• Title/Summary/Keyword: 장관 영양

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The Effects of Early Enteral Feeding in Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (출생체중 1,000 g 미만의 초극소저출생체중아에서 조기장관영양의 효과)

  • Jeon, Ga Won;Park, Sung Eun;Choi, Chang Won;Hwang, Jong Hee;Chang, Yun Sil;Park, Won Soon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.711-715
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : With the recent improved survival of extremely low birth weight infants(ELBWI), enteral feeding has become a major issue. This study investigates the effects of early enteral feeding in ELBWI on their morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and mortality. Methods : ELBWI admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Samsung Medical Center from November 1994 to April 2004 who survived more than 14 days were enrolled. ELBWI were divided into two groups : an early feeding group(EF), in which enteral feeding was started within 3 days after birth; and a late feeding group(LF), in which enteral feeding was started beyond 3 days after birth. 80 ELBWI came under EF, and 131 ELBWI under LF. Results : Birth weight and gestational age did not differ between the two groups. In EF, the time to achieve full enteral feeding and the duration of parenteral nutrition were significantly shorter than in LF. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was significantly lower in EF, but the incidences of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and cholestasis were not different between the two groups. There was no difference in the survival rate between the two groups, but the duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in EF. Conclusion : Early enteral feeding in ELBWI did not increase the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, but rather decreased the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and shortened the duration of hospitalization.

Development and Evaluation of an Enteral Nutrition Protocol for Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Stroke (연하 곤란이 동반된 급성 뇌졸중 환자를 위한 장관 영양 프로토콜 개발 및 효과)

  • Yoo, Sung-Hee;Kim, So-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.280-293
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The study was done to develop an evidence-based enteral nutrition (EN) protocol for effective nutritional support for dysphagia in patients with acute stroke, and to evaluate effects of this protocol on clinical outcomes. Methods: A methodological study was used to develop the EN protocol and a quasi-experimental study to verify the effectiveness of the protocol. The preliminary EN protocol was drawn by selecting recommendations from previous well-designed EN guidelines, and then developing additional recommendations based on high-quality evidence. Content validation was assessed by an expert group, and clinical applicability by care providers and patients. The scale-level content validity index of the final EN protocol was 0.99. Assessment was done of differences in percentage of caloric goals achieved and presence of undernutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and gastrointestinal (GI) complications after application of the EN protocol. Results: In the EN protocol group, the percentage of caloric goals achieved ($R^2=.24$, p=.001) and the reduction of GI complications (p=.045) were significantly improved, but the presence of undernutrition (p=.296) and aspiration pneumonia (p=.601) did not differ from the usual care group. Conclusion: Results indicate that the new EN protocol for dysphagia in patients with acute stroke significantly increased their nutritional intake and reduced GI complications.

Development and Effect of the Feeding Protocol for Preterm Infants (미숙아의 수유 프로토콜 개발 및 적용)

  • Lee, Jae-Young;Son, Hyun-Mi;Park, Kyung-Hee
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a feeding protocol for premature infants and to evaluate the effects of protocol. Methods: The feeding protocol was developed through a literature review and discussions of an expert group. The developed feeding protocol was tested with 85 preterm infants in one neonatal intensive care unit in B city. A non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design was used. Data were collected from January 1 to April 30, 2013 for the control group and from June 1 to September 30, 2013 for the experimental group. The experimental group (n=38) received the feeding protocol, whereas the control group (n=47) had routine feeding care. Collected data were analyzed by t-test and -test using SPSS/WIN version 18.0. Results: First feeding time (t=2.22, p=.029) and full enteral feeding time (t=2.28, p=.026) were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group. There was no difference in incidence of complications (p>.05). Also no significant differences in weight reduction rate between the two groups were observed at the 7th postnatal day (t=-1.23, p=.222). Conclusion: The results indicate that the feeding protocol for preterm infants is effective in decreasing first feeding time and full enteral feeding time.

The Usefulness of the Evaluation of Gastric Residuals in Premature Infants (미숙아의 장관영양 시 위 잔류 확인의 유용성 평가)

  • Lee, Kyung Min;Choi, Su Jung
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.74-83
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    • 2019
  • Purpose : The routine evaluation of gastric residuals (RGR) is considered standard care for premature infants. This study evaluated the usefulness of RGR in premature infants. Methods : The study retrospectively investigated 208 premature infants (gestational aged under 34 weeks) who underwent gavage feeding in a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: RGR (n=104) and no-RGR (n=104). Those in the no-RGR group had their gastric residuals checked only if signs of feeding intolerance were present. Clinical outcomes, including the time to reach full enteral feeding (FEF) and the incidences of gastrointestinal disorders such as feeding intolerance (FI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), were compared. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 21, using a Mann-Whitney U test, chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test. Results : There was no statistically significant difference for the time to FEF (z=-0.61, p=.541), incidence of FI ($X^2=0.38$, p=.540), and NEC ($X^2=1.42$, p=.234) between the two groups. Conclusion : No-RGR did not increase the risk for FI or NEC. These results suggest that RGR evaluation may not improve nutritional outcomes in premature infants. Recommendations for further research and practice guidelines will be provided.

