• Title/Summary/Keyword: 지열저류층 조성기술

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A Study on Deep Geothermal Energy and Potential of Geothermal Power Generation in Mongolia (몽골의 심부 지열에너지 자원과 지열발전에 관한 연구)

  • Hahn, Jeong-Sang;Yoon, Yun-Sang;Kiem, Young-Seek;Hahn, Chan;Park, Yu-Chul;Mok, Jong-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Geothermal and Hydrothermal Energy
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • Mongolia has three(3) geothermal zones and eight(8) hydrogeothermal systems/regions that are, fold-fault platform/uplift zone, concave-largest subsidence zone, and mixed intermediate-transitional zone. Average temperature, heat flow, and geothermal gradient of hot springs in Arhangai located to fold-fault platform/uplift zone are $55.8^{\circ}C$, 60~110 mW/m2 and $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$ respectively and those of Khentii situated in same zone are $80.5^{\circ}C$, 40~50 mW/m2, and $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$ separately. Temperature of hydrothermal water at depth of 3,000 m is expected to be about $173{\sim}213^{\circ}C$ based on average geothermal gradient of $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$. Among eight systems, Arhangai and Khentii located in A type hydrothermal system, Khovsgol in B type, Mongol Altai plateau in C type, and Over Arhangai in D type are the most feasible areas to develop geothermal power generation by Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Potential electric power generation by EGS is estimated about 2,760 kW at Tsenher, 1,752 kW at Tsagaan Sum, 2,928 kW at Khujir, 2,190 kW at Baga Shargaljuut, and 7,125 kW at Shargaljuut.

Geological Characteristics of Extra Heavy Oil Reservoirs in Venezuela (베네주엘라 초중질유 저류층 지질 특성)

  • Kim, Dae-Suk;Kwon, Yi-Kyun;Chang, Chan-Dong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 2011
  • Extra heavy oil reservoirs are distributed over the world but most of them is deposited in the northern part of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, in the area of 5,500 $km^2$, This region, which has been commonly called "the Orinoco Oil Belt", contains estimated 1.3 trillion barrels of original oil-in-place and 250 billion barrels of established reserves. The Venezuela extra heavy oil has an API gravity of less than 10 degree and in situ viscosity of 5,000 cP at reservoir condition. Although the presence of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt has been initially reported in the 1930's, the commercial development using in situ cold production started in the 1990's. The Orinoco heavy oil deposits are clustered into 4 development areas, Boyaco, Junin, Ayachoco, and Carabobo respectively, and they are subdivided into totally 31 production blocks. Nowadays, PDVSA (Petr$\'{o}$leos de Venzuela, S.A.) makes a development of each production block with the international oil companies from more than 20 countries forming a international joint-venture company. The Eastern Venezuela Basin, the Orinoco Oil Belt is included in, is one of the major oil-bearing sedimentary basins in Venezuela and is first formed as a passive margin basin by the Jurassic tectonic plate motion. The major source rock of heavy oil is the late Cretaceous calcareous shale in the central Eastern Venezuela Basin. Hydrocarbon materials migrated an average of 150 km up dip to the southern margin of the basin. During the migration, lighter fractions in the hydrocarbon were removed by biodegradation and the oil changed into heavy and/or extra heavy oil. Miocene Oficina Formation, the main extra heavy oil reservoir, is the unconsolidated sand and shale alternation formed in fluvial-estuarine environment and also has irregularly a large number of the Cenozoic faults induced by basin subsidence and tectonics. Because Oficina Formation has not only complex lithology distribution but also irregular geology structure, geological evolution and characteristics of the reservoirs have to be determined for economical production well design and effective oil recovery. This study introduces geological formation and evolution of the Venezuela extra heavy oil reservoirs and suggest their significant geological characteristics which are (1) thickness and geometry of reservoir pay sands, (2) continuity and thickness of mud beds, (3) geometry of faults, (4) depth and geothermal character of reservoir, (5) in-situ stress field of reservoir, and (6) chemical composition of extra heavy oil. Newly developed exploration techniques, such as 3-D seismic survey and LWD (logging while drilling), can be expected as powerful methods to recognize the geological reservoir characteristics in the Orinoco Oil Belt.