• Title/Summary/Keyword: 패턴

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Impact of Fish Farming on Macrobenthic Polychaete Communities (해상 가두리 양식이 저서 다모류군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Rae-Hong;Yoon, Sang-Pil;Kwon, Jung-No;Lee, Jae-Seong;Lee, Won-Chan;Koo, Jun-Ho;Kim, Youn-Jung;Oh, Hyun-Taik;Hong, Sok-Jin;Park, Sung-Eun
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2007
  • Excessive input of organic matters from fish cage farms to the coastal waters has been considered as one of the major factors disturbing their benthic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from around the two fish cage zones (A and B) in Tongyeong coast in June and August 2003, to evaluate the ecological impacts of fish cage farming activity on the macrobenthic polychaete communities. Polychaete accounted for $81{\sim}87%$ of the total macrofauna individuals from each of the sampling stations. The number of species, abundance, diversity and dominant species of polychaete were rapidly changed with the distance from the fish cages. Within 10 m from the fish cages, Capitella capitata, which is a bio-indicator for the highly enriched sediments, was a dominant species and the lowest diversity was recorded. In particular, the maximum density (${\sim}18,410\;ind.m^2$) of C. capitata was found at Farm A where fish cages were more densely established within a semi-enclosed bay system. The sampling zone between 10 m and 15 m showed a rapid decrease of C. capitata with a rapid increase of the numbers of species, implying that this zone may be an ecotone point from a highly to a slightly enriched area. In the sampling zone between 15 m and 60 m, a transitional zone, which represents slightly enriched condition before normal one, was observed with additional increase and maintenance of the number of species and density of polychaete. In addition, the potential bio-indicators of organic enrichment, such as Lumbrineris longifolia and Aphelochaeta monilaris were the predominant species in the sampling zone. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination plots and k-dominance curves confirmed the above results on the gradual changes in the macrobenthic polychaete communities. Our findings suggest that the magnitude of impact of fish cage farming activity on polychaete communities is probably governed by a distance from fish cage, density of fish cage and geomorphological characteristics around fish cage farm.

Long-term Changes of Bathymetry and Surface Sediments in the dammed Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea, and Their Depositional Implication (영산강 하구의 수심 및 표층 퇴적물 특성의 변화와 퇴적환경)

  • KIM, YOUNG-GIL;CHANG, JIN HO
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.88-102
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    • 2017
  • Long-term changes in bathymetry and grain size of surface sediments were investigated for understanding depositional sedimentary environments in the channelized Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. The results revealed that an average depth of the estuary had decreased up to 2.1 m from 1982 to 2006, while it had increased to 0.3 m from 2006 to 2012. The rapid decrease of the water depth from 1982 to 2006 was due to the vast deposition of mud caused by the change of water course and flow velocity after the estuary was dammed. Meanwhile the increase of the water depth from 2006 to 2012 may be associated with multiple erosional processes, including a dredging at the southern part of the estuary and other erosions from the dike sluice expansion work. Considering the water-depth change and tidal-level variation in the study area, an depositional rate in the estuary is estimated to be 8~9 cm/yr for the last 2 decades (1982~2006). The sediments of Yeongsan River Estuary are largely composed of silt-clay mixtures: overall, silt is distributed mainly in the shallow area of the estuary edge, while clay is confined to the deep area of the estuary center. Mean grain size of the sediments is 6.0 Ø on average in 1997, 7.8 Ø on average in 2005 and 7.7 Ø on average in 2012, respectively, suggesting that the sediments became finer due to the increase of silt and clay contents in 1997~2005. Furthermore, several lines of evidences, including the comparison between the amounts of the sediment influx discharged from the Yeongsan River and the sediments in the estuary, and the changes in distribution pattern of silt and clay contents implying that they moved from offshore to estuary dike, indicate that the mud sediments are originated mainly from the offshore, not from the river.

Seasonal Variations of Nitrifying Bacteria in Agricultural Reservoir (농업용 저수지에서의 질화세균의 계절적인 변화)

  • Lee, Hee-Soon;Lee, Young-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.3 s.99
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    • pp.152-159
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    • 2002
  • The seasonal variations of nitrifying bacterial population sampled from 3 sites in Moon-Chon reservoir were analyzed by in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes from August 2000 until July 2001. In addition, physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, chi-a and DOC were measured to determine correlations between those factors and the size of nitrifying bacterial populations. Total bacterial numbers varied in the range of $0.8{\sim}1.5{\times}10^6\;cells/ml$ independent of sites and had the maximal values in March at all 3 stations. The ratio of eubacteria to total bacteria ranged from 44.9% to 79.5%, and the ratio of each nitrifying bacteria to eubacterial numbers reached only $1.0{\sim}7.4%$. The variations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria ranged from $1.1{\times}10^4$ to $3.0{\times}10^4\;cells/ml$ without noticeable peak values whereas those of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria varied in $1.3{\sim}5.7{\times}10^4\;cells/ml$ with the increasing tendency in winter regardless of the sites. Moreover it was observed that the numbers of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were higher than those of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Total bacterial numbers correlated with water temperature (r = 0.355, p<0.05) and DOC (r = 0.58G, p<0.01) positively whereas nitrite-oxidizing bacteria correlated with temperature (r = -0.416, p<0.05) and pH (r = -0.568, p = 0.001) negatively. In addition, DOC represented good correlations with eubacterial numbers (r = 0.448, p<0.01). These results indicate that temperature, DOC and pH might be one of the main factors affecting variations of bacterial populations in the aquatic ecosystem. It was also suggested that FISH method is a useful tool for detection of slow growing nitrifying bacteria.

Hydro-meteorological Effects on Water Quality Variability in Paldang Reservoir, Confluent Area of the South-Han River-North-Han River-Gyeongan Stream, Korea (남·북한강과 경안천 합류 수역 팔당호의 수질 변동성에 대한 기상·수문학적 영향)

  • Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Keonhee;Park, Chaehong;Seo, Wanbum;Choi, Bong-Geun;Eum, Hyun Soo;Park, Myung-Hwan;Noh, Hye Ran;Sim, Yeon Bo;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.354-374
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    • 2016
  • This study explored spatiotemporal variability of water quality in correspondence with hydrometeorological factors in the five stations of Paldang Reservoir located in the Han River during 4 years from May 2012 to December 2015. Variability of basic water quality factors were largely related with seasonal fluctuations of hydrology. Temperature stratification occurred in the deep dam station, and prolonged hypoxia was observed during the draught year. Nitrogen nutrients were increased with decreasing inflow in which changing pattern of $NH_4$ reversed to $NO_3$ by the effect of treated wastewater effluent. Phosphorus increase was manifest during the period of high inflow or severe drought. Chl-a variation was reversely related with both flow change and AGP(algal growth potential) variations. Our study demonstrated that water quality variability in Paldang Reservoir was largely attributed to both natural and operational changes of inflow and outflow (including water intake) based on major pollution source of the treated wastewater (total amount of $472{\times}10^3m^3d^{-1}$) entering to the water system from watershed. In the process of water quality variability, meteorological (e.g., flood, typhoon, abnormal rainfall, scorching heat of summer) and hydrological factors (inflow and discharge) were likely to work dynamically with nutrients pulse, dilution, absorption, concentration and sedimentation. We underline comprehensive limnological study related to hydro-meteorolology to understand short- and long-term water quality variability in river-type large reservoir and suggest the necessity of P-free wastewater treatment for the effective measure of reducing pollution level of Paldang drinking water resource.

Gene analysis of galectin-1, innate immune response gene, in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different developmental stage (넙치, Paralichthys olivaceus 발생단계별 galectin-1 유전자의 발현 분석)

  • Jang, Min Seok;Lee, Young Mee;Yang, Hyun;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Noh, Jae Koo;Kim, Hyun Chul;Park, Choul-Ji;Park, Jong-Won;Hwang, In Joon;Kim, Sung Yeon
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.255-263
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    • 2013
  • The innate immune response is fundamental defense response of vertebrates and invertebrates. Especially, the innate immune response important for larvae that lack of resistance to infectious diseases in the early stages. Galectin is one of the kinds of lectin and presents in the fish mucous that involves innate immune response. Galectin have been studied from various fishing species, but expression analysis of galectin is still unclear during early developmental stage in olive flounder. In this study, we investigated gene expression of galectin-1 from various developmental stage and tissues. We excised several tissues including the muscle, fin, eye, gill, brain, stomach, intestine, kidney, spleen and liver from adult olive flounder and confirmed gene expression of galectin-1 using RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of galectin-1 was significantly higher in muscle, stomach and intestinal tissue than other tissue in adult fish (5 and 29 months). Also, galectin-1 gene was detected from 0 DAH and gradually increased to 35 DAH and since then decreased after stomach development period. Induction of galectin-1 during the early developmental stage suggest that muscle, fin and eye tissue is formed and begins the secretion of galectin this period. In addition, increased expression levels at 35 DAH suggest that due to complete formation of stomach and intestine, increase of secretion and activation of enzyme. This study shows that expression of galectin-1 during early developmental stages and adult period in olive flounder and can be expect that galectin-1 play essental role in the innate immune system throughout the whole life time. Galectin-1 is primary barrier such as skin and digestive tissue against pathogen infection, also digestive tract developmental period is important for pathogen invasion can be expected that it will serve. Mass mortality due to the disease in seed production is continuing damage, therefore these result will be meaningful about infectious disease during early developmental stages as a basic data for the study.

Estimation of the Total Terrestrial Organic Carbon Flux of Large Rivers in Korea using the National Water Quality Monitoring System (수질측정망을 이용한 국내 대하천 하구를 통한 총유기탄소 유출량 산정과 비교)

  • Park, Hyung-Geun;Ock, Giyoung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2017
  • Rivers continuously transport terrestrial organic carbon matter to the estuary and the ocean, and they play a critical role in productivity and biodiversity in the marine ecosystem as well as the global carbon cycle. The amount of terrestrial organic carbon transporting from the rivers to ocean is an essential piece of information, not only for the marine ecosystem management but also the carbon budget within catchment. However, this phenomenon is still not well understood. Most large rivers in Korea have a well-established national monitoring system of the river flow and the TOC (Total Organic Carbon) concentration from the mountain to the river mouth, which are fundamental for estimating the amount of the TOC flux. We estimated the flux of the total terrestrial organic carbon of five large rivers which flow out to the Yellow Sea, using the data of the national monitoring system (the monthly mean TOC concentration and the monthly runoff of river flow). We quantified the annual TOC flux of the five rivers, showing their results in the following order: the Han River ($18.0{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>>Geum River ($5.9{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>Yeongsan River ($2.6{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>Sumjin River ($2.0{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$)>>Tamjin River ($0.2{\times}10^9gC\;yr^{-1}$). The amount of the Han River, which is the highest in the Korean rivers, corresponds to be 4% of the annual total TOC flux of in the Yellow River, and moreover, to be 0.6% of Yangtze River.

Associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with depression and depressed condition in Korean adults: results from KNHANES 2008-2010 (한국 성인의 혈청 25(OH)D 수준과 우울증 및 우울증상 경험과의 연관성: 국민건강영양조사 2008-2010 분석 결과)

  • Koo, Sle;Park, Kyong
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Vitamin D has been known to play an important role in the central nervous system and brain functions in the human body, and cumulative evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency might be linked with various mental health conditions. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with higher risk of depression in the US and European populations. However, limited information is available regarding the association between vitamin D status and depression in the Korean population. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between vitamin D levels and prevalence of depression. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using nationally representative data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from which serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were available. A total of 18,735 adults who had available demographic, dietary, and lifestyle information were included in our analysis. We defined "depression" with a diagnosis by a physician. "Depressed condition" was defined as having feelings of sadness or depression without diagnosis by a physician. Results: The prevalence of depression was 1.63% and 5.43% in Korean men and women, respectively; 12.5% of men and 26.1% of women were defined as the group having depressed conditions. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between vitamin D status and prevalence of depression or depressed conditions in Korean men and women. Conclusion: We found no association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression/depressed conditions in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this relationship.

Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Dried Shellfish during Storage (패류 건제품의 저장 중 지방산 조성의 변화)

  • CHO HO-Sung;LEE Kang-HO;SON Byung-Yil;CHO Young-Je;LEE Jong-HO;LIM Sang-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.416-419
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate lipid oxidation in dried shellfish during storage, brown pigment formation and composition of fatty acid were determined. Levels of brown pigment formation occurred at $25^{\circ}C$ were higher than those occurred at $4^{\circ}C$ throughout the storage period. Especially, the formation content of lipophilic brown pigment was 9$\~$10 times higher than that of hydrophilic brown pigment in all samples. Fatty acid composition of total lipid (TL) in fresh sea mussel and baby clam were $34.21\%$ and $32.83\%$ in saturated fatty acid, $19.50\%$ and $20,83\%$ in monoenoic acid, and $46.29\%$ and $46.79\%$ in polyenoic acid, respectively. The prominent fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1 and 20:5 in TL of the both samples. During storage, the contents of saturated fatty acid and monoenoic acid were slightly increased but that of polyenoic acid was decreased. In sea mussel, the content of polyenoic acid was higher in phospholipid (PL) than in neutral lipid (NL), while saturated fatty acid and monoenoic acid content were higher in the latter. The ratios of polyenoic acid/saturated fatty acid (P/S) in NL was similar in all samples. But the ratio of P/S in PL was higher in baby clam ($1.81\%$) than that in sea mussel($1.42\%$).

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Trans Fatty Acids Intake of a Girls한 High School Students in Pusan by Food Frequency Questionnaire (식품섭취빈도조사법에 의한 부산지역 여자고등학생의 trans 지방산 섭취 수준)

  • 노경희;송영선;문정원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.957-964
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    • 2000
  • To assess trans fatty acids (tFAs) intake of a girls' high school students in Pusan, dietary history and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were surveyed and analyzed with a total subjects of 274, 268 in summer and winter respectively. It was shown that 38.0% of subjects which was the highest percentage, had snack twice a day in frequency of snack intake. The most favorite snack of subjects was ice cream (46.4%), the preference for milk and dairy products was considerably high. 43.4% of subjects responded to once a month in frequency of dining out. They preferred grilled pork (39.1%), hamburger (36.9%), grilled beef (26.6%) in order. It was also appeared that they preferred fast food. In the case of eating bread, 8.0% of subjects ate bread and margarine, 7.1% butter. Generally, the subjects preferred margarine to butter. tFAs intake for each person per day was $4.24{\pm}0.18\;g$. There was significant difference in tFAs intake according to parents income (p<0.05), frequency of snack intake (p<0.001) and that of dining out (p<0.05). tFAs intake produced naturally (N-tFAs) was $0.86{\pm}0.00\;g$ which corresponded to 20.3% of total tFAs intake per day. tFAs intake produced artificially (H-tFAs) in the process of hardening oil was $3.38{\pm}0.14\;g$, equaled to 79.7% of total tFAs intake per day. There was significant difference between H-tFAs intake for each person per day (p=0.000)

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Evaluation of Quality Characteristics of Korean and Chinese Frozen Chopped Garlic (국내산 및 중국산 냉동 다진 마늘의 품질 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Seul;Kim, Seokyoung;Hwang, Inguk;Yoo, Seonmi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated quality characteristics of commercial frozen chopped garlic. We collected six kinds of commercial frozen chopped garlic, four of which were domestic and the remaining two made in China. The moisture contents and drip loss of domestic frozen chopped garlic were significantly lower than those of Chinese garlic. Drip loss was positively correlated with moisture content (r=0.918, P<0.01). Total pyruvate contents of frozen chopped garlic ranged from $118.69{\pm}5.97{\sim}224.81{\pm}9.92{\mu}mol/g$ in domestic garlic and $75.27{\pm}5.91{\sim}79.35{\pm}1.79{\mu}mol/g$ in Chinese garlic. Allicin contents of frozen chopped garlic ranged from $8.91{\pm}0.34{\sim}13.09{\pm}0.35mg/g$ in domestic garlic and $5.91{\pm}0.08{\sim}6.05{\pm}0.27mg/g$ in Chinese garlic. Total thiosulfinate content of commercial frozen chopped garlic ranged from $0.60{\pm}0.07{\sim}1.33{\pm}0.12$ optical density/g. Total thiosulfinate content of commercial frozen chopped garlic was positively correlated with allicin content (r=0.892, P<0.01). Flavor patterns of commercial frozen chopped garlic measured by an electronic nose showed no difference between domestic and Chinese garlics.