• Title, Summary, Keyword: AI Vaccine

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SPF 닭에서 재조합 H9N3 조류 인플루엔자 백신의 효능과 안전성 평가

  • Sin, Jeong-Hwa;Mo, In-Pil
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.90-91
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    • 2006
  • To reduce the economic impact and control Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), vaccination with inactivated vaccine has been considered in this country. We tried to develop inactivated vaccine with reassorted H9N3 AI virus which has different type of neuraminidase compare to those of field AI virus. Before reassorted vaccine was produced, we confirm the virus as master seed by limiting dilution, RT-PCR and sequencing method. Also, we evaluate the biological characteristics of the virus to find out the possibility of prevention against field infection of AI virus. Finally, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of the vaccine made of reassorted AI virus in the specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. After limiting dilution, we choose RV7CE4 as a vaccine candidate and compare the gene sequence of this vaccine strain to those of AI05GA which is parents strain. Compared to amino acid sequences of specific gene of AI05GA and RV7CE4, exhibited a high degree of amino acid sequence homology. In the safety and efficacy test, there were no specific clinical signs or mortality. Reassorted H9N3 viruses were reisolated in cloaca swab on 5 days post inoculation. In the vaccine study, once or twice vaccination was performed and challenged with H9N2 field virus (01310). Vaccine has no adverse effect on birds and formed good immune capability which reduce viral shedding in the birds infected with 01310. Based on the above result, we developed reassorted H9N3 vaccine which will efficiently prevent the low pathogenic AIV (H9N2) infection in the poultry farms.

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Modulation of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines by Oral Administration of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Expressing Chicken Interleukin-18

  • Rahman, Md Masudur;Uyangaa, Erdenebileg;Eo, Seong Kug
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2013
  • Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has been known to induce interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) production and promote Th1 immunity. Although mammalian IL-18 has been characterized in great detail, the properties and application of chicken IL-18 remain largely uninvestigated as of yet. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) on immune responses induced by avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines. After oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18, chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly with the recommended dose of either inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine or ND (B1 strain) vaccine. Chickens receiving a primary vaccination were boosted using the same protocol 7 days later. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated in terms of HI antibody titers and proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-${\gamma}$ and IL-4 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to specific antigen stimulation. According to our results, oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 induced enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity against AI and ND vaccines, compared to that of chickens received S. enterica serovar Typhimurium harboring empty vector. Therefore, we conclude that our proposed vaccination regimen using inactivated AI and ND viruses along with oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 may provide a novel approach in protecting chicken from currently circulating AI and ND virus strains.

Evaluation on Immunogenicity and Safety of Avian Influenza Isolate(ADL0401) as a Candidate for the Killed Vaccine against tow-Pathogenic Avian Influenza (약병원성 조류인플루엔자 사독백신개발을 위한 후보주(ADL0401)의 면역 원성 및 안전성 평가)

  • Lee J. S.;Ha D. H.;Kim J. E.;Ha B. D.;Mo I. P.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2005
  • Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is distributed worldwide and it has been isolated from various species of wild and domestic birds. AI transfers with high speed and shows diverse pathogenicity syndroms. In Korea, several low Pathogenic AIV, H9N2, have been isolated from the commercial farms with severe decrease of egg production and mortality resulted in severe economic loss since 1996. Therefore, it has been requested to develop AI vaccines to prevent clinical signs and economic losses from the field infection of AIV. To develop a killed vaccine that efficiently prevents low pathogenic AIV (H9N2), evaluation on the pathogenicity and selection of an inactivator for H9N2 is taking place and is being tested safety and immunogenicity of vaccine produced. Based on the pathogenicity test and viral reisolation test, the ADL0401 isolate is the characteristic low pathogenic AIVs and has fairly similar biologic functions compared with MS96 which is the official low pathogenic AIV (H9N2) and one of the predominant AIV isolated from poultry farms in Korea. In antigenicity tests, the ADL0401 and MS96 virus have no significant antigenic difference. In inactivation tests, the ADL0401 isolates can be easily inactivated with $0.1\%$ Formalin at $37^{\circ}C$ within 1 hour with a little decrease of HA titer. The vaccine developed in the present report has no harmful effect on bird and forms good immune capability. Therefore, the isolates, ADL0401 can be used for a killed vaccine which can reduce the clinical signs and viral shedding in the birds infected with H9N2 low pathogenic AIVs.

