indigenous bacterial dynamics were investigated in municipal wastewater. Experiments were conducted with municipal wastewater inoculated with either Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Selenastrum gracile UTEX 325, or Scenedesmus quadricauda AG 10308. C. vulgaris and S. gracile as fast growing algae in municipal wastewater, performed high COD and TN removal in contrast to Sc. quadricauda. The indigenous bacterial dynamics revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplification showed different bacterial shifts in response to different algal inoculations. The dominant bacterial genera of either algal case were characterized as heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria. Our results suggest that selection of indigenous bacteria that symbiotically interact with algal species is important for better performance of wastewater treatment.

The Fractionation Characteristics of BOD in Streams (하천에서 BOD 존재형태별 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Oh, Seung-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.92-102
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    • 2021
  • In this study, the distribution characteristics according to the type of BOD and the effect of nitrogenous oxygen demand (NOD) and algal oxygen demand on BOD in three streams (Bokhacheon, Byeongseongcheon, and Gulpocheon) were evaluated. Although the BOD and NOD concentrations demonstrated a difference in the three streams, the carbonaceous BOD(CBOD)/BOD ratio was 0.75 (p=0.053, one-way ANOVA), and there was no significant difference in the three streams (r2≥0.92, p<0.0001). The NOD concentration of the Bokhacheon with high NH3-N was 1.7±1.3 mg/L, which was the highest among the three streams and showed a significant correlation with BOD. Seasonal variations in NOD in the three streams did not show a significant correlation with changes in NH3-N concentration (r2<0.28, p≥0.1789), and there was no significant difference in NOD even though NH3-N concentration in Gulpocheon was about twice that of Byeongseongcheon (p=0.870, one way ANOVA). The particulate CBOD(PCBOD)/CBOD ratio of the three streams was 0.55~0.64, and about 60% of the biodegradable organic matter was present in the particulate form. When the Chl.a concentration in the stream was more than 7 ㎍/L, the PCBOD tended to increase with the Chl.a concentration (r2=0.61, p=0.003). In the three streams, particulate NOD accounted for 81% of NOD; however, despite the large variation in NH3-N concentration (0.075~3.182 mg/L), there was no significant difference in soluble NOD(SNOD) concentration that ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L. In this study, the low contribution rate of SNOD to NOD is considered as a result of the removal of nitrifying bacteria along with the particles during the filtration process.

Simple Material Budget Modeling for the Paldang Reservoir in the Spring Season (팔당호의 춘계 단순물질수지 모델링)

  • Kong, Dongsoo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.696-714
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    • 2017
  • Simple material budget models were developed to predict the spring season (March ~ May) water quality for a river-type reservoir Paldang, in the Republic of Korea. These models are available at mixed water bodies whose light intensity is negligible at the bottom. The calculated data from the models fit quite well with field data collected for 30 years, from 1988 to 2017. The apparent settling velocity of total phosphorus was estimated to be $110m\;d^{-1}$. The critical hydraulic load that determines the usability of phosphorus for algal production appeared to be about $2.0m\;d^{-1}$. When a hydraulic load was larger than the critical value, the concentrations of chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ ($Chl.{\alpha}$), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand BOD in the reservoir water became insensitive to internal algal reactions. The model analysis showed that the allochthonous COD continued to increase while the allochthonous BOD slightly decreased after 1999. The decrease of allochthonous BOD is due to the expansion of sewage and wastewater treatment plants in the watershed. The increase of allochthonous COD seems to result from the increase in anthropogenic non-point sources as well as the increase in the discharge of natural organic matters due to climate change. Organic matter of algal origin continued to increase until the mid-2000s, but recently it has decreased as the phosphorus concentration has decreased. The COD and BOD of algal origin increased from 35 % and 27 % during 1988 ~ 1994 to 43 % and 40 % during 2000 ~ 2010, respectively, and then decreased to 25 % and 28 % during 2011 ~ 2017.

Oxygen Mass Balance Analysis in an Intermittently Aerated Wetland Receiving Stormwater from Livestock Farms (축산유역 강우유출수 처리를 위한 간헐 포기식 인공습지에서 산소수지분석)

  • Guerra, Heidi B.;Park, Kisoo;Kim, Youngchul
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.488-498
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    • 2016
  • In order to assess the role of aeration in stormwater wetlands, oxygen supply and consumption in a wetland treating runoff from livestock farms were estimated and analyzed. Furthermore, oxygen mass balance was conducted during day time and night time. Internal production by algal photosynthesis dominated the oxygen production particularly in the shallow marsh due to the large amount of algae. Consequently, algal respiration was also the major oxygen depletion element with nitrification and biodegradation estimated as 5.35% and 6.43% of the total oxygen consumption. This excessive portion of oxygen consumption by algae was associated to the highly turbid water caused by the resuspension of sediment particles in the aeration pond, which also affected the subsequent wetland. Moreover, an abundance of oxygen was estimated during the day indicating that oxygen produced by algal activity is sufficient to meet the oxygen demand in the wetland. Thus, supplemental aeration was deemed not necessary at daytime. In contrast, oxygen was greatly depleted at night when algal photosynthesis stopped which induced denitrification. Therefore, it was suggested that supplemental aeration may be operated continuously instead of intermittently to avoid oxygen deficit in the wetland at night or it may be stopped entirely to further enhance denitrification.

