• Title, Summary, Keyword: 한반도의 지각구조

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Recent Research for the Seismic Activities and Crustal Velocity Structure (국내 지진활동 및 지각구조 연구동향)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyun;Jun, Myung-Soon;Jeon, Jeong-Soo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.369-384
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    • 2006
  • Korean Peninsula, located on the southeastern part of Eurasian plate, belongs to the intraplate region. The characteristics of intraplate earthquake show the low and rare seismicity and the sparse and irregular distribution of epicenters comparing to interplate earthquake. To evaluate the exact seismic activity in intraplate region, long-term seismic data including historical earthquake data should be archived. Fortunately the long-term historical earthquake records about 2,000 years are available in Korea Peninsula. By the analysis of this historical and instrumental earthquake data, seismic activity was very high in 16-18 centuries and is more active at the Yellow sea area than East sea area. Comparing to the high seismic activity of the north-eastern China in 16-18 centuries, it is inferred that seismic activity in two regions shows close relationship. Also general trend of epicenter distribution shows the SE-NW direction. In Korea Peninsula, the first seismic station was installed at Incheon in 1905 and 5 additional seismic stations were installed till 1943. There was no seismic station from 1945 to 1962, but a World Wide Standardized Seismograph was installed at Seoul in 1963. In 1990, Korean Meteorological Adminstration(KMA) had established centralized modem seismic network in real-time, consisted of 12 stations. After that time, many institutes tried to expand their own seismic networks in Korea Peninsula. Now KMA operates 35 velocity-type seismic stations and 75 accelerometers and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources operates 32 and 16 stations, respectively. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety and Korea Electric Power Research Institute operate 4 and 13 stations, consisted of velocity-type and accelerometer. In and around the Korean Peninsula, 27 intraplate earthquake mechanisms since 1936 were analyzed to understand the regional stress orientation and tectonics. These earthquakes are largest ones in this century and may represent the characteristics of earthquake in this region. Focal mechanism of these earthquakes show predominant strike-slip faulting with small amount of thrust components. The average P-axis is almost horizontal ENE-WSW. In north-eastern China, strike-slip faulting is dominant and nearly horizontal average P-axis in ENE-WSW is very similar with the Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, in the eastern part of East Sea, thrust faulting is dominant and average P-axis is horizontal with ESE-WNW. This indicate that not only the subducting Pacific Plate in east but also the indenting Indian Plate controls earthquake mechanism in the far east of the Eurasian Plate. Crustal velocity model is very important to determine the hypocenters of the local earthquakes. But the crust model in and around Korean Peninsula is not clear till now, because the sufficient seismic data could not accumulated. To solve this problem, reflection and refraction seismic survey and seismic wave analysis method were simultaneously applied to two long cross-section traversing the southern Korean Peninsula since 2002. This survey should be continuously conducted.

3-D P-wave Velocity Structure in South Korea using Seismic Tomography (지진 토모그래피 방법을 이용한 남한에서의 3차원 P파 속도구조)

  • 박재우;민경덕;전정수;제일영
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.445-454
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    • 2002
  • 3-D P-wave velocity model in the southern Korean Peninsula is investigated by using the earthquake tomography method. This velocity model would be used to locate the exact hypocenter position, and also useful for our understanding of the crustal structure. The simultaneous inversion is used to get the minimum 1-D model and hypo-center relocation, which are used as an initial 3-D velocity model. The velocities in the minimum 1-D model are 6.04 km/s, 6.45 km/s, and 7.78 km/s between the depth of 0-19 km, 19-32 km, and 32-55 km respectively. In the 3-D P-wave velocity model, Layer 1 (0~3 km) has high velocities in Kyongsang basin, Yonglam massif, and Okchon folded belt, and low velocities in Kyonggi massif. In layer 2 (3~19 km) high velocities are predominent around Kyonsang basin and Yongnam massif except Yonil basin, but low velocities exist around Kyonggi massif and Okchon folded belt. In Laye. 3 (19~32 km) high velocities prevail throughout the southern part of Korean Peninsula, but low velocity does throughout the middle except SNU, YIN station in Konggi massif. In Layer 4 (32 km), the maximum velocity is showed in the middle and southwestern part, while the minimum velocity in the southeastern and coastal area. The depth of the velocity boundary corresponds to the crustal structure of the southern Korean Peninsula which is calculated by gravity data.