Molecular biological characterization of transmissible gastroenteritis viruses isolated in Korea (돼지 전염성 위장염 바이러스(국내분리주)의 분자생물학적 특성 규명)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-moo;Pi, Jae-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 1998
  • Sixteen Korean field transmissible gastroenteritis viruses (TGEVs) were isolated using swine testicular cell (STC) and the genomic diversity of them was analyzed. All TGEV isolates produced a typical cytopathic effect in STC and were confirmed as TGEV by immunofluorescence assay using monoclonal antibody against TGEV and PCR using TGEV specific primers. RNAs from TGEV field isolates and vaccine TGEV were extracted and amplified by RT and PCR. The RT-PCR products were digested with selected restriction enzymes and analyzed RFLP patterns. The N-terminal end region of S gene and ORF 3 and 3-1 genes of TGEV amplified by TGEV specific primer pairs seemed to be conserved. Most specific variations were detected in S gene amplified by TGEV 4/6 primer pairs which includes antigenic sites A and D. When the PCR products were treated with Sau3AI and Ssp I, Bvac(vaccine strain), field isolates 133 and 347 were differentiated from Miller and Purdue types. In the case of D5 field isolates, it was classified into Purdue type by Sau 3AI but classified into independent TGEV by Ssp I. Two different TGEV strains from D2 sample were confirmed by plaque purification and RT-PCR-RFLP analysis. To investigate the change occurring in TGEV genome after serial passage, the TGEV P44 strain was passaged through STC. There were specific changes in S gene and a large deletion was observed in ORF 3 and 3-1 genes. These studies showed that a distinct difference in genome exists among TGEV field isolates.

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Development of Vaccine with Artificial Intelligence: By Analyzing OP Code Features Based on Text and Image Dataset (OP Code 특징 기반의 텍스트와 이미지 데이터셋 연구를 통한 인공지능 백신 개발)

  • Choi, Hyo-Kyung;Lee, Se-Eun;Lee, Ju-Hyun;Hong, Rae-Young;Choi, Won-Hyok;Kim, Hyung-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.1019-1026
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    • 2019
  • Due to limitations of existing methods for detecting newly introduced malware, the importance of the development of artificial intelligence vaccines arises. Existing artificial intelligence vaccines have a disadvantage that the accuracy of the detection rate is low because those vaccines do not scan all parts of the file. In this paper, we suggest an enhanced method for detecting malware which is composed of unique OP Code features in the malware files. Specifically, we tested the method with text datasets trained on Random Forest algorithm and with image datasets trained on the Inception V3 model. As a result, the highest accuracy of the detection rate was about 80%.

Analysis of the spike glycoprotein gene and nonstructural protein gene of transmissible gastroenteritis virus using PCR and RFLP analysis (PCR과 RFLP분석을 이용한 transmissible gastroenteritis virus의 spike glycoprotein gene과 nonstructural protein gene의 분석)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-moo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.627-633
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    • 1996
  • To analyze the genomic diversity of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), the N-terminal half of the spike (S) glycoprotein gene and nonstructural protein gene (open reading frames 3 and 3-1) were amplified by reverse transcriptase reaction and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the amplified DNA. In this study, TGEV Miller (M6) and Purdue (P115) strains were used as reference strains, and two vaccine strains (MSV and STC3) and four Korea isolates (P44, VRI-WP, VRI-41, and VRI-48) were analyzed. All TGEV strains were amplified with three TGEV primer pairs. Although there was some exception in RFLP analysis, this method differentiated TGEV strains into following groups : Miller group (M6 and MSV), Purdue group (PUS, STC3, P44, VRI-WP, VRI-41, and VRI-48). Using Sau3AI and SspI, VRI-48 was differentiated from the Miller and Purdue type viruses. The RT/PCR in conjuction with RFLP analysis was a rapid and valuable tool for differentiating several strains of TGEV. This study revealed the occurences of distinct difference in genome of TGEV strains.

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Construction of the Genomic Expression Library of Bacillus anthracis for the Immunomic Analysis (면역체 분석을 위한 탄저균 유전자 발현 라이브러리의 구축)

  • Park, Moon-Kyoo;Jung, Kyoung-Hwa;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Rhie, Gi-Eun;Chai, Young-Gyu;Yoon, Jang-W.
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2010
  • As the causative agent of Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis causes an acute fatal disease in herbivores such as cattle, sheep, and horses as well as humans. The therapeutics and prevention of anthrax currently available are based on antibiotics and the live attenuated vaccine strains, which may be problematic due to the emergency of antibiotic resistant strains or residual virulence in those vaccine strains. Therefore, it has been required to develop novel therapeutics and vaccines which are safer and applicable to humans. Recently, the development of the multivalent vaccine targeting both spores and vegetative cells of B. anthracis along with anthrax toxin has been reported. In our attempts to screen potential candidates for those multivalent vaccines, the whole genomic expression library of B. anthracis was constructed in this study. To the end, the partial digests of the genomic DNA from B. anthracis (ATCC 14578) with Sau3AI were ligated with the inducible pET30abc expression vectors, resulting in approximately $1{\times}10^5$ clones in E. coli BL21(DE3). The redundancy test by DNA nucleotide sequencing was performed for the randomly selected 111 clones and found 56 (50.5%) B. anthracis genes, 17 (15.3%) vector sequences, and 38 (34.2%) unknown genes with no sequence homology by BLAST. An inducible expression of the recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot. Interestingly, some clones could react with the antiserum against B. anthracis. These results imply that the whole genomic library constructed in this study can be applied for analyzing the immunomes of B. anthracis.

