• Title, Summary, Keyword: 한반도의 지각구조

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Structure and physical properties of the earth crustal material in the middle of Korean Peninsula : A study on the prescription of standard test by mortar-bar method (한반도 중부권 지각물질의 구조와 물성연구 : 콘크리트 공시체에 의한 표준시험 규정에 대하여)

  • 정진곤;유신애
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 1995
  • It has been well known that the alkali-aggregate reaction between the aggregates and cement paste is one of the reasons of a concrete siructre expansion. Because of a serious demage on the concrete stnicture from the expansion, in many countries, the safety of the materials is checked in laboratory by mortar-bar test and the upper limit of expansion in length is 0.1%. The prescriptions are presented in the ASTM C227 and 490 of U.S. which has been international currency and in the KS Handbook F2503, F2546 and L5107 of Korea published by Korean Standards Association. Both of the prescriptions are almost same in their contents. Actually, in the process of preparing and measuring the mortar-bar according to the prescription mentioned above, it seems that there are no problems for its own purpose but a few points are found to be improved upon the methods to increase the accuracy for laboratory work as follows. 1. The prescription of blending ratio(aggregate, cement and water) should be noted by volume not by weight. 2. It is unreasonable to measure the initial length of mortar bars after 24$\pm$2 hours at once regardless the kind of aggregates. 3. It may bring about errors in calculating the expansion ratio under the condition of the denominator value fixed as 254mm. 4. The measuring methods of specific gravity are selected according to the purposes but the pure specific gravity displays the highest accuracy among them.

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Structure and physical properties of Earth Crust material in the Middle of Korean Peninsula(2) : Comparison between elastic Velocity and point-load of core specimen of sedimentary rocks. (한반도 중부권 지각물질의 구조와 물성연구(2) : 퇴적암류 코아시료의 탄성파 속도와 점재하 강도 비교)

  • 송무영;황인선
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.21-37
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    • 1993
  • In order to investigate the correlation of sedimentary rock properties. specific gravity, porosity, water content, sonic wave velodty, and point4oad strength index of core samples of limestones, sandstones and shales were measured. The relationships between density and velocity show $V_p=16300d-38719.3,{\;}V_s1896.4d-29225.1$ of regression equation for sandstones and $Vp=4085d-10264.8,{\;}V_s=3519d-7841.3$ for shales and <$Vp=4085d^2-20747d+303,{\;}V_s=3899d^2-21442d+318$ for limestones. Seismic wave velocity of shales which have high density is lower than that of sandstones, and this seems to be an effect of bedding in shale. P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity of limestones, sandstones and shales show the linear relationships as a whole. The regression equations are respectively calculated V_s=0.26V_p+1041.6m/sec,{\;}V_s=0.43V_p+424.2m/sec,{\;}and{\;}Vs=0.51V_p+261.9m/sec$ and the correlation coefficients of the velocity show r= 0.86 in sandstones, r= 0.75 in limestones and r=0.86 in shales. According to the point4oad strength test for limestones, point4ord strength anisotropy was not so dear even though the specimens show generally the banded structure. Variations of dip angle of bedding whihin the range $30^{\circ}-60^{\circ}$ does not have much influence upon the diametral strength index and axial strength index. From the result of point load test, P-wave velocity increases with point4ord strength index but the regression equations are $V_p=98.5lI{s_d}+4082.1m/sec,{\;}V_p=106.41{s_a}+3954m/sec$ and their correlation coefficient is low.

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GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY OF KOREA (한반도층서개요(韓半島層序槪要))

  • Chang, Ki Hong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.73-87
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    • 1975
  • Regional unconformities have been used as boundaries of major stratigraphic units in Korea. The term "synthem" has already been propsed for formal unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units of maximum magnitude (ISSC, 1974). The unconformity-based classification of the strata in the cratonic area in Korea comprises in ascending order the Kyerim, $Sangw{\check{o}}n$, $Jos{\check{o}}n$, $Py{\check{o}}ngan$, Daedong, and $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthems, and the Cenozoic Erathem. The unconformites separating them from each other are either orogenic or epeirogenic (and vertical tectonic). The sub-$Sangw{\check{o}}n$ unconformity is a non-conformity above the basement complex in Korea. The unconformities between the $Sangw{\check{o}}n$, $Jos{\check{o}}n$, and $Py{\check{o}}ngan$ Synthems are disconformities denoting late Precambrian and Paleozoic crustal quiescence in Korea. The unconformities between the $Py{\check{o}}ngan$, Daedong, and $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthems are angular unconformities representing Mesozoic orogenies. The bounding unconformities of the $Ky{\check{o}}ngsang$ Synthem involve non-conformable parts overlying the Jurassic and late Cretaceous granitic rocks.

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Structure and Physical Properties of Earth Crust Material in the Middle of Korean Peninsula(4) : Development Status of Groundwater and Geological Characteristics in Chungnam Province (한반도 중부권 지각물질의 구조와 물성연구(4) : 충남도 지하수 개발 현황과 지질특성)

  • 송무영;신은선
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.153-168
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    • 1994
  • The status of groundwater development in Chungnam was studied with geological characteristics according to the measured data of Korean Rural Development Corporation. The data of 212 survey wells were used for the relation between catchment area and water discharge, and the data of 344 development wells for the relationships between well depth and discharge, between casing depth and discharge, between rock type and discharge, and the relation with lineaments density. The relationship between the catchment area and discharge does not show any special trend, and it is understood that groundwater of hard rock mass is not so much influenced by the surface catchment area. The relationship between well depth and discharge shows two different trends; discharge increasing with depth for alluvial groundwater, but no certain trend between depth and discharge for groundwater of hard rock zone. Discharge increases linearly with the casing depth, and it is reliable because the casing was installed in the weathered zone against well destruction. Generally the rock type does not show any difference of discharge, but the crystalline rocks such as granite and gneiss yield a little more discharge than the more porous rocks such as sedimentary rock or schist. It suggests that the effect of fracture zone is a major governing factor. In Hongsong and Puyo, there are similar in rock type and casing depth, but the big difference in average discharge. The big discharge of Hongsong is concordant with the higher intersection density and longer length of lineament in Hongsong than those of Puyo. Therefore the groundwater development strategy should be focused on the micro topography analysis and geophysical survey for the understanding of the fracture zone rather than catchment area or rock type.

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Sphene U-Pb ages of the granodiorites from Gimcheon, Seongju and Anui areas of the middle Yeongnam Massif (영남육괴 중부 김천, 성주 및 안의지역 화강섬록암의 스핀 U-Pb 연대)

  • Park Kye-Hun;Lee Ho-Sun;Cheong Chang-Sik
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2005
  • Sphene U-Pb ages were determined for the granodiorites from Gimcheon, Seongju and Anui areas of the middle Yeongnam massif. The determined ages were in the narrow range of 195.7±2.4∼200.8±1.9(2σ) Ma that are approximately coincident with the boundary between Triassic and Jurassic. Even though the studed plutons are aerially separated, they reveal quite similar major element compositions and almost identical ages, suggesting that they were generated from the similar source materials under the identical tectonic environment and thus they can be considered to form a single suite. Considering the age and spatial distribution of the Triassic to Lower Jurassic plutons of the Yeongnam Massif and Okcheon Belt, it seems that there were episodic changes in tectonic environment in both areas with relatively short intervals. In general, the compressive environment of active continental margin was prevailed. However, the tensional environment of within-plate was also appeared several times intermittently. In conclusion, Yeongnam Massif and Okcheon Belt experienced distinct tectonic environments during Triassic to Lower Jurassic, providing important clue to reveal the crustal evolution of the Korean Peninsula.

On-Land Seismic Survey of Korea (한국의 육상 탄성파탐사)

  • Kwon, Byung-Doo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.441-450
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    • 2006
  • The on-land seismic survey in Korea was begun in mid-1960s. Kim et al.(1967) of Korea Geological Survey reported on the result of gravity and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the Pohang area for the period of 1963-64 to assess its possibility of oil entrapment. Hyun and Kim (1966) carried out a refraction survey on the tunnel wall. Since then, the KGS geophysicists had conducted seismic surveys on Kyungsang sedimentary basin as a main project for several years. In 1970s, on-land seismic surveys had been conducted for various purposes such as site investigation for the nuclear power plants and industrial complex, exploration for ground water, mineral resources and underground tunnel. The first reflection survey with CMP acquisition was attempted in 1978 by using a digital recording system. But most of on-land seismic surveys had employed the refraction method until 1980s. In 1990s, high resolution reflection and various borehole seismic surveys such as tomography, uphole, downhole, cross-hole methods have been attempted by universities and engineering companies. The applications of on-land seismic surveys have been enlarged for both academic and industrial purposes such as investigation of geologic structure of the fault and tidal flat area, construction of highway, railroad and dam, geothermal energy and mineral resource exploration, environmental assessment for waste disposal sites and archaeological investigations. In 2002, the first crustal seismic survey was carried out on the profile of 294km length across the whole peninsular. It is expected that the advanced technology and experience acquired through offshore seismic surveys, which have been conducted in continental shelf of Korea and foreign oil fields, will stimulate the more active on-land seismic explorations.