Numerical modeling of explosions and earthquakes from North Korea (북한의 폭파자료와 자연지진에 대한 수치 모델링)

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Kang, Ik-Bum
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.249-252
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    • 2008
  • The solutions are expressed in terms of a double integral transformation over wavenumber and frequency. The complete solution is considered in such a full wave theory approach. This method can handle a larger number of plane layers. Therefore, the result of FK method is very similar to real data. Using the models that were modified in velocity and Q value with depth by iterative process from a model (Kang and Park, 2006) and considered as one of the best models in Korean Peninsula, the synthetic data are simulated for explosions and earthquakes of North Korea. This study notes that the wave shape of the synthetic data is very dependent on Q value, velocities, and thickness of sedimentary layers. Comparing between the real and the synthetic, fitting well in arrival time of first arrival and wave shape causes us to arrive at an indication that the model is very close representation of upper crustal structure and simulations are well done in amplitude fitting and in identification of phases of local and regional waves.

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Neotectonic Crustal Deformation and Current Stress Field in the Korean Peninsula and Their Tectonic Implications: A Review (한반도 신기 지각변형과 현생 응력장 그리고 지구조적 의미: 논평)

  • Kim, Min-Cheol;Jung, Soohwan;Yoon, Sangwon;Jeong, Rae-Yoon;Song, Cheol Woo;Son, Moon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.169-193
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    • 2016
  • In order to characterize the Neotectonic crustal deformation and current stress field in and around the Korean Peninsula and to interpret their tectonic implications, this paper synthetically analyzes the previous Quaternary fault and focal mechanism solution data and recent geotechnical in-situ stress data and examines the characteristics of crustal deformations and tectonic settings in and around East Asia after the Miocene. Most of the Quaternary fault outcrops in SE Korea occur along major inherited fault zones and show a NS-striking top-to-the-west thrust geometry, indicating that the faults were produced by local reactivation of appropriately oriented preexisting weaknesses under EW-trending pure compressional stress field. The focal mechanism solutions in and around the Korean Peninsula disclose that strike-slip faulting containing some reverse-slip component and reverse-slip faulting are significantly dominant on land and in sea area, respectively. The P-axes are horizontally clustered in ENE-WSW direction, whereas the T-axes are girdle-distributed in NNW direction. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in South Korea also indicate the ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in the Korean Peninsula is thus characterized by crustal contraction under regional ENE-WSW or E-W compression stress field. Based on the regional stress trajectories in and around East Asia, the current stress regime is interpreted to have resulted from the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of the Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents, whereas the Philippine Sea plate have not a decisive effect on the stress-regime in the Korean Peninsula due to its high-angle subduction that resulted in dominant crust extension of the back-arc region. It is also interpreted that the Neotectonic crustal deformation and present-day tectonic setting of East Asia commenced with the change of the Pacific Plate motion during 5~3.2 Ma.

Structural Evolution of the Eastern Margin of Korea: Implications for the Opening of the East Sea (Japan Sea) (한국 동쪽 대륙주변부의 구조적 진화와 동해의 형성)