Serological Survey for the Major Viral Diseases in the Layers (국내 산란계의 주요 바이러스성 질병에 대한 혈청학적 모니터링 결과 및 분석)

  • Lee, Hae-Rim;Kim, Jong-Man;Kim, Jin-Hyung;Kim, Chang-Moon;So, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Dong-Woo;Ha, Bong-Do;Hong, Song-Chol;Mo, In-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.361-372
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    • 2010
  • Serological evaluation for the poultry is important for various reasons, such as designing and assessing the vaccination program and diagnosing diseases and for this reason, serologic tests for the layer flocks have been conducted on a regular basis. Moreover, the nationwide serological survey and analysis are essential to understand the epidemiological status of national poultry industry. In this sense, the study was conducted to evaluate the immune status of the layer flocks with the sera submitted to Avian Disease Laboratory, Chungbuk National University in 2009, and several important viral diseases were selected for evaluation including low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). For LPAI and ND, the age-related patterns of geometric mean titer (GMT) changes were similar but there were differences in the flock positive rate and the level of GMT due to the different vaccination policy. In the case of IB, the values of GMT showed that the field infection was more prevalent than expected. For aMPV, positive birds in a flock increased as the layers got older, which reflected the course of field infection because vaccination against aMPV was not allowed in 2009. From this study, the immune status for the main viral diseases in layers became more clarified but this information was limited because of only one year study. Therefore, serological survey needs to be conducted on a yearly basis and furthermore include broilers and breeders for a better understanding of the health status in the national poultry industry.

Serological Monitoring of Major Infectious Diseases in the Domestic Layers (국내 산란계의 주요 전염성 질병에 대한 혈청학적 모니터링)

  • Min, Bong Chul;Dam, Lai Van;Kim, Kang San;Kim, Tae Sik;Son, Joo Sung;Mo, In Pil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.235-247
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    • 2019
  • Serological monitoring has been conducted worldwide for early diagnosis of disease and monitoring of immune status in poultry. This study was conducted to evaluate the immune status of layers with sera submitted to the Avian Disease Laboratory, Chungbuk National University from 2015 to 2017. The test results were analyzed by the time submitted and by the age of the chicks. Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) showed a low positive rate of antibody compared with those of Newcastle disease, indicating that domestic vaccination against LPAI was not sufficient. The antibody profile of infectious bronchitis (IB) depicted high level of titer and a low tendency of CV as compared to the uninfected control flocks, which indicated that most layer farms have been exposed to the field IB virus. In case of avian metapneumovirus infection (aMPV) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), since the introduction of the vaccine in 2011 and 2017, respectively, the positive rate and the titer level were higher than those in pevious times. No significant difference in the changes of seasonal result was observed, indicating proper vaccination and improvement in biosecurity and management.

Immune responses of hepatitis B vaccination among very low birth weight infant (극소 저출생체중아의 영아기 B형 간염 항체 생성률 조사)

  • Kim, Young-Deuk;Han, Myung-Ki;Kim, Ai-Rhan E.;Kim, Ki-Soo;Pi, Soo-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.857-863
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : To evaluate the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine among very low birth weight infants(VLBWI) who were vaccinated at 0, 1, 6 months of chronological age and to determine the factors associated with antibody formations. Methods : A total of 243 VLBWI admitted to Seoul and Gangneung Asan Medical Center neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2004 were included. Of 243, 13 infants were born to HBs Ag positive mother. All infants were given DNA recombinant vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months of chronological age. Infants born to HBs Ag positive mothers received hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth and a total of 4 doses of vaccinations. An antibody level over 10 mIU/mL, tested at 3-4 months after last vaccination, was regarded as a positive seroconversion. Results : The seroconversion rates were 84.4 percent and 84.5 percent for VLBWI and extremely low birth weight infants(ELBWI), respectively. Of 28 seronegative infants who were given revaccinations, 60.7 percent seroconverted, resulting in 95.3 percent, 97.5 percent seroconversion rates for VLBWI and ELBWI, respectively. 76.9 percent of infants born to HBsAg positive mothers seroconverted and none became hepatitis B carriers. Factors such as gestational age, sex, various neonatal illness, and kinds of vaccinations did not influence the formation of the hepatits B antibody, however, the higher the weight at time of first vacciation yielded better seroconversion rate. Conclusion : Revaccination of seronegative VLBWI after 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccinaton is very effective. Therefore, testing the immune status after the hepatitis B vaccination, a practice not routinely done, is highly recommended.