Analysis of Relationship between Chl-a, COD, and TN, TP in the Agricultural Reservoirs (농업용 저수지에서 Chl-a와 COD, TN, TP 간의 상관관계 분석)

  • Lee, Sae-Bom;Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Jung, Kwang-Wook;Kim, Hyung-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.626-631
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    • 2005
  • Monitoring data from agricultural reservoirs throughout the country were analyzed to evaluate the limiting factor for algal growth and correlationship between Chl-a, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was used for the analysis to monitored data of 394 reservoirs such as TP, TN, Chl-a, and COD from 1999 to 2003. This study analyzed water quality items in terms of areas, seasons. It turned out that phosphorus in agricultural reservoirs (about 80%) was dominant limiting factor for algal growth. Therefor, it appears that the appropriate managements of phosphorus in the agricultural watershed are crucial to prevent excessive on algal growth. Generally, there is correlation between Chl-a and TP while Chl-a do not have effect on TN. Also, Chl-a have influence on COD. This study could be used beneficially for water quality management of agricultural reservoirs and related water quality modeling.

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Changes in Phosphorus and Sediment Oxygen Demand in Coastal Sediments Promoted by Functionalized Oyster Shell Powder as an Oxygen Release Compound

  • Kim, Beom-geun;Khirul, Md Akhte;Cho, Dae-chul;Kwon, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.851-861
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we performed a sediment elution experiment to evaluate water quality in terms of phosphorus, as influenced by the dissolved oxygen consumed by sediments. Three separate model column treatments, namely, raw, calcined, and sonicated oyster shell powders, were used in this experiment. Essential phosphorus fractions were examined to verify their roles in nutrient release from sediment based on correlation analyses. When treated with calcined or sonicated oyster shell powder, the sediment-water interface became "less anaerobic," thereby producing conditions conducive to partial oxidation and activities of aerobic bacteria. Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) was found to be closely correlated with the growth of algae, which confirmed an intermittent input of organic biomass at the sediment surface. SOD was positively correlated with exchangeable and loosely adsorbed phosphorus and organic phosphorus, owing to the accumulation of unbound algal biomass-derived phosphates in sediment, whereas it was negatively correlated with ferric iron-bound phosphorus or calcium fluorapatite-bound phosphorus, which were present in the form of "insoluble" complexes, thereby facilitating the free migration of sulfate-reducing bacteria or limiting the release from complexes, depending on applied local conditions. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that iron-reducing bacteria were the dominant species in control and non-calcined oyster shell columns, whereas certain sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were identified in the column treated with calcined oyster powder.

Evaluation of Algal Growth Limiting Factor in the Nakdong River by MBOD Method (MBOD법에 의한 낙동강의 조류증식 제한인자 추정)

  • 송교욱;서인숙
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.469-479
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    • 1995
  • The increase of population and industrial activities had brought into eutrophication in the Nakdong river. A remarkable acceleration of eutrophication brought about serious problems for water supply. Therefore, for the purpose of conservation of water quality in the Nakdong river it is necessary to control nutrients. MBOD method was use to evaluate algal growth limiting factor and algal growth potential in the Nakdong river from June to August 1994. The modified biochemical oxygen demand(MBOD) depends on the amount of available inorganic nutrient and organic substrate during 5 day incubation in the dark at 2$0^{\circ}C$. The MBOD assay depends on inorganic nutrients such as P and N as well as reduced carbon and called the MBOD, the MBOD-P, and the MBOD-N, respectively. The results of bioassay by MBOD(Modified BOD) method showed that the MBOD, MBOD-P and MBOD-N value were found to be in the ranges of 3.8~96.0 mg$O_2$/l, 5.6~94.0 mg$O_2$/l and 42.0~220 mg$O_2$/l, respectively. And the the bioassay value was found to be the highest in Koryong area and the lowest in Waekwan area throughout the Nakdong river. The variations of MBOD-P and MBOD-N value showed similar tendencies to the variations of phosphorus and nitrogen value, respectively. By MBOD method, the relationships of MBOD, MBOD-P and MBOD-N value were MBOD ≒ MBOD-P 《 MBOD-N. The MBOD value was nearly equal to the MBOD-P value, and the MBOD-N value was 3 to 20 times more than the MBOD-P value, approximately. Therefore, in the Nakdong river, phosphorus was the limiting factor for algal growth during summer season. The algal growth potential as the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the summer was maximum 5 times more than standing crop as it.