Meconium Obstruction in Very Low Birth Weight Infants (극소저출생체중아에서 태변에 의한 장폐색에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Ki-Bae;Seong, In-Chang;Lee, Kun-Song;Chang, Young-Pyo;Song, Hee-Seung
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Mecnoium obstruction in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), which delays enteral feeding and is one of the major causes of bowel obstruction, can be diagnosed and treated with hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast enema. The purpose of this study was to observe the clinical findings of meconium obstruction, the improvement of small bowel obstruction after contrast enema, and the complications related to the enema. Methods: Hypersolmolar water-soluble contrast enemas were performed in 14 VLBWIs with meconium obstruction. Clinical findings, radiologic findings, feeding intolerance, effectiveness, and complications of enemas were observed. Also, clinical findings related to meconium obstruction were compared with 18 VLBWIs without meconium obstruction. Results: 1) Fourteen VLBWIs with meconium obstruction had significantly lower 5 minutes Apgar scores than 18 VLBWIs without meconium obstruction (p<0.05). Moreover, the day of last meconium passing, and the day of the first trial and full enteral feeding were delayed significantly. 2) A total of 18 enemas were performed in the 14 infants. The contrast medium passed the ileocecal valve and reached the terminal ileus in 12 enemas. Of the 12 enemas, 11 were successful, but 1 infant underwent an ileotomy, even though the contrast medium reached the terminal ileum. 3) Intestinal obstruction was not relieved in three of five infants, in whom the contrast medium failed to pass the ileocecal valve. Obstruction was relieved after repeated enemas in which the contrast medium reached the terminal ileum. 4) No complications associated with water-soluble contrast enemas were observed. Conclusion: Hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast enema is considered to be safe and therapeutic for meconium obstruction in VLBWIs.

Enteral Nutrition and Its Clinical Application (장관 영양제의 임상적 적용)

  • Kim, Yong Joo
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.sup1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2009
  • Some pediatric patients who can not eat orally depend on enteral tube feedings, and some patients require more nutrients and calories to achieve the catch-up growth. If a patient is counting on the parenteral nutrition, early initiation of enteral feeding, orally or enterally, is a very good for the intestinal mucosal maturity and motility. There are numerous kinds of formulas and supplements for the enteral feeding for neonates, infants, and children. Depending on the intestinal symptoms, allergic symptoms, requirement of special nutrients, we can choose regular infant formula (milk-based, soy-based), protein hydrolysate formula, amino acid hydrolysate formula, elemental formula. Proper use of these formulas would help for the pediatric patients to recover from their diseases, to facilitate the intestinal mucosal maturity and to achieve their goal of growth.

Feasibility Study of Laparoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Beagle Dogs (비글견에서 복강경을 이용한 위관삽입술의 유용성 평가 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Woong;Park, Ji Young;Lee, Hae-Beom;Jeong, Seong Mok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2015
  • Aim of this study is demonstrate the feasibility of Laparoscopic gastrostomy (LG) tube placement in dogs by comparing with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement, based on operative time, complications and gastro-peritoneal adhesion evaluation. Eight intact male beagle dogs were used in this study. Tri-Funnel Replacement Gastrostomy tube (Bard Inc., USA) of 20 Fr was used for LG technique and PEG kit (Ponsky "Pull" PEG Kit$^{(R)}$, Bard Inc., USA) with soft silicone retention dome consisting of a 20 Fr gastrostomy tube was used. Feeding via gastrostomy tube was performed in two weeks, maintenance energy requirement (MER) divided into 3 separate feeding. LG and PEG were evaluated at intraoperative, postoperative and postmortem period. Mean operative time for the PEG group was significantly shorter when compared with the LG group (p < 0.05). Successful maintenance of gastrostomy tube was confirmed in all dogs. Gastric and peritoneal wall adhesions were formed successfully in each group. The mean adhesion length (AL) and width (AW) were significantly larger in LG group compared with in PEG group (p < 0.05). The mean adhesion distance (AD) was not significantly different between two groups (p = 0.182). Consequently, LG is an effective minimally invasive, safe and easy to perform technique for providing enteral nutritional support in dogs.

