• Title, Summary, Keyword: AIV

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Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus in Korea (야생조류에 대한 조류인플루엔자 예찰의 중요성과 연구 동향)

  • Lee, Dong-Hun;Song, Chang-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.193-197
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    • 2013
  • Avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been isolated from a wide range of domestic and wild birds. Wild birds, predominantly ducks, geese and gulls form the reservoir of AIV in nature. The viruses in wild bird populations are a potential source of widespread infections in poultry. Active surveillance for AIV infection provides information regarding AIV distribution, and global AIV surveillance can play a key role in the early recognition of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Since 2003 in Korea, there have been four H5N1 HPAI outbreaks caused by clade 2.5, 2.2 and 2.3.2. Therefore, improvement of AIV surveillance strategy is required to detect HPAI viruses effectively. This article deals with the major events establishing the role of wild birds in the natural history of influenza in Korea. We highlighted the need for continuous surveillance in wild birds and characterization of these viruses to understand AIV epidemiology and host ecology in Korea.

Development of Ultra-rapid Multiplex Real-time PCR for the Detection of Genes from Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 (조류인플루엔자 H5N1 바이러스 유전자의 신속 검출을 위한 초고속 다중 실시간 PCR법의 개발)

  • Kim, Eul-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Woo;Han, Sang-Hoon;Lim, Yoon-Kyu;Yoon, Byoung-Su
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.399-407
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    • 2007
  • Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from $1{\times}10^3$ copies of mixed template DNA. The URMRT PCR for the detection of AIV H5N 1 developed in this study could be expected to apply not only detections of different AIVs, but also various pathogens. It was also discussed that this kind of the fastest PCR based detection method could be improved by advance of related technology in near future.

Lower Antibody Response in Chickens Homozygous for the Mx Resistant Allele to Avian Influenza

  • Qu, L.J.;Li, X.Y.;Xu, G.Y.;Ning, Z.H.;Yang, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2009
  • The chicken Mx gene has been regarded as a candidate gene for resistance to avian influenza virus (AIV). In this study, three groups of chickens with homozygotes (AA, GG) and heterozygotes (AG) of the resistant (A) and susceptible alleles (G) to AIV of the Mx gene were constructed from a line of dwarf egg-type chickens. These chickens were not examined for their resistant activities to AIV because the differential resistance had only been detected in vitro. The birds of the three groups were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 AIV vaccine and the level of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody to AIV was detected. The association between disease resistant activity to AIV and antibody response to AIV vaccination in the three groups was analyzed. The chickens with homozygous resistant allele A showed the lowest antibody levels, whereas the heterozygous chickens (AG) presented the highest antibody level after the boosting vaccination, which indicates that the efficiency of artificial selection on the resistant allele of Mx gene will be compromised since the homozygotes of the allele presented the weakest antibody response to the corresponding vaccine.

Design of the Impact Energy Absorbing Members and Evaluation of the Crashworthiness for Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (알루미늄 초경량 차체의 충격 흡수부재 설계 및 충돌 안전도 평가)

  • Kim, Heon-Young;Kim, Jin-Kook;Heo, Seung-Jin;Kang, Hyuk
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.216-233
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    • 2002
  • Due to the environmental problems of fuel consumption and vehicle emission, etc., automotive makers are trying to reduce the weight of vehicles. The most effective way to reduce a vehicle weight is to use lighter materials, such as aluminum and plastics. Aluminum Intensive Vehicle(AIV) has many advantages in the aspects of weight reduction, body stiffness and model change. So, most of automotive manufacturers are attempting to develop AIV using Aluminum Space Frame(ASF). The weight of AIV can be generally reduced to about 30% than that of conventional steel vehicle without the loss of impact energy absorbing capability. And the body stiffness of AIV is higher than that of conventional steel monocoque body. In this study, Aluminum Intensive Vehicle is developed and analyzed on the basis of steel monocoque body. The energy absorbing characteristics of aluminum extrusion components are investigated from the test and simulation results. The crush and crash characteristics of AIV based on the FMVSS 208 regulations are evaluated in comparison with steel monocoque. Using these results, the design concepts of the effective energy absorbing members and the design guide line to improve crashworthiness for AIV are suggested.