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Simple Material Budget Modeling for a River-Type Reservoir (하천형 저수지의 단순 물질수지 모델링)

  • Yoon, Seong-Kyu;Kong, Dong-Soo;Bae, Wookeun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.420-431
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    • 2010
  • Simple material budget models were developed to predict the dry season water quality for a river-type reservoir in Paldang, Republic of Korea. Of specific interest were the total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ (Chl. ${\alpha}$), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The models fit quite well with field data collected for 20 years and have enabled the identification of the origins of organic materials in the reservoir. The critical hydraulic load that determines the usability of phosphorus for algal production appeared to be about $1.5m\;d^{-1}$. When a hydraulic load was smaller than the critical value, the concentrations of $Chl.{\alpha}$, COD, and BOD in the reservoir water became sensitive to internal algal reactions such as growth, degradation, and settling. In spite of the recent intensive efforts for organic pollutant removal from major point sources by central and local governments, the water quality in the reservoir had not been improved. Instead, the concentration of COD increased. The model analysis indicated that this finding could be attributed to the continuing increase of the algal production in the reservoir and the allochthonous load from non-point sources. In particular, the concentrations of COD and BOD of algal origin during 2000~2007, each of which is comprised of approximately one half of the total, were approximately 2.5 times higher than those observed during 1988~1994 and approximately 1.3 times higher than those between 1995~1999. The results of this study suggested that it is necessary to reduce the algal bloom so as to improve the water quality of the reservoir.

Microbial Conversion of Organic Wastes for Production of Biogas and Algal Biomass (바이오가스와 균체단백질 생산을 위한 유기질 폐기물의 미생물 전환 연구)

  • 권순찬;김진상
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.438-445
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    • 1993
  • Raw cow manure was treated by a 4-step integrated system with phase separation anaerobic digestion and algal culture. When the first methane fermentation was performed by the effluent from the acid fermenter with retention time of 4 days, the elrerage blogas production rate was 977m1/1 culture/day Gas productivity compared to conventional single-stage anaerobic digestion increased up to 31.4%. As the 2nd methane fermenter was fed by the effluent from the first methane fermenter with 4 days of retention time, average amount of 428m1/1 culture/day of biogas was produced. The reduction rate of COD in the effluent from the acid fermenter, the 1st and the 2nd methane fermenter were 71.8%, 42.6% and 24.0% respectively. Finally, we examined algal treatment process for the effluent from the 2nd methane fermenter. A semi-continuous culture of Chlorella sp. PSH3 was conducted by feeding the effluent with retention time of 10days. In this process, the production rate of algal biomass and COD reduction rate were averaged 1.8g/1 culture/day(2.8$\times$106 cells/ml) and 73%, respectively. Through the 4-setp treatments, the total chemical oxygen demand was reduced from 51,300ppm to 85ppm. Therefore, the reduction rate of total chemical oxygen demand reached about 99.8%. The results indicate that the integrated system could be applicable for treatment of organic wastes, concurrently producing biogas and algal biomass.

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Effects of potassium and carbon addition on bacterial algae bioremediation of boezem water

  • Nurhayati, Indah;Ratnawati, Rhenny;Sugito, Sugito
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 2019
  • Bioremediation of bacterial algae is one of wastewater treatment by utilizing symbiosis of bacterial algae, which is relatively inexpensive and safe for the environment. The aims of this research were: (1) to investigate initial characteristic of boezem water of Kalidami Surabaya, (2) to investigate the effect of potassium (K) element and carbon source addition toward the reduction of $NH_3-N$ content and organic matter in $KMnO_4$ of boezem water. The research conducted in a laboratory in batches without adding aeration. The initial stage of this research was conducting alga culture until it was obtained chlorophyll-a algae concentration of $3.5{\pm}0.5mg/L$. The best result of range finding test was a comparison of boezem water volume with algal which were about 25%:75%. The research conducted in duplo over 18 d. The result of the research can be concluded that boezem water of Kalidami Surabaya for the parameter of pH, temperature, $NH_3-N$, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, and number of $KMnO_4$ show that it enables to do bioremediation of bacterial algae. Decrease efficiency occurred in a reactor with the addition of element K 3% and source C. $NH_3-N$ and $KMnO_4$ final content 0.164 mg/L and 30 mg/L, respectively.