  • Kim Han-Joon;Jou Hyeong-Tae;Lee Gwang-Hoon;Yoo Hai-Soo;Park Gun-Tae
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.235-253
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    • 2006
  • We interpreted marine seismic profiles in conjunction with swath bathymetric and magnetic data to investigate rifting to breakup processes at the Korean margin leading to the separation of the Japan Arc. The Korean margin is rimmed by fundamental elements of rift architecture comprizing a seaward succession of a rift basin and an uplifted rift flank passing into the slope, typical of a passive continental margin. In the northern part, rifting occurred in the Korea Plateau, a continental fragment extended and partially segmented from the Korean Peninsula, that provided a relatively broader zone of extension resulting in a number of rifts. Two distinguished rift basins (Onnuri and Bandal Basins) in the Korea Plateau we bounded by major synthetic and smaller antithetic faults, creating wide and symmetric profiles. The large-offset border fault zones of these basins have convex dip slopes and demonstrate a zig-zag arrangement along strike. In contrast, the southern margin is engraved along its length with a single narrow rift basin (Hupo Basin) that is an elongated asymmetric half-graben. Rifting at the Korean margin was primarily controlled by normal faulting resulting from extension in the west and southeast directions orthogonal to the inferred line of breakup along the base of the slope rather than strike-slip deformation. Although rifting involved no significant volcanism, the inception of sea floor spreading documents a pronounced volcanic phase which seems to reflect slab-induced asthenospheric upwelling as well as rift-induced convection particularly in the narrow southern margin. We suggest that structural and igneous evolution of the Korean margin can be explained by the processes occurring at the passive continental margin with magmatism intensified by asthenospheric upwelling in a back-arc setting.

Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of the Quaternary Faults, SE Korea: Application to the Determination of Fault Slip Sense and Paleo-stress Field (한반도 남동부 제4기 단층의 대자율이방성(AMS): 단층의 운동감각과 고응력장 해석)

  • Cho, Hyeongseong;Kim, Min-Cheol;Kim, Hyeonjeong;Son, Moon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.75-103
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    • 2014
  • The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones (i.e. Yangsan Fault System, Ulsan Fault, Yeonil Tectonic Line, Ocheon Fault System) in SE Korea. Their geometry and kinematics provide a very useful piece of information about the Quaternary crustal deformation and stress field in and around Korean Peninsula. Using magnetic fabrics (AMS), we attempted to determine the slip senses of Jinti, Mohwa, Suseongji2, and Wangsan faults and then interpreted the fabric development process of fault gouge and the characteristics of stress field during the Quaternary. All the magnetic fabrics of the faults, except the Wangsan Fault, consistently indicate a dominant reverse-slip sense with weak strike-slip component. Most of the oblate fabrics are nearly parallel to the fault surface and the anisotropy degrees generally increase in proportion to the oblatenesses. These results suggest that the fabrics of the fault gouges resulted from a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. It is also interpreted that the pre-existing fabrics were overwhelmed and obliterated by the re-activated faulting. Paleostress field calculated from the fault slip data indicates an ENE-WNW compressive stress, which is in accord with those determined from previous fault tectonic analysis, focal mechanism solution, and hydraulic fracturing test in and around Korean Peninsula.

Tectonic Link between NE China, Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula, revealed by interpreting CHAMP-GRACE satellite Gravity Data and sea-surface measured gravity data (CHAMP-GRACE 인공위성 데이터와 해상 측정 중력 데이터에 나타난 황해안 지역의 남중국과 북중국판의 대륙 충돌대 위치)

  • Cho, Sung-Chan
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2005
  • For the understanding the locus of the Quinling-Dabie-Sulu continental collision's boundary and the underground structure of the sedimentray basin in the Yellow Sea, three dimensional density modelling is carrid out by using gravity dataset (Free Air Anomaly), which is measured by Tamhae 2, KIGAM in a period 2000 - 2002. The measured gravity anomaly in the investigations area is mainly responsed by depth distribution of the sedimentary basin. After comparing the sea-measured gravity data to CHAMP-GRACE satellite gravity data, I suggested that the high density model bodies extend mainly from the southern part of China to the middle-western part of the Korean Peninsula., which might be emplaced along the continental collision's boundary. The total volume of very low density bodies modified by modelling might be about $20000\;km^3$.