PAIVS: prediction of avian influenza virus subtype

  • Park, Hyeon-Chun;Shin, Juyoun;Cho, Sung-Min;Kang, Shinseok;Chung, Yeun-Jun;Jung, Seung-Hyun
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.5.1-5.5
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    • 2020
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused severe respiratory disease and death in poultry and human beings. Although most of the avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are of low pathogenicity and cause mild infections in birds, some subtypes including hemagglutinin H5 and H7 subtype cause HPAI. Therefore, sensitive and accurate subtyping of AIV is important to prepare and prevent for the spread of HPAI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can analyze the full-length sequence information of entire AIV genome at once, so this technology is becoming a more common in detecting AIVs and predicting subtypes. However, an analysis pipeline of NGS-based AIV sequencing data, including AIV subtyping, has not yet been established. Here, in order to support the pre-processing of NGS data and its interpretation, we developed a user-friendly tool, named prediction of avian influenza virus subtype (PAIVS). PAIVS has multiple functions that support the pre-processing of NGS data, reference-guided AIV subtyping, de novo assembly, variant calling and identifying the closest full-length sequences by BLAST, and provide the graphical summary to the end users.

Expression, Purification and Antiserum Production of the Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus HA and NA Proteins (Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus의 HA와 NA 단백질 발현, 정제 및 항혈청 생산)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ji;Song, Byung-Hak;Kim, Jeong-Min;Yun, Sang-Im;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Kang, Young-Sik;Koo, Yong-Bum;Jeon, Ik-Soo;Byun, Sung-June;Lee, Youn-Jeong;Kwon, Jun-Hun;Park, Jong-Hyeon;Joo, Yi-Seok;Lee, Young-Min
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2008
  • Avian influenza virus (AIV) is recognized as key to the emergence of pandemic influenza for humans; there are growing concerns that AIV H9N2 may become more efficient to transmit to humans in the near future, since the infection of poultry with AIV H9N2 has been common in recent years. In this study, we aimed to produce antisera recognizing the HA and NA proteins of AIV H9N2. Initially, coding sequences corresponding to the N-terminal regions of the HA and NA proteins of the Korean AIV H9N2 (A/Ck/Kr/MS96/96) isolated from a domestic chicken were amplified from the genomic RNA. Following cloning of the amplified cDNA fragments into pGEX4T-1 vector, two GST-fusion proteins (GST-HAln and GST-NAn) were expressed in E. coli BL21 and purified with glutathione sepharose columns; the recombinant GST-HAln and GST-NAn proteins were both used as immunogens in rabbits. The antigenicity of the rabbit antisera was analyzed by immunoblotting of the cell lysates prepared from AIV H9N2-infected MDCK cells. Overall, the recombinant HAln and NAn proteins fused to the C-terminus of GST and the rabbit antisera raised against the corresponding recombinant proteins would provide a valuable reagent for AIV diagnosis and basic research.

Early Diagnostic Method of Avian Influenza Virus Subtype Using Ultra Real-Time PCR (Ultra Real-Time PCR을 활용한 Avian Influenza Virus Subtype의 조기진단법)

  • Kim, Sang-Tae;Kim, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Jang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2011
  • This ultra real-time PCR (UPCR) based diagnosis system for avian influenza A virus (AIV) subtype was designed. The target primer in this study was derived from H5N1 subtype-specific 133 bp partial gene of hemagglutinin (HA), and was synthesized by using PCR-based gene synthesis on the ground of safety. UPCR was operated by Mini-Opticon Q-PCR Quantitative Thermal Cycler using aptamer-based molecular beacon, total 10 ${\mu}l$ of reaction mixture with extraordinarily short time in each steps in PCR. The detection including UPCR and analysis of melting temperature was totally operated within 15 min. The AIV-specific 133 bp PCR product was correctly amplified until 5 molecules of HA gene as minimum of templates. This kind of PCR was drafted as UPCR in this study and it could be used to detect not only AIV subtype, but also other pathogens using UPCR-based diagnosis.