Geological Structure of Okcheon Metamorphic Zone in the Miwon-Boeun area, Korea (미원-보은지역에서 옥천변성대의 지질구조)

  • 강지훈;이철구
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.3_4
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    • pp.234-249
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    • 2002
  • The Miwon-Boeun area in the central and northern part of Okcheon metamorphic zone, Korea, is composed of Okcheon Supergroup and Mesozoic Cheongju and Boeun granitoids which intruded it. The Okcheon Supergroup consists mainly of quartzite (Midongsan Formation), meta-calcareous rocks (Daehyangsan Formation, Hwajeonri Formation), meta-psammitic rocks (Unkyori Formation), meta-politic rocks (Munjuri Formation), meta-conglomeratic rocks (Hwanggangni Formation) in the study area, showing a zonal distribution of NE trend. Its' general trend is locally changed into NS to EW trend in and around high-angle fault of NS or NW trend. This study focused on deformation history of the Okcheon Supergroup, suggesting that the geological structure was formed at least by four phases of deformation. (1) The first phase of deformation occurred under ductile shear deformation of top-to-the southeast movement, forming sheath fold or A-type fold, asymmetric isoclinal fold, NW-SE trending stretching lineation. (2) The second phase of deformation took place under compression of NW-SE direction, forming subhorizontal, tight upright fold of M trend in the earlier phase, and formed semi-brittle thrust fault (Guryongsan Thrust Fault) of top-to-the southeast movement and associated snake-head fold in the later phase. (3) The third phase of deformation formed subhorizontal, open recumbent fold through gravitational or extensional collapses which might be generated from crustal thickening and gravitational instability. (4) The fourth phase of deformation formed moderately plunging, steeply inclined kink fold related to high-angle faulting, being closely connected with the local change of NE-trending regional foliation into NS to EW direction of strike in the vicinity of the high-angle fault.

Devonian Strata in Imjingang Belt of the Central Korean Peninsula: Imjin System (임진강대의 중부 고생대층: 임진계)

  • Choi, Yong-Mi;Choh, Suk-Joo;Lee, Jeong-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Chan;Lee, Jeong-Gu;Kwon, Yi-Kyun;Cao, Lin;Lee, Dong-Jin
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.107-124
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    • 2015
  • The 'Imjin System' (or Rimjin System) was established in 1962 as a new stratigraphic unit separated from the Upper Paleozoic Pyeongan System based on the discovery of brachiopods and echinoderms of possible Devonian age. Subsequent discoveries of the Middle Devonian charophytes confirmed the Devonian age of the system. The Imjin System is distributed in the Imjingang Belt between the Pyongnam Basin and the Gyeonggi Massif, spans from the eastern areas including Cholwon-gun of the Gangwon Province, Gumchon-gun, Phanmun-gun, and Tosan-gun of the Hwanghaebuk Province, to the western areas of Gangryong-gun and Ongjin-gun of the Hwanghaenam Province, and includes the Yeoncheon Group (metamorphic complex) to the south. Unlike the lower Paleozoic strata in the Pyongnam Basin which solely produce marine invertebrate fossils, the Imjin System yields diverse non-marine plant and algal fossils. Brachiopods of the system are similar to those from the Devonian of the South China Block and include taxa endemic to the platform, implying a close paleogeographic affinity to the South China Block. The Imjin System is generally considered as of Middle to Late Devonian in age, although there have been suggestions that the system is of the Middle Devonian to Carboniferous in age. North Korean workers postulated that the Imjin System was deposited in the current geographic position, where the "Imjin Sea" (an extension of the South China Platform) was located during the Devonian. The Imjin System displays strong local variations in stratigraphy and its thickness. It has recently been reported that the strata are repeated and overturned by thrust faults in many exposures. The Yeoncheon Group a southward extension of the Imjin System, also experienced intense tight folding and contractional deformation. Northward decrease in metamorphic grade within the system suggests that the northern part of the Gyeonggi Massif and the Imjingang Belt are probably an extension of the Dabie-Sulu Belt between the South China and Sino-Korean blocks, and the Imjin System is an remnant of accretion resulted from the collision between the two blocks. In order to understand tectonic evolution and Paleozoic paleogeography of eastern Asia, further studies on stratigraphic, sedimentologic and tectonic evolution of the Imjin System involving scientists from the two Koreas are urgently needed.

