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Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson's Disease (파킨슨병 환자에서의 우울증상)

  • Lee, Moon-Sook;Yang, Chang-Kook;Hah, Hong-Moo;Kim, Jae-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms, 2) the severity of depressive symptoms, 3) the correlation of depressive symptoms with clinical variables, and 4) factors that contribute to depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with Parkinson's disease referred from the Parkinson's Disease Clinic of Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Korea, completed a self-administered questionnaire package, which included basic demographic data, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision(SCL-90-R), and the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In addition, a structured interview and a complete neurological examination, including the Hoehn and Yahr stage, the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale(some selected scales of UPDRS part III), the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale(ADL), and the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination were performed. Results: 1) Based on BDI score, subjects were divided into four groups:severely(40.7%), moderately(13.6%) and mildly(12.7%) depressive and non-depressive(33.1%). 2) The severity of depressive symptom in Parkinson's disease was positively correlated with Hoehn and Yahr(H & Y) stage(r=0.34, p<0.0001), the severity of motor symptom(r=0.35, p<0.0001), and trait anxiety inventory(r=0.33, p<0.001). On the other hand, the severity of depressive symptom was negatively correlated with educational level(r=-0.34, p<0.001), ADL(r=-0.37, p<0.0001) and Parkinson's disease quality of life (PDQL)(r=-0.69, p<0.0001). Among several clinical variables, the PDQL was the most influential factor predicting whether the depressive symptom was present or not. Conclusion: This study suggests that depressive symptom is very prevalent among patients with Parkinson's disease. Data from this study indicate that medical staffs who take care of patients with Parkinson's disease should pay attention to finding and treating depressive symptom among their patients. With appropriate psychiatric intervention, patient's depressive symptom can be minimized or alleviated and thus, the quality of life in these patients is likely enhanced.

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A Pilot Study of Bone Mineral Density in Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (남자 만성폐쇄성폐질환 환자들의 골밀도에 대한 예비연구)

  • Bae, Yun Oh;Han, Minsoo;Lee, Seong-Kyu;Kim, Jeong Nyum;Kim, Jeong Sik;Kim, Jinho;Cho, Yongseon;Lee, Yang Deok
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2003
  • Background : Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for osteoporosis, which has implications for mobility and even mortality. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and risk factors for osteoporosis in a limited number of men with COPD. Methods : We checked BMD, $FEV_1$(% of predicted) and investigated risk factors for osteoporosis in 44 male patients with COPD who visited our hospital from January to August 2002. Results : Mean(${\pm}$) age was $69{\pm}9$ yrs, body mass index(BMI) $21{\pm}3kg/m^2$, $FEV_1$ $50{\pm}18%$ of predicted, lumbar spine T-score $-3.0{\pm}1.2$, lumbar spine Z-score $-2.0{\pm}1.2$, and lumbar spine BMD $0.76{\pm}0.13g/cm^2$. Osteoporosis(T-score below -2.5) was present in 27 patients(61.4%) and osteopenia(T-score between -1 and -2.5) in 17(38.6%). None of the patients had normal BMD. There was no relationship between BMD and $FEV_1$(% of predicted). There were significant differences in smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, cumulative steroid dose, BMI and BMD among the three groups according to $FEV_1$(% of predicted) (group1 : ${\geq}65%$, group2 : 50-64%, group3 : ${\leq}49%$), except age. However, there were no significant differences in these variables between the osteopenia and osteoporosis groups, except BMI. Linear Regression(Stepwise) analysis showed that lumbar BMD was correlated with BMI & exercise. Conclusion : BMD is significantly reduced in men with COPD. There was no relationship between BMD and pulmonary function.

LSTM Based Prediction of Ocean Mixed Layer Temperature Using Meteorological Data (기상 데이터를 활용한 LSTM 기반의 해양 혼합층 수온 예측)

  • Ko, Kwan-Seob;Kim, Young-Won;Byeon, Seong-Hyeon;Lee, Soo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.603-614
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    • 2021
  • Recently, the surface temperature in the seas around Korea has been continuously rising. This temperature rise causes changes in fishery resources and affects leisure activities such as fishing. In particular, high temperatures lead to the occurrence of red tides, causing severe damage to ocean industries such as aquaculture. Meanwhile, changes in sea temperature are closely related to military operation to detect submarines. This is because the degree of diffraction, refraction, or reflection of sound waves used to detect submarines varies depending on the ocean mixed layer. Currently, research on the prediction of changes in sea water temperature is being actively conducted. However, existing research is focused on predicting only the surface temperature of the ocean, so it is difficult to identify fishery resources according to depth and apply them to military operations such as submarine detection. Therefore, in this study, we predicted the temperature of the ocean mixed layer at a depth of 38m by using temperature data for each water depth in the upper mixed layer and meteorological data such as temperature, atmospheric pressure, and sunlight that are related to the surface temperature. The data used are meteorological data and sea temperature data by water depth observed from 2016 to 2020 at the IEODO Ocean Research Station. In order to increase the accuracy and efficiency of prediction, LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory), which is known to be suitable for time series data among deep learning techniques, was used. As a result of the experiment, in the daily prediction, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the model using temperature, atmospheric pressure, and sunlight data together was 0.473. On the other hand, the RMSE of the model using only the surface temperature was 0.631. These results confirm that the model using meteorological data together shows better performance in predicting the temperature of the upper ocean mixed layer.

Self-purification Mechanisms in Natural Environments of Korea: I. A Preliminary Study on the Behavior of Organic/Inorganic Elements in Tidal Flats and Rice Fields (자연 정화작용 연구: I. 갯벌과 농지 상층수중 유 ${\cdot}$ 무기 원소의 거동에 관한 예비 연구)

  • Choi, Kang-Won;Cho, Yeong-Gil;Choi, Man-Sik;Lee, Bok-Ja;Hyun, Jung-Ho;Kang, Jeong-Won;Jung, Hoi-Soo
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.195-207
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    • 2000
  • Organic and inorganic characteristics including bacterial cell number, enzyme activity, nutrients, and heavy metals have been monitored in twelve acrylic experimental tanks for two weeks to estimate and compare self-purification capacities in two Korean wet-land environments, tidal flat and rice field, which are possibly different with the environments in other countries because of their own climatic conditions. FW tanks, filled with rice field soils and fresh water, consist of FW1&2 (with paddy), FW3&4 (without paddy), and FW5&6 (newly reclaimed, without paddy). SW tanks, filled with tidal flat sediments and salt water, are SW1&2 (with anoxic silty mud), SW3&4 (anoxic mud), and SW5&6 (suboxic mud). Contaminated solution, which is formulated with the salts of Cu, Cd, As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and glucose+glutamic acid, was spiked into the supernatent waters in the tanks. Nitrate concentrations in supernatent waters as well as bacterial cell numbers and enzyme activities of soils in the FW tanks (except FW5&6) are clearly higher than those in the SW tanks. Phosphate concentrations in the SW1 tank increase highly with time compared to those in the other SW tanks. Removal rates of Cu, Cd, and As in supematent waters of the FW5&6 tanks are most slow in the FW tanks, while the rates in SW1&2 are most fast in the SW tanks. The rate for Pb in the SW1&2 tanks is most fast in the SW tanks, and the rate for Hg in the FW5&6 tanks is most slow in the FW tanks. Cr concentrations decrease generally with time in the FW tanks. In the SW tanks, however, the Cr concentrations decrease rapidly at first, then increase, and then remain nearly constant. These results imply that labile organic materials are depleted in the FW5&6 tanks compared to the FW1&2 and FW3&4 tanks. Removal of Cu, Cd, As from the supernatent waters as well as slow removal rates of the elements (including Hg) are likely due to the combining of the elements with organic ligands on the suspended particles and subsequent removal to the bottom sediments. Fast removal rates of the metal ions (Cu, Cd, As) and rapid increase of phosphate concentrations in the SW1&2 tanks are possibly due to the relatively porous anoxic sediments in the SW1&2 tanks compared to those in the SW3&4 tanks, efficient supply of phosphate and hydrogen sulfide ions in pore wates to the upper water body, complexing of the metal ions with the sulfide ions, and subsequent removal to the bottom sediments. Organic materials on the particles and sulfide ions from the pore waters are the major factors constraining the behaviors of organic/inorganic elements in the supernatent waters of the experimental tanks. This study needs more consideration on more diverse organic and inorganic elements and experimental conditions such as tidal action, temperature variation, activities of benthic animals, etc.

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Purchasing Status and Supplier Performance Evaluation of School Foodservice in Chanwon, Korea (창원시 학교급식 식재료 구매 실태 및 공급업체 수행도 평가)

  • Jung, Hoi-Jung;Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the purchasing status and to compare supplier performance evaluations between competitive bidding and negotiated contracts in school foodservice in Changwon, Korea. A total of 190 questionnaires were distributed and 167 (return rate 87.9%) were collected from June 29 to September 28, 2010, and then a total of 151 (analysis rate 79.5%) were used for the final analysis. First, 91.4% of food product purchases for school meals were contracted through competitive bidding, especially limited competitive bidding. It mainly consisted of agricultural products, processed food, and eco-friendly agricultural products (fruit). Second, 78.8% of schools purchased food products by negotiated contracts, while single negotiation accounted for 59.7%. Food products by negotiated contract consisted of meat, kimchi, and fish. Third, the purchase status of competitive bidding and negotiated contracts showed a significant difference in agricultural products (p<0.001), fish (p<0.001), meats (p<0.001), poultry (p<0.001), antibiotic-free poultry (p<0.001), eco-friendly grain (p<0.001), eco-friendly agricultural products (fruit) (p<0.001), eco-friendly processed food (p<0.001), processed products (p<0.001), milk (p<0.001) and general grain (p<0.001) except for kimchi. Fourth, comparative analysis of supplier performance evaluation (on a 5-point Likert scale) of school foodservice showed that price of product of competitive bidding (3.73) was significantly higher than that of negotiated contract (2.95) (p<0.001), and the overall performance level of the negotiated contract (3.85) was significantly higher than that of competitive bidding (3.61) (p<0.01). The supplier performance evaluation levels of product packaging (p<0.01), product quality at the time of delivery (p<0.001), hygiene of products (p<0.001), consistency to specification (p<0.001), swiftness of return and exchange (p<0.001), emergency delivery (p<0.001), service of delivery staff (p<0.05), and handling of complaints (p<0.001) of negotiated contracts were significantly higher than those of competitive bidding of school foodservice. In conclusion, school foodservice selected food suppliers both by adopting competitive bidding and negotiated contracts. And there was a significant difference of school foodservice supplier performance between competitive bidding and negotiated contracts in Changwon, Korea.

Study on Body Mass Index (BMI), Dietary Intake Attitudes, and Nutrient Intake Status according to Sugar-Containing Food Intake Frequency of College Students in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 일부 대학생의 가당식품 섭취빈도에 따른 BMI, 식이섭취태도 및 영양소 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Sun-Choung;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1649-1657
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the body mass index (BMI), dietary intake attitudes, and nutrient intake status according to sugar-containing food intake frequency of 409 college students in Gyeonggi-do. Subjects were categorized into three groups according to sugar-containing food intake frequency: rare intake group (n=113), average intake group (n=195), and frequent intake group (n=101). The average height and weight (P<0.001) of each group were $163.8{\pm}0.11cm$ and $52.9{\pm}8.6kg$, $164.4{\pm}0.1cm$ and $56.2{\pm}6.4kg$, and $167.9{\pm}0.1cm$ and $68.0{\pm}15.7kg$, respectively. The average BMIs of the groups were $19.6{\pm}2.3$, $20.7{\pm}0.8$, and $24.0{\pm}2.7$, respectively (P<0.001). Dietary intake attitude scores of the groups were $30.73{\pm}5.68$, $30.11{\pm}5.51$, and $28.00{\pm}5.31$, respectively (P<0.001). As a result of nutrient intake status, daily averages of energy and carbohydrate intake of the frequent intake group were significantly higher than those of the rare intake group (P<0.05). On the other hand, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, and vitamin C intakes of the rare intake group were significantly higher than those of the frequent intake group (P<0.05). Using multiple regression analysis, we found that BMI was the most significant variable affecting sugar-containing food intake. Therefore, nutrition education is necessary to improve nutrient intake while considering sugar intake for maintenance of healthy weight.

Parents' Opinions on Foodservices in Daycare Centers of Korea's Compensation and Welfare Service Institute (근로복지공단 보육시설의 급식 운영현황과 학부모대상 품질 만족도)

  • Kim, Ji Hyeon;Lee, Young Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.102-113
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions on the importance, performance level, and satisfaction with foodservice quality at daycare centers in the Compensation and Welfare Service institute. The questionnaire was developed to measure thirty-two attributes of foodservice operations are administered to 598 parents and 23 foodservice supervisors from June 22, 2009 to July 10, 2009. The parents placed a high importance on the need for foodservices, earning 4.70 points out of 5 points. Their perceptions of foodservice quality menu, foodservice ingredients and effects, facilities, sanitation, and service scored even higher than performance. The overall satisfaction level for foodservice compared to performance was 4.33 and 4.03 points out of 5 points, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 98.6% of the variance in parents' overall satisfaction scores was explained by six dimensions.

Perceptions of Married Women on Childbirth and Sex Preference and Related Factors in Gyeongju, Korea (도농복합지역 기혼여성들의 출산과 성 선호에 대한 인식 및 관련요인)

  • Youm, Seog-Heon;Kang, Pock-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Hwang, Tae-Yoon;Hwang, In-Sob
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.260-273
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of married Korean women regarding marriage and childbirth, and their awareness of childbirth-related issues such as low birth rates, sex preferences and sex imbalances in Korea. Methods: A total of 453 married women aged 20 or older were randomly selected from four urban districts and five rural districts out of 25 districts in Gyeongju, a consolidated city located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, South Korea. The survey was conducted from December 2005 to February 2006. A total of 392 out of 453 questionnaires(86.5% response rate) were collected, and 44 incomplete questionnaires were excluded, leaving 348 completed questionnaires to be used for data analysis. Age was divided into three groups as below 49, 50-69, 70 or older. Results: Women's perceptions of marriage were associated with age(p<0.01). Perceptions about childbirth were also significantly related to age(p<0.01), type of residential area (p<0.01) and education level(p<0.05). Sex preferences were significantly related to age(p<0.05) and occupation(p<0.01). Of the respondents aged 49 or younger, 34.8% indicated that the ideal number of children is two, while 25.5% of respondents aged 50 to 69 and 15.3% of respondents aged 70 and 33.7% of respondents aged 70 or older considered four children to be the ideal number. Perceptions of sex imbalance were significantly related to socioeconomic status(p<0.01) and occupation(p<0.01). The largest number of respondents cited "economic burden" as the main reason for low birth rates. Multiple logistic regressions were performed for all three age groups using male sex preference as the dependent variable under the assumption that respondents can have only a single child. Socioeconomic status (p<0.01) and residential area (p<0.05) were significant variables for those aged 49 or below. Education level(p<0.05) and residential area (p<0.01) were statistically significant variables on preferring son in case of having only one child for respondents aged 50 to 69. We did not detect any significant independent variables in respondents who were 70 or older. Conclusions: Our results highlight the necessity of developing policies and public education programs to explain the consequences of low birth rates and sex imbalances in Korea. As increasing numbers of women work outside the home, it is important for the government and employers to provide social and working environments where women do not consider marriage and childbirth to be obstacles to social and business activities.

The Ability of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$) Antibodies Produced in Sheep Colostrums

  • Yun, Sung-Seob
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2007
  • Inflammatory process leads to the well-known mucosal damage and therefore a further disturbance of the epithelial barrier function, resulting abnormal intestinal wall function, even further accelerating the inflammatory process[1]. Despite of the records, etiology and pathogenesis of IBD remain rather unclear. There are many studies over the past couple of years have led to great advanced in understanding the inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. From the current understanding, it is likely that chronic inflammation in IBD is due to aggressive cellular immune responses including increased serum concentrations of different cytokines. Therefore, targeted molecules can be specifically eliminated in their expression directly on the transcriptional level. Interesting therapeutic trials are expected against adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$. The future development of immune therapies in IBD therefore holds great promises for better treatment modalities of IBD but will also open important new insights into a further understanding of inflammation pathophysiology. Treatment of cytokine inhibitors such as Immunex(Enbrel) and J&J/Centocor(Remicade) which are mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies have been shown in several studies to modulate the symptoms of patients, however, theses TNF inhibitors also have an adverse effect immune-related problems and also are costly and must be administered by injection. Because of the eventual development of unwanted side effects, these two products are used in only a select patient population. The present study was performed to elucidate the ability of TNF-${\alpha}$ antibodies produced in sheep colostrums to neutralize TNF-${\alpha}$ action in a cell-based bioassay and in a small animal model of intestinal inflammation. In vitro study, inhibitory effect of anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ antibody from the sheep was determined by cell bioassay. The antibody from the sheep at 1 in 10,000 dilution was able to completely inhibit TNF-${\alpha}$ activity in the cell bioassay. The antibodies from the same sheep, but different milkings, exhibited some variability in inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ activity, but were all greater than the control sample. In vivo study, the degree of inflammation was severe to experiment, despite of the initial pilot trial, main trial 1 was unable to figure out of any effect of antibody to reduce the impact of PAF and LPS. Main rat trial 2 resulted no significant symptoms like characteristic acute diarrhea and weight loss of colitis. This study suggested that colostrums from sheep immunized against TNF-${\alpha}$ significantly inhibited TNF-${\alpha}$ bioactivity in the cell based assay. And the higher than anticipated variability in the two animal models precluded assessment of the ability of antibody to prevent TNF-${\alpha}$ induced intestinal damage in the intact animal. Further study will require to find out an alternative animal model, which is more acceptable to test anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ IgA therapy for reducing the impact of inflammation on gut dysfunction. And subsequent pre-clinical and clinical testing also need generation of more antibody as current supplies are low.

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Chinese Communist Party's Management of Records & Archives during the Chinese Revolution Period (혁명시기 중국공산당의 문서당안관리)

  • Lee, Won-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.22
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    • pp.157-199
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    • 2009
  • The organization for managing records and archives did not emerge together with the founding of the Chinese Communist Party. Such management became active with the establishment of the Department of Documents (文書科) and its affiliated offices overseeing reading and safekeeping of official papers, after the formation of the Central Secretariat(中央秘書處) in 1926. Improving the work of the Secretariat's organization became the focus of critical discussions in the early 1930s. The main criticism was that the Secretariat had failed to be cognizant of its political role and degenerated into a mere "functional organization." The solution to this was the "politicization of the Secretariat's work." Moreover, influenced by the "Rectification Movement" in the 1940s, the party emphasized the responsibility of the Resources Department (材料科) that extended beyond managing documents to collecting, organizing and providing various kinds of important information data. In the mean time, maintaining security with regard to composing documents continued to be emphasized through such methods as using different names for figures and organizations or employing special inks for document production. In addition, communications between the central political organs and regional offices were emphasized through regular reports on work activities and situations of the local areas. The General Secretary not only composed the drafts of the major official documents but also handled the reading and examination of all documents, and thus played a central role in record processing. The records, called archives after undergoing document processing, were placed in safekeeping. This function was handled by the "Document Safekeeping Office(文件保管處)" of the Central Secretariat's Department of Documents. Although the Document Safekeeping Office, also called the "Central Repository(中央文庫)", could no longer accept, beginning in the early 1930s, additional archive transfers, the Resources Department continued to strengthen throughout the 1940s its role of safekeeping and providing documents and publication materials. In particular, collections of materials for research and study were carried out, and with the recovery of regions which had been under the Japanese rule, massive amounts of archive and document materials were collected. After being stipulated by rules in 1931, the archive classification and cataloguing methods became actively systematized, especially in the 1940s. Basically, "subject" classification methods and fundamental cataloguing techniques were adopted. The principle of assuming "importance" and "confidentiality" as the criteria of management emerged from a relatively early period, but the concept or process of evaluation that differentiated preservation and discarding of documents was not clear. While implementing a system of secure management and restricted access for confidential information, the critical view on providing use of archive materials was very strong, as can be seen in the slogan, "the unification of preservation and use." Even during the revolutionary movement and wars, the Chinese Communist Party continued their efforts to strengthen management and preservation of records & archives. The results were not always desirable nor were there any reasons for such experiences to lead to stable development. The historical conditions in which the Chinese Communist Party found itself probably made it inevitable. The most pronounced characteristics of this process can be found in the fact that they not only pursued efficiency of records & archives management at the functional level but, while strengthening their self-awareness of the political significance impacting the Chinese Communist Party's revolution movement, they also paid attention to the value possessed by archive materials as actual evidence for revolutionary policy research and as historical evidence of the Chinese Communist Party.