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Tectonic Link Between NE China, Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula, Revealed by Interpreting CHAMP-GRACE Satellite Gravity Data and Sea-surface Measured Gravity Data (CHAMP-GRACE 인공위성 데이터와 해상 측정 중력 데이터에 나타난 황해안 지역의 남중국과 북중국판의 대륙 충돌대 위치)

  • Choi, Sung-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.89-92
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    • 2005
  • For the understanding the locus of the Quinling-Dabie-Sulu continental collision’s boundary and the underground structure of the sedimentray basin in the Yellow Sea, three dimensional density modelling is carrid out by using gravity dataset (Free Air Anomaly), which is measured by Tamhae 2, GIGAM in a period 2000-2002. The measured gravity anomaly in the investigations area is mainly responsed by depth distribution of the sedimentary basin. After comparing the sea-measured gravity data to CHAMP-GRACE satellite gravity data, I suggested that the high density model bodies extend mainly from the southern part of China to the middle-western part of the Korean Peninsula, which might be emplaced along the continental collision’s boundary. The total volume of very low density bodies modified by modelling might be about 20 000 km3.

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A Case Study on the Boring-Hole Blasting for Offering of the Ground Vibration Source (지진동 Source 제공을 위한 심부 시추공발파 기술사례)

  • 조영곤;김희도;조준호
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2003
  • This case study which is to make 2-Dimension earth's crust structures clearly is about the great boring-hole blasting to provide ground vibration source of the reflected wave research on the Korean Peninsula earth's crust structures research. For this study we've done blasting twice-500 ㎏/charge per delay, 1,000 ㎏/charge per delay, and the specifications of blasting are the following - dia.: 300 ㎜, boring-depth : 100m, besides, we used the explosives and electric detonators which have sufficient detonating velocity and very excellent safety, capacity of detonating, accurate delay time. We charged explosives into steel pipe with bulk type to avoid dead pressure by ground water. And then we tested about pipe airtight and blasting to certificate which has no problem by using on this study. In the results, we succeeded each blasting in Seosan, Youngdong. For the Peak Sum Vector(PSV) around the blasting at the main points, its real measured PSV is higher 180 % than estimated PSV with USBM. In this study we can't to be analysis of vibration velocity, but to be key providing vibration source.

Seismological Interpretation of the North Korean Nuclear Explosion Tests and Cheonanham Submersion (북한 핵실험과 천암함 침몰의 지진학적 분석)

  • Hong, Tae-Kyung;Rhee, Seung-Gu
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.55-55
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    • 2010
  • 북한 지난 2006년 2009년에 두차례 핵실험을 실시하였다. 이 핵실험은 한국, 일본, 중국에 위치한 지진관측소에 높은 신호대 잡음비를 보이며 관측이 되었다. 북한 핵실험의 지진파형 자료를 분석하여 북한 핵실험 특성 파악을 수행한다. 또한 지역지진파의 전파 경로별 변화 특성을 살펴본다. 한반도의 경우, 동해의 지각구조가 급격하게 변화하므로 동해를 가로지는 경로상에 급격한 지역지진파 변화가 관측된다. 이러한 지역지진파의 경로별 변화로 인해 관측소별 판정에 있어 어려움을 야기한다. 여러 관측소 자료를 종합 분석하는 핵실험 탐지 방법을 제시하며, 이를 북한 핵실험에 적용한다. 과거 구소련과 미국의 핵실험 자료와의 차이점을 살펴보고, 북한 핵실험의 탐지의 효율성을 위해 고려해야 할 사항에 대하여 토론한다. 과거 두 번의 북한 핵실험의 특징인 스펙트럼상의 모서리주파수 부근 에너지 강화 현상이 강하게 관측되며, P파의 상대적 강화 현상이 관측된다. 또한 2010년 천안함 침몰사건에 대하여 지진학적 기법을 활용하여 천암한 침몰 원인에 대하여 추정한다. 침몰 사건시간대에 기록된 지진파형 기록을 수집하여 분석한다. 3개의 관측소 지진파형 자료가 분석에 활용된다. 지진파의 분석을 통해 진앙위치를 추정하며, 지진파형에 드러난 특성을 통해 천암함 침몰과의 연관성을 유추한다. 또한, 지진파 진폭과 주파수 특성을 통해 진원 특성과 침몰 원인등을 추정한다.

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