Enteral Feeding for Preterm Infants-Benefits and Risks (미숙아의 장관영양)

  • Sin, Jong-Beom
    • Neonatal Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2009
  • Over the past 20 years, neonatal mortality rates for preterm infants, particularly those born extremely preterm and with a very low birth weight, have decreased steadily. As more very immature preterm infants survive, provision of enteral feeding has become a major focus of concern. According to many experts on neonatal nutrition, the goal for the nutrition of preterm infants should be to achieve a postnatal growth rate approximating that of a normal fetus of the same gestational age. Total parenteral nutrition for maintaining nutritional integrity is mandatory before successful transition to enteral feeding. Early initiation of trophic enteral feeding is vital for postnatal adaptation. Recently published randomized controlled trials provide no evidence to support the practice of postponing enteral feeding to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Early trophic feeding yields demonstrable benefits and there is currently no evidence of any adverse effects following early feeding. Preterm milk from the infant's own mother is the milk of choice, which can always be supplemented with a human milk fortifier. Here we review over 50 randomized controlled trials and over seven systematic reviews published on neonatal parenteral and enteral feeding of preterm infants. Neonatologists must make use of the evidence from these studies as a reference for feeding protocols for preterm infants in their NICUs are to be based.

Trophic Factors of Gastrointestinal Tract (위장관의 영양인자)

  • Kim, Yong Joo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.6-10
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    • 2003
  • 동물과 사람의 연구에서 위장관 영양 인자는 위장관 점막이 점막손상으로부터의 회복에 중요하고 출생 후 경구 영양에 적응할 수 있게 하는 데에 중요하다. 경구적으로든 전신적으로 투여된 성장 인자들은 위장관의 성장과 발달을 촉진시킨다. 신생아 혈중의 영양인자들이 장관 세포의 수용체를 통해 작용하여 위장관의 성장을 조율한다. 위장관 영양인자들은 체내에서 합성될 수도 있고 모유를 통해 공급된다. 사람에서 출생 후 위장관이 장관영양에 신속히 적응할 수 있도록 위장관 영양 인자들이 중요한 작용을 한다. 모유 내의 성장 인자들이 신생아 생존에 필수적인 것들은 않아도 모유를 먹은 영아들이 조제분유를 먹은 영아들에 비하여 급성 설사, 괴사성 장염, 크론씨 병과 같은 위장관 질환의 위험율이 낮다. 위장관 영양 인자들의 대부분이 시판 조제분유에는 존재하지 않고 주로 모유에 존재함을 앎으로써 모유의 장점을 설명하는 데에 적용할 수 있을 것이다. 그리고 위장관 영양인자는 위장관 점막 손상된 경우 치료 목적으로 사용될 수 있는 여지가 높다. 이러한 임상적 이용은 특히 미숙아, 수술 후의 영아 등에서 적용될 수 있다. 그러나 향후 더욱 연구되어야 할 항목들로는 작용기전, 경구 및 정맥 투여 방법에 의한 효과의 차이, 체내 성장 인자들과의 상호 작용, 외부적 투여가 체내 인자에 대한 영향, 위장관 이외의 타 기관에 대한 영향, 그리고 안전성과 약물 역동학적인 특성 등이다.

Effects of Massage Therapy on Feeding Intolerance and Physical Growth in Premature Infants (마사지요법이 미숙아의 수유불내성과 신체성장에 미치는 효과)

  • Seo, Hyun Young;Kim, Young Hae;Kim, Sung-Ju
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.355-362
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify effects of Massage therapy on feeding intolerance and physical growth in premature infants. Methods: This study was conducted in the NICU of U university hospital, from June to December 2014. A quasi experimental design was used. A total of 60 premature infants were randomly assigned into two groups of 30 infants each. Infants of control group were given conventional treatment, while infants of experimental group given conventional treatment plus massage therapy. Massage therapy was performed for 15 minutes, 60 min before feeding, 3 times per day for 21 times over 7 days. The number of feedings withheld for feeding intolerance, number of gastric residuals, number of fecal excretions and physical growth variables (weight, height) were measured. Results: After the intervention, number of fecal excretions and weight gain in the experimental group were significantly higher than that of the control group. Also, number of gastric residuals in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. Conclusion: Massage therapy laid the basis for nursing intervention to promote feeding tolerance and physical growth in premature infants.