The Characteristic of Mangerite and Gabbro in the Odaesan Area and its Meaning to the Triassic Tectonics of Korean Peninsula (오대산 지역에 나타나는 맨거라이트와 반려암의 특징과 트라이아스기 한반도 지체구조 해석에 대한 의미)

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Oh, Chang-Whan;Kim, Jeong-Min
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.77-98
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    • 2011
  • The igneous complex consisting of mangerite and gabbro in the Odaesan area, the eastem part of the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea, intruded early Paleo-proterozoic migmatitic gneiss. The mangerite is composed of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, plagioclase, pethitic K-feldspar, quartz. The gabbro has similar mineral assemblage but gabbro has minor amounts of amphibole and no perthitic K-feldspar. The gabbro occurs as enclave and irregular shaped body within the mangerite, and the boundary between the mangerite and gabbro is irregular. Leucocratic lenses with perthitic K-feldspar are included in the gabbro enclaves. These textures represent mixing of two different magmas in liquid state. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age dating gave $234{\pm}1.2$ Ma and $231{\pm}1.3$ Ma for mangerite and gabbro, respectively. These ages are similar with the intrusion ages of post collision granitoids in the Hongseong (226~233 Ma) and Yangpyeong (227~231 Ma) areas in the Gyeonggi Massif. The mangerite and gabbro are high Ba-Sr granites, shoshonitic and formed in post collision tectonic setting. These rocks also show the characters of subduction-related igneous rock such as enrichment in LREE, LILE and negative Nb-Ta-P-Ti anomalies. These data represent that the mangerite and gabbro formed in the post collision tectonic setting by the partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle during subduction which occurred before collision. The heat for the partial melting was supplied by asthenospheric upwelling through the gab between continental and oceanic slabs formed by slab break-off after continental collision. The distribution of post-collisional igneous rocks (ca. 230 Ma) in the Gyeonggi Massif including Odaesan mangerite and gabbro strongly suggests that the tectonic boundary between the North and South China blocks in Korean peninsula passes the Hongseong area and futher exteneds into the area between the Yangpyeong-Odaesan line and Ogcheon metamorphic belt.

Structure and Physical Property of the Crust of Mid-west Korea: Analysis of Sedimentary Basins in the Namyang and Tando Areas, Kyeonggi Province, Korea (한반도 중서부 지각구조와 물성 연구: 경기도 화성군 남양 및 안산시 탄도지역에 분포하는 퇴적분지의 분석)

  • Park, Sung-Dae;Chung, Gong-Soo;Jeong, Ji-Gon;Kim, Won-Sa;Lee, Dong-Woo;Song, Moo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.563-582
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    • 2000
  • Two Cretaceous(80-90 Ma) non-marine sedimentary basins, Namyang and Tando Basins, are distributed in the Namyang area, Hwaseonggun and in the Tando area, Ansanshi, Kyungki Province, Korea. The Namyang and Tando Basins are composed of 10 facies, which are pooped into 5 facies associations(FA). FA I consists of massive conglomerate facies, normally graded conglomerate facies and reversely graded conglomerate facies, which is interpreted to have been formed by laminated sandstone facies, massive conglomerate facies(channelized), which is thought to have been formed by sheet flow, stream flow and suspension sedimentation in an alluvial/braided plain environment. FA III consists of massive mudstone(pebbly) facies, laminated mudstone facies, massive sandstone facies and is interbedded by channel-fill conglomerate. It is interpreted to have been deposited by suspension settling during flooding and channel-fill deposition in a floodplain environment. FA IV consists of massive conglomerate facies, normally graded conglomerate facies, massive sandstone facies, normally graded sandstone facies, and laminated sandstone facies and is interbedded with mudstone facies. It is thought to have been deposited by debris flow and turbidity current in a fan-delta environment. FA V consists of massive mudstone facies, laminated mudstone facies, laminated sandstone facies and is interbedded by massive conglomerate bed. It is thought to have been formed by suspension sedimentation and low-density turbidity current in a lake. In the Namyang Basin FA I is distributed in the eastern and southern margin of the basin, FA II in the middle part of the basin as north-south tending band. and FA III in the western part. In the Tando Basin FA II is distributed in the middle part of eastern margin and in the northwestern margin, FA IV in the southwestern part, and FA V in the central part. Correlation of the facies associations shows that FA I and II in the Namyang Basin are distributed in the lower to middle part of stratigraphic sequence and FA III in the upper part of the sequence whereas FA II and IV in the Tando Basin are in the lower to middle part and FA V in the upper part of the sequence. These patterns of facies associations distribution suggest that the Namyang Basin was developed as an alluvial fan and alluvial/braided plain at first and then evolved into a floodplain whereas the Tando Basin was developed as a fan-delta and alluvial/braided plain at first and then evolved into a lake environment.

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