• Title, Summary, Keyword: ADF

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Time- and Frequency-Domain Block LMS Adaptive Digital Filters: Part Ⅱ - Performance Analysis (시간영역 및 주파수영역 블럭적응 여파기에 관한 연구 : 제 2 부- 성능분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Chon;Un, Chong-Kwan
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.54-76
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    • 1988
  • In Part Ⅰ of the paper, we have developed various block least mean-square (BLMS) adaptive digital filters (ADF's) based on a unified matrix treatment. In Part Ⅱ we analyze the convergence behaviors of the self-orthogonalizing frequency-domain BLMS (FBLMS) ADF and the unconstrained FBLMS (UFBLMS) ADF both for the overlap-save and overlap-add sectioning methods. We first show that, unlike the FBLMS ADF with a constant convergence factor, the convergence behavior of the self-orthogonalizing FBLMS ADF is governed by the same autocorrelation matrix as that of the UFBLMS ADF. We then show that the optimum solution of the UFBLMS ADF is the same as that of the constrained FBLMS ADF when the filter length is sufficiently long. The mean of the weight vector of the UFBLMS ADF is also shown to converge to the optimum Wiener weight vector under a proper condition. However, the steady-state mean-squared error(MSE) of the UFBLMS ADF turns out to be slightly worse than that of the constrained algorithm if the same convergence constant is used in both cases. On the other hand, when the filter length is not sufficiently long, while the constrained FBLMS ADF yields poor performance, the performance of the UFBLMS ADF can be improved to some extent by utilizing its extended filter-length capability. As for the self-orthogonalizing FBLMS ADF, we study how we can approximate the autocorrelation matrix by a diagonal matrix in the frequency domain. We also analyze the steady-state MSE's of the self-orthogonalizing FBLMS ADF's with and without the constant. Finally, we present various simulation results to verify our analytical results.

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A Study on the Development of a Quantitative Analytical Method of Chicken Dietary Fiber (닭사료의 섬유소 정량분석방법 개발에 관한 연구)

  • 남기홍;성창환
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 1994
  • A study was conducted to develop a new analytical method to quantitate chicken dietary fiber (CDF). Four types of grain diets and 2 types of forages were used. Three broiler chicks at eight weeks of age were used in the Latin square design to estirnate the in vivo digestibility. Six quantitative analytical methods (Southgate method, total dietary fiber or TDF, acid detergent fiber or ADF, neutral detergent fiber or NDF, crude fiber or CF) including CDF were compared in this study. ADF, NDF and CF contained the lowest amount of the unavailable carbohydrate(UC). The value of TDF was higher than the values of ADF, NDF and CF and lower than CDF and the Southgate method. The value of NDF showed the lower values than the CDF, Southgate fiber and TDF. The recovery rate of the fiber in the feces was high in the TDF, ADF, NDF and CF, while CDF and Southgate fiber showed lower recovery rates. TDF, NDF, ADF, or CF can replace chromium in the digestibility test, while the CDF and Southgate fiber can not replace chrorniurn. The digestibility of TDF, NDF, ADF and CF in the chicken showed negative values or values close to zero depending on the types of feed but the digestibility of CDF and Southgate fiber showed relatively high positive values.

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Approximated Outage Probability for ADF Relay Systems with Burst MPSK and MQAM Symbol Transmission

  • Ko, Kyunbyoung;Lim, Sungmook
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we derive the outage probability for M-ary phase shifting keying (MPSK) and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) burst transmission (BT) of adaptive decode-and-forward (ADF) cooperative relay systems over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. Within a burst, there are pilot symbols and data symbols. Pilot symbols are used for channel estimation schemes and each relay node's transmission mode selection schemes. At first, we focus on ADF relay systems in which the probability density function (PDF) is derived on the basis of error events at relay nodes corresponding to channel estimation errors. Next, the average outage probability is derived as an approximate expression for an arbitrary link signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for different modulation orders. Its accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with simulation results. Further, it is confirmed that BT-ADF relay systems with pilot symbol based channel estimation schemes enables to select correctly decoded relay nodes without additional signaling between relay nodes and the destination node, and it is verified that the ideal performance is achieved with small SNR loss.

Quality Prediction of Alfalfa Hay by Near Infraced Recfletance Spectroscopy (NIRS) (Near Infraced Recfletance Spectroscopy ( NIRS ) 에 의한 알팔파 건초의 품질 평가)

  • ;N. P. Martin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 1989
  • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of commercial farm alfalfa hay for crude prowin (CP), neutral detergent fiber(NDF), and acid detergent fiber(ADF) was compared with wet chemistry results. There were no differences between NIRS and wet chemistry results in CP and ADF content, but there were differences (P <.05) between NIRS and wet chemistry results for sample No.2, 4, 5 in NDF content.

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Development of Key Performance Indicators in Ammunition Demilitarization Facility Using the Balanced Score Card (균형성과표(BSC)를 활용한 탄약 비군사화 시설의 핵심성과지표 개발)

  • Bae, Young-Min;Han, Seung-Jo
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2021
  • Ammunition Demilitarization facility (ADF) should be set up the feasible goals and continue to operate, taking into account non-profit characteristics. However, due to the lack of performance measurement methods in ADF, which are essential to national policy at a significant cost each year, the reliability of the evaluation results can be insufficient. In this paper, the Balanced Score Card (BSC) method was applied that could be evaluated to reflect the financial and non-financial features. The relevant literature research and army regulations reflected the results of various interviews of the expert group. The extraction of success performance area in ADF was confirmed using the BSC method and the Decision Variable (DV) candidate was created to use regression for selecting the DV. Additionally, the key performance indicator was presented by verification the feasibility of content by conducting the survey of experts. The implications of this paper are as follows. First, the proposed BSC model was found to be suitable for practical use in ADF reflecting the non-profit characteristics. Second, accurate evaluation of ADF can contribute to long-term development of ADF. Finally, it can be applied to the management process of the other military sector, so it can be expected to play a role in providing basic data and spreading it to other areas.

Binding of Calcium and Iron by Job′s tears (Yulmoo: Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) Total Dietary Fiber and Acid Detergent Fiber (율무 식이섬유의 칼슘, 철분과의 결합특성)

  • 우자원
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 1991
  • This study was performed to examine the mineral binding properties of total dietary fiber (TDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) from Job's tears (Yulmoo: Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) bran. The endogenous Ca and Fe contents of dietary fiber extracted from Yulmoo bran were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Ca contents were 40, 118.6$\mu\textrm{g}$ Ca/g TDF and 131.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$ Ca/g ADF. Fe contents were 1,219.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$ Fe/g TDF and 277.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$ Fe/g ADF. The calcium binding capacities of dietary fiber at pH 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 were 50.77, 77.57, 86.64% for TDF, 40.27, 51.42, 40.90% for ADF, respectively. The iron binding capacity of dietary fiber at pH 5.0~7.0 was 95~97% for TDF and 85~95% for ADF.

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Time- and Frequency-Domain Block LMS Adaptive Digital Filters: Part Ⅰ- Realization Structures (시간영역 및 주파수영역 블럭적응 여파기에 관한 연구 : 제1부- 구현방법)

  • Lee, Jae-Chon;Un, Chong-Kwan
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.31-53
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    • 1988
  • In this work we study extensively the structures and performance characteristics of the block least mean-square (BLMS) adaptive digital filters (ADF's) that can be realized efficiently using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The weights of a BLMS ADF realized using the FFT can be adjusted either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, leading to the time-domain BLMS(TBLMS) algorithm or the frequency-domain BLMS (FBLMS) algorithm, respectively. In Part Ⅰof the paper, we first present new results on the overlap-add realization and the number-theoretic transform realization of the FBLMS ADF's. Then, we study how we can incorporate the concept of different frequency-weighting on the error signals and the self-orthogonalization of weight adjustment in the FBLMS ADF's , and also in the TBLMS ADF's. As a result, we show that the TBLMS ADF can also be made to have the same fast convergence speed as that of the self-orthogonalizing FBLMS ADF. Next, based on the properties of the sectioning operations in weight adjustment, we discuss unconstrained FBLMS algorithms that can reduce two FFT operations both for the overlap-save and overlap-add realizations. Finally, we investigate by computer simulation the effects of different parameter values and different algorithms on the convergence behaviors of the FBLMS and TBLMS ADF's. In Part Ⅱ of the paper, we will analyze the convergence characteristics of the TBLMS and FBLMS ADF's.

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Varietal Difference in Feed Value of Rice Straw and Its Relationship with Agronomic Traits (볏짚 사료가치의 품종간 차이 및 생육형질과의 관련성)

  • Kim Chang-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.516-521
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    • 2004
  • The straw of thirty one rice varieties were evaluated for their feed value and related agronomic traits. The rice straw were hand-harvested, dried to constant weight at $75^{\circ}C$ and ground through a 20 mesh seive in a Wiley mill, analyzed with crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Relative feed value (RFV) was calculated from NDF and ADF. The sum of standardized score was estimated by dry weight of rice straw, content of CP, ADF and NDF. The straw yield of Daeanbyeo was 725.9 kg/10a, showed heighest value among the varieties and remainder was in the order of Keumnambyeo, Donginbyeo #1 and Chucheongbyeo. Crude protein (CP) content in a Dasanbyeo was higher than those in other varieties. The content of ADF in a Junghwabyeo and NDF in a Sobaegbyeo were $34.3\%$ and $63.8\%$, respectively, showed lowest value among the varieties. The rice straw of Dunnaebyeo, Obongbyeo, Seoanbyeo, Keumobyeo, Hwaseongbyeo, Noganbyeo and Gyehwabyeo belonged to the high feed value varieties by estimation of cluster analysis, sum of standardized score and RFV. The content of CP was found to be positively related with dry weight of leaf and grain, but negatively related with heading days after seeding, culm length, specific leaf weight (SLW) and dry weight of stem. ADF and NDF were found to be positively related with heading days after seeding, culm length, SLW and dry weight of leaf, but negatively related with dry weight of stem. The sum of standardized score and RFV were the only positive relationship with dry weight of stem and negative relationship with other traits.

THE AKARI DEEP FIELD SOUTH: A NEW HOME FOR MULTIWAVELENGTH EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY

  • Clements, David L.
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2012
  • The importance of multiwavelength astronomical surveys is discussed in the context of galaxy evolution. The AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) is a new, well placed survey field that is already the subject of studies at a wide range of wavelengths. A number of ADF-S observational programmes are discussed and the prospects for the ADF-S as a future resource for extragalactic astronomy is explored.

On the Convergence Speed of Nonlinear Least-Squares IIR Adaptive Filter (비선형 무한 응답 최소자승형 적응 여파기의 수렴속도에 관한 연구)

  • 김화종
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.58-60
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    • 1987
  • In this paper, we investigate an infinite impulse response adaptive digital filter based on the nonlinear least-squares algorithm, and compare its convergence speed to that of a self-orthogonalizing IIR ADF which is known to have fastest convergence. By simulation, it is shown that the NLS IIR ADF converges faster than other known IIR ADF's, especially for a low-order case.

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