수의학강좌 II: 최신 양계 호흡기 질병 동향 및 대처방안

  • Song, Chang-Seon
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.726-735
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    • 2010
  • 전염성기관지염 바이러스(infectious bronchitis virus: IBV), 조류 뉴모 바이러스(Avian pneumovirus: APV), 뉴캣슬병 바이러스 (Newcastle disease virus: NDV), 조류인플루엔자 바이러스(avian influenza virus: AIV) 전염성 후두기관염 바이러스 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus: ILTV)는 닭의 호흡기에 직접 감염하여 호흡기질환을 일으키는 대표적인 바이러스로 알려져 있다. 그 밖에 아데노바이러스(adenovirus)와 레오바이러스 (reovirus)도 닭의 상부호흡기에 침투하여 피해를 입히는 이차적 원인체로 작용할 수 있다. 이들중 APV와 ILTV는 닭의 호흡기도에 국한되어 증식하지만 IBV, NDV, AIV의 경우 호흡기도 이외의 장기에서 증식이 가능하여 그 피해가 다양하게 나타나 문제 시 되기도 한다 (예: 산란장기 및 신장 (IBV), 소화기 (NDV, IBV, AIV), 중추신경계 (NDV, AIV)). 이외에도 상당수의 감염성 질환이 닭의 호흡기에 영향을 미칠 수 있으나, 해당 농장의 호흡기 피해가 어떤 질병에 의한 것인지 명확히 파악하지 못한 채 단순 항생제 처방에만 의지하는 경우가 많은 것이 현실이다. 따라서 국내 양계농가에서 문제시되는 주요 호흡기 질병과 이들의 감수성을 증대시키는 요인을 파악하는 것이 필요하고, 호흡기 질병의 피해에 대한 재인식과 아울러 호흡기 질병 피해 감소를 위한 진단과 예방노력이 하루속히 정착되어야 할 것이다. 본지에서는 대표적인 호흡기 질병 세가지(전염성기관지염, 조류뉴모바이러스감염증, 뉴캣슬병)의 최근 발생동향과 그 대처방안에 대하여 소개하고자 한다.

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Isolation and Characterization of $\alpha$-Amylase Producing Bacillus sp. AIV 1940 and Properties of Starch Synthetic Wastewater Degradation ($\alpha$-Amylase 생성균주 Bacillus sp. AIV 1940의 분리, 특성 및 합성폐수분해능)

  • 박형수;김무훈;양선영;조미영;고범준;박용근
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2002
  • $\alpha$-Amylase producing bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of corn processing wastewater plant and paddy field soil samples and selected by the direct iodine reaction. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. after morphology, API system and fatty acid analyses. To enchance $\alpha$-amylase productivity, a successive mutation of Bacillus sp. AIV 19 was performed using the treatment of nitrosoguanidine(NTG).The mutant, Bacillus sp. AIV 1940, showed about 1.8-fold level of amylase activity compared with parental strain. The isolate was Gram-positive and rod (2.8-3.0 $\mu$m long, 0.5-0.6 $\mu$m wide) type. The strain increased the bacterial mass at 3000 mg/l starch concentration. Organic substance removal rate was 40.2, 72.3% respectively after 1 and 3 day reaction using starch synthetic wastewater (intial CODcr was 4,455 mg/l).

Antiviral Efficacy of Citra-kill®, Disinfectant Solution Against Avian Influenza Virus

  • Cha, Chun-Nam;Lee, Yeo-Eun;Kang, In-Jin;Yoo, Chang-Yeul;Park, Eun-Kee;An, Sun-Jeong;Kim, Suk;Lee, Hu-Jang
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2012
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is already panzootic in poultry and caused a considerable economic loss in poultry industry. In addition, HPAIV continues to cross species barriers to infect humans and other mammals, often with fatal outcomes. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of Citra-$Kill^{(R)}$ composed to quaternary ammonium chloride and citric acid was investigated against avian influenza H9N2 virus (AIV). A virucidal efficacy was determined with the viability of AIV contacted with the disinfectant in the allantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Citra-$Kill^{(R)}$ and AIV was reacted on the distilled water (DW), hard water (HW) or organic matter suspension (OM) condition. On DW condition, AIV was inactivated with 2,000 fold dilutions of Citra-$Kill^{(R)}$. When the antiviral effect on HW condition was evaluated, the antiviral activity of the disinfectant showed on 1,500 fold dilutions against AIV. With the investigation of the antiviral effect of the disinfectant on OM condition, AIV was inactivated on 500 fold dilutions of Citra-$Kill^{(R)}$. As Citra-$Kill^{(R)}$ possesses virucidal efficacy against AIV, the disinfectant solution can be used to limit the spread of animal viral diseases.