• Title, Summary, Keyword: 7,12-dimethylbenz(${\alpha}$)anthracene

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Isolation of a Quinone-rich Fraction from Ardisia crispa Roots and its Attenuating Effects on Murine Skin Tumorigenesis

  • Yeong, Looi Ting;Hamid, Roslida Abdul;Yazan, Latifah Saiful;Khaza'ai, Huzwah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2301-2305
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    • 2013
  • Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(${\alpha}$)anthracene (DMBA, $100{\mu}g/100{\mu}l$) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume ($8.79{\pm}5.44$) and tumor burden ($3.60{\pm}1.17$). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden ($3.00{\pm}1.00$) and tumor volume ($2.40{\pm}1.12$), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated.

Effects of Dietary Fatty Acid and Protein Sources on Serum Protein Profiles and Liver Functional Enzyme Activities in Rats with DMBA-Induced Mammary Tumors

  • Lee, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.53-59
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary sources of fatty acids and protein on serum protein profiles, hepatic functional enzyme activities, mammary tumor incidence and tumor weight in 7, 12-dimethylbenz($\alpha$)anthracene (DMBA)-treated rats. The sources of dietary fatty acids were 18n6 (rich in linoleic acid), 18n3 (rich in linolenic acid) and 22n3 (rich in DHA) : sources of dietary protein were casein (C) and soy protein isolate (S). mammary tumors (MTs) were chemically induced by DMBA (9 mg/100 g body weight) which was gastrically intubated at 7 weeks of age. Each experimental diet was given for the following 25 weeks. Casein-fed rats (group C) exhibited significantly higher levels of weight gain and FER (food efficiency ratio) than did group S. Group C showed higher levels of serum protein and globulin, and higher albumin/globulin (A/G) ratios than group S. Liver functional enzyme activities (GOT, GPT, ALP, LDH, $\gamma$-GT) and LDH/GOT ratios were not influenced by dietary protein. GPT activity was lower in the group given 18n3, and ALP activity was lower in the group given 18n6. The incidence and total number of MTs appeared to be lower in the group given 22n3 than in the group given 18n3 or 18n6, even though the average weight of MTs was highest in the group given 22n3, The average weight of MTs was higher in the C group than in the S group. MT incidence had a positive correlation with LDH activity and LDH/GOT ratio. The average weight of MTs had a negative correlation with serum albumin levels and A/G ratios, and a positive correlation with ALP activity. This research suggests that the measurement of serum protein profiles and liver functional enzyme activities may be utilized to monitor the development of mammary tumors.

CYP1B1 Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through Suppression of Herc5-Mediated ISGylation for Protein Degradation on β-Catenin in HeLa Cells

  • Park, Young-Shin;Kwon, Yeo-Jung;Chun, Young-Jin
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2017
  • Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) acts as a hydroxylase for estrogen and activates potential carcinogens. Moreover, its expression in tumor tissues is much higher than that in normal tissues. Despite this association between CYP1B1 and cancer, the detailed molecular mechanism of CYP1B1 on cancer progression in HeLa cells remains unknown. Previous reports indicated that the mRNA expression level of Herc5, an E3 ligase for ISGylation, is promoted by CYP1B1 suppression using specific small interfering RNA, and that ISGylation may be involved in ubiquitination related to ${\beta}-catenin$ degradation. With this background, we investigated the relationships among CYP1B1, Herc5, and ${\beta}-catenin$. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that CYP1B1 overexpression induced and CYP1B1 inhibition reduced, respectively, the expression of $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling target genes including ${\beta}-catenin$ and cyclin D1. Moreover, HeLa cells were treated with the CYP1B1 inducer $7,12-dimethylbenz[{\alpha}]anthracene$ (DMBA) or the CYP1B1 specific inhibitor, tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) and consequently DMBA increased and TMS decreased ${\beta}-catenin$ and cyclin D1 expression, respectively. To determine the correlation between CYP1B1 expression and ISGylation, the expression of ISG15, a ubiquitin-like protein, was detected following CYP1B1 regulation, which revealed that CYP1B1 may inhibit ISGylation through suppression of ISG15 expression. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Herc5 were strongly suppressed by CYP1B1. Finally, an immunoprecipitation assay revealed a direct physical interaction between Herc5 and ${\beta}-catenin$ in HeLa cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that CYP1B1 may activate $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling through stabilization of ${\beta}-catenin$ protein from Herc5-mediated ISGylation for proteosomal degradation.

Inhibition of NF-ĸB, Bcl-2 and COX-2 Gene Expression by an Extract of Eruca sativa Seeds during Rat Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis

  • Abdel-Rahman, Salah;Shaban, Nadia;Haggag, Amany;Awad, Doaa;Bassiouny, Ahmad;Talaat, Iman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8411-8418
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    • 2016
  • The effect of Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels was investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(${\alpha}$)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA increased NF-${\kappa}B$, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while, decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. After DMBA administration, SE treatment reduced NF-${\kappa}B$, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, SE treatment reduced inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC. Analysis revealed that SE has high concentrations of total flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and polyphenolic compounds such as gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, 3,4-dicaffeoyl quinic, 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic, tannic, cinnamic acids, catechin and phloridzin. These findings indicate that SE may be considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, especially given its high antioxidant properties.

Protective Effects of [6]-Paradol on Histological Lesions and Immunohistochemical Gene Expression in DMBA Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

  • Mariadoss, Arokia Vijayaanand;Kathiresan, Suresh;Muthusamy, Rajasekar;Kathiresan, Sivakumar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3123-3129
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    • 2013
  • Background: The search for naturally occurring agents in routinely consumed foods that may inhibit cancer development is of high priority. [6]-Paradol is a pungent phenolic bioactive component from ginger with welldocumented health promoting antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, anticarcinogenic effects have yet to be fully explored. The objectives of the present study were therefore to assess protective effects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in male golden Syrian hamsters. Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinomas developed in the left buccal pouch of hamsters on painting with 0.5% of DMBA, three times in a week. To assess the apoptotic associated gene expressing potential of [6]-paradol, it was orally administered to DMBA treated hamsters on alternate days from DMBA painting for 14 weeks. Results: We observed 100% tumor formation with marked levels of neoplastic changes and altered the expression of apoptotic associated gene (p53, bcl-2, caspase-3 and TNF-${\alpha}$) was observed in the DMBA alone painted hamsters as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of [6]-paradol at a dose of 30 mg/kg b.wt to DMBA treated animals on alternative days for 14 weeks significantly reduced the neoplastic changes and improved the status of apoptosis associated gene expression. Conclusion: These observations confirmed that [6]-paradol acts as a tumor suppressing agent against DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. We also conclude that [6]-paradol also effectively enhances apoptosis- associated gene expression in DMBA treated animals.

Effects of the P/S Ratio of Dietary Lipids and Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements on the Level of Serum Lipids and Liver. Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Treated with DMBA

  • Lee, Byung-Joo;Park, Jung-Nan;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.906-913
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    • 1998
  • This study an analyzes the effects of the P/S ratio of dietary lipids and antioxidant vitamin supplements on serum lipids level and fatty acid profile, the degree of lipid peroxidation, and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver of rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz($\alpha$) anthracene(DMBA). P/S ratio of dietary lipids was made into 0.5, 1 and 2 by mixing palm oil, soybean oil, sesame oil and perilla oil at 10%(w/w) fat level and n-6/n-3 ratio was fixed to 4. Antioxidant vitamin of $\alpha$-tocopherol or $\beta$-carotene was supplemented in addition to vitamin mixture which was given at 1 % of the standard diet. female Sprague-Dawley strain rats, about 60 days old, were divided into three groups(LP : low P/S ratio(0.5), MP : medium P/S ratio (1.0), HP , high P/S ratio(2.0)) and each group was sub-divided into three groups(S ; standard, T ; tocopherol supplemented, C : carotene supplemented): Two weeks after feeding experimental diets, all groups were treated with a single dose of DMBA(2mg/100g BW) by gastric intubation and fed experimental diet for 9 week. The results were as follows ; 1) Serum total cholesterol(TC) level was not significantly influenced by diet but tended to be lower in HP groups compared to LP and MP groups. Triglyceride level was the highest in LP groups and the lowest in $\alpha$-tocopherol supplemented groups. 2) Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) level, representing lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsome, tended to be increased as the unsaturation of dietary lipids increases. $\alpha$-Tocopherol supplement significantly decreased TBARS level. 3) The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glutathione peroxidase(GSHPx) in hepatic cytosol showed the tendency to be high with increasing P/S ratio of dietary lipids. SOD activity was not significantly influenced by antioxidant vitamin, but GSHPx activity was significantly increased in $\alpha$-tocopherol supplemented groups. In summary, high polyunsaturated fat diet was effective on reducing the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride, while it increased unsaturation and peroxidizability of serum fatty acid. With increasing P/S ratio of dietary lipids, lipid peroxidation was increased in the liver and antioxidant enzyme system was induced to inhibit lipid peroxidation against oxidative damage. $\alpha$-Tocopherol supplement was effective in lowering lipid peoxidation, but $\beta$-carotene supplement did not exhibit antioxidant effect. (Korean J Nutrition 31(5) 906~913, 1998)

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