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Effects Against Obesity and Diabetes of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria (유산균을 이용한 홍고추의 발효를 통한 항비만과 항당뇨 효과)

  • Lee, Jun-Hyeong;Kim, Byung-Hyuk;Yoon, Yeo-Cho;Kim, Jung-Gyu;Park, Ye-Eun;Park, Hye-Suk;Hwang, ak-Soo;Kwun, In-Sook;Kwon, Gi-Seok;Lee, Jung-Bok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.354-361
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    • 2019
  • The red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important vegetables in traditional Korean food, containing vitamins A, C, and E, polyphenol, and flavonoids. In addition, red peppers have high anti-oxidant ability and are known to be effective in preventing obesity, diabetes, hypertension, digestive disorders, stress, and aging. In this study, we investigated the effects against obesity and diabetes of both fermented and non-fermented red pepper. C57BL/6N mice with induced obesity from an eight-week 45% high fat diet (HFD) were then fed either an HFD or diets containing 2.5% non-fermented red pepper marc (NRM), 1.25% fermented red pepper marc (FRM), or 2.5% FRM for a further eight weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed seven weeks after dietary intake, and body weight, liver, epididymal fat weight, serum insulin level, and HOMA-IR were measured and a lipid content test performed at eight weeks. The results show that the 2.5% FRM diet reduced body and tissue weight, lipid content, serum insulin levels, and HOMA-IR compared to the 2.5% NRM and HFD diets. These results suggest that fermented red pepper is effective against obesity and diabetes. We will use this information as the basic data for the development of health food materials using red pepper.

Optimum Seeding Date of Wet Hill Seeding on Puddled Soil after Weedy Rice Control in Southern Plain Area of South Korea (잡초성벼 경종적 방제 후 남부지역 벼 무논점파재배 파종적기)

  • Hwang, Woon-Ha;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Lee, Hyen-Seok;Yang, Seo-Yeong;Lee, Chung-Keun;Cho, Seung-Hyun;Min, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Sang-Kuk;Han, Eun-Hui;Choi, Kyung-Jin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.273-281
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    • 2018
  • Wet hill seeding (WHS) is one of the more famous labor and money saving methods technology used for rice cultivation. In WHS, rice standing percentage and weedy rice occurrence are the most important factors considered to secure a rice yield. We investigated the optimum seeding date of WHS in the Southern Plain area of South Korea. Weedy rice needed two weeks at $15^{\circ}C$ to show over 80% emergence. Germinated rice seed grown at $20^{\circ}C$ needed over for 10 days to achieve a shoot length over 3 cm. In field cultivation, the mean temperature for ten days after seeding showed a highly positive correlation with rice standing rate, spikelet number per square meter and yield index that favorably compared to machine transplanting. With these data, we suggest that the optimum seeding date of WHS that can secure over 98% of yield index of machine transplanting in Southern part of Korea is May. 21~Jun. 5 in Honam and May. 16~Jun. 5 in Yeongnam area.

Evaluation on Heavy Metal Contents in Agricultural Soils around Industrial Complexes in Korea (공단 인근 농경지 토양 중 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Yun, Sun-Gang;Chae, Mi-Jin;Kim, Yoo-Hak;Kong, Myung-Suk;Jung, Ha-il;Kim, Suk-Cheol;Kim, