• Title/Summary/Keyword: 지열구배

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A Study on Deep Geothermal Energy and Potential of Geothermal Power Generation in Mongolia (몽골의 심부 지열에너지 자원과 지열발전에 관한 연구)

  • Hahn, Jeong-Sang;Yoon, Yun-Sang;Kiem, Young-Seek;Hahn, Chan;Park, Yu-Chul;Mok, Jong-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Geothermal and Hydrothermal Energy
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • Mongolia has three(3) geothermal zones and eight(8) hydrogeothermal systems/regions that are, fold-fault platform/uplift zone, concave-largest subsidence zone, and mixed intermediate-transitional zone. Average temperature, heat flow, and geothermal gradient of hot springs in Arhangai located to fold-fault platform/uplift zone are $55.8^{\circ}C$, 60~110 mW/m2 and $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$ respectively and those of Khentii situated in same zone are $80.5^{\circ}C$, 40~50 mW/m2, and $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$ separately. Temperature of hydrothermal water at depth of 3,000 m is expected to be about $173{\sim}213^{\circ}C$ based on average geothermal gradient of $35{\sim}50^{\circ}C/km$. Among eight systems, Arhangai and Khentii located in A type hydrothermal system, Khovsgol in B type, Mongol Altai plateau in C type, and Over Arhangai in D type are the most feasible areas to develop geothermal power generation by Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Potential electric power generation by EGS is estimated about 2,760 kW at Tsenher, 1,752 kW at Tsagaan Sum, 2,928 kW at Khujir, 2,190 kW at Baga Shargaljuut, and 7,125 kW at Shargaljuut.

A Study on Development Potential of Shallow Geothermal Energy as Space Heating and Cooling Sources in Mongolia (몽골의 천부 지열에너지(냉난방 에너지)개발 가능성에 관한 연구)

  • Hahn, Jeong-Sang;Yoon, Yun-Sang;Yoon, Kern-Sin;Lee, Tae-Yul;Kim, Hyong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Geothermal and Hydrothermal Energy
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.36-47
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    • 2012
  • Time-series variation of groundwater temperature in Mongolia shows that maximum temperature is occured from end of October to the first of February(winter time) and minimum temperature is observed from end of April to the first of May(summer time). Therefore ground temperature is s a good source for space heating in winter and cooling in summer. Groundwater temperatures monitored from 3 alluvial wells in Ulaabaatar at depth between 20 and 24 m are $(4.43{\pm}0.8)^{\circ}C$ with average of $4.21^{\circ}C$ but mean annual ground temperature(MAGT) at the depth of 100 m in Ulaanbaatar was about $3.5{\sim}6.0^{\circ}C$. Bore hole length required to extract 1 RT's heat energy from ground in heating time and to reject 1 RT's heat energy to ground in summer time are estimated about 130 m and 98 m respectively. But in case that thermally enhanced backfill and U tube pipe placement along the wall are used, the length can be reduced about 25%. Due to low MAGT of Ulaabaatar such as $6^{\circ}C$, the required length of GHX in summer cooling time is less than the one of winter heating time. Mongolia has enough available property, therefore the most cost effective option for supplying a heating energy in winter will be horizontal GHX which absorbs solar energy during summer time. It can supply 1 RT's ground heat energy by 570 m long horizontally installed GHX.

Experimental Study on Optimization of Absorber Configuration in Compression/Absorption Heat Pump with NH3/H2O Mixture (NH3/H2O 혼합냉매를 사용한 압축/흡수식 히트펌프 시스템의 흡수기 최적화에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Min-Sung;Baik, Young-Jin;Park, Seong-Ryong;Chang, Ki-Chang;Ra, Ho-Sang;Kim, Yong-Chan
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2011
  • This research aims todevelopa compression/absorption hybrid heat pump system using an $NH_3/H_2O$ as working fluid.The heatpump cycle is based on a combination of compression and absorption cycles. The cycle consists of two-stage compressors, absorbers, a desorber, a desuperheater, solution heat exchangers, a solution pump, a rectifier, and a liquid/vapor separator. The compression/absorption hybrid heat pump was designed to produce hot water above $90^{\circ}C$ using high-temperature glide during a two-phase heat transfer. Distinct characteristics of the nonlinear temperature profile should be considered to maximize the performance of the absorber. In this study, the performance of the absorber was investigated depending on the capacity, shape, and arrangementof the plate heat exchangers with regard tothe concentration and distribution at the inlet of the absorber.

Use of a Temperature as a Tracer to Study Stream-groundwater Exchange in the Hyporheic Zone (열추적자를 이용한 지하수-하천수 혼합대 연구)

  • Kim, Kue-Young;Chon, Chul-Min;Kim, Tae-Hee;Oh, Jun-Ho;Jeoung, Jae-Hoon;Park, Seung-Ki
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.525-535
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    • 2006
  • A study on stream-groundwater exchange was performed using head and temperature data of stream water, streambed, and groundwater. Groundwater level and temperature were obtained from multi-depth monitoring wells in small-scale watershed. During the summer and winter season, time series of temperature data at streambed and groundwater were monitored for six months. In the winter time, we measured the temperature gradient between stream water and streambed. The observed data showed three typical types of temperature characteristics. First, the temperature of streambed was lower than that of stream water; second, the temperature of streambed and stream water was similar; and the last, the temperature of streambed was higher than that of stream water. The interconnections between the stream and the streambed were not homogeneously distributed due to weakly developed sediments and heterogeneous bedrock exposed as bed of the stream. The temperature data may be used in formal solutions of the inverse problems to estimate groundwater flow and hydraulic conductivity.

Geochemical Studies of $CO_2$-rich Mineral Water in the Kangwon Province (강원도지역 탄산약수의 지화학적 연구)

  • 고용권;김천수;최현수;박맹언;배대석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.73-88
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    • 2000
  • The geochemistry of the $CO_2$-rich waters ($Pco_2\leq$about 1 atm) in NE part of the Kangwon province was investigated. The $CO_2$-rich waters can be divided to three types based on chemical compositions: Na-$HCO_3$, Ca-Na-$HCO_3$and Ca-$HCO_3$types. The water chemistry indicates that these type waters were evolved through reaction with host rocks by supply of deep-seated $CO_2$during deep circulation, and their geochemical environments in depth might have been different each other. The dissolution process of plagioclase is important in water/granite interactions and its solubility change according to reaction temperature played an important role in the determination of chemical compositions. The higher reaction temperature coincides with the lower different in solubility between albite and anorthite. It means that calcium is mainly released to the water in the lower temperature, whereas sodium in the higher temperature due to high Na/Ca ratio in plagioclase. The application of various chemical geothermometries on the $CO_2$-rich waters shows that the calculated reservoir temperature of Na-$HCO_3$type (about 15$0^{\circ}C$) is higher than those of Ca-$HCO_3$type. Therefore, we now interpret the recognized chemical difference was mainly due to the difference of reaction temperature. Considering normal thermal gradient, we can understand that the Na-$HCO_3$type was evolved from deeper crustal depth than the Ca-$HCO_3$type.

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Performance Analysis of a Deep Vertical Closed-Loop Heat Exchanger through Thermal Response Test and Thermal Resistance Analysis (열응답 실험 및 열저항 해석을 통한 장심도 수직밀폐형 지중열교환기의 성능 분석)

  • Shim, Byoung Ohan;Park, Chan-Hee;Cho, Heuy-Nam;Lee, Byeong-Dae;Nam, Yujin
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.459-467
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    • 2016
  • Due to the limited areal space for installation, borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) at depths deeper than 300 m are considered for geothermal heating and cooling in the urban area. The deep vertical closed-loop BHEs are unconventional due to the depth and the range of the typical installation depth is between 100 and 200 m in Korea. The BHE in the study consists of 50A (outer diameter 50 mm, SDR 11) PE U-tube pipe in a 150 mm diameter borehole with the depth of 300 m. In order to compensate the buoyancy caused by the low density of PE pipe ($0.94{\sim}0.96g/cm^3$) in the borehole filled with ground water, 10 weight band sets (4.6 kg/set) were attached to the bottom of U-tube. A thermal response test (TRT) and fundamental basic surveys on the thermophysical characteristics of the ground were conducted. Ground temperature measures around $15^{\circ}C$ from the surface to 100 m, and the geothermal gradient represents $1.9^{\circ}C/100m$ below 100 m. The TRT was conducted for 48 hours with 17.5 kW heat injection, 28.65 l/min at a circulation fluid flow rate indicates an average temperature difference $8.9^{\circ}C$ between inlet and outlet circulation fluid. The estimated thermophysical parameters are 3.0 W/mk of ground thermal conductivity and 0.104 mk/W of borehole thermal resistance. In the stepwise evaluation of TRT, the ground thermal conductivity was calculated at the standard deviation of 0.16 after the initial 13 hours. The sensitivity analysis on the borehole thermal resistance was also conducted with respect to the PE pipe diameter and the thermal conductivity of backfill material. The borehole thermal resistivity slightly decreased with the increase of the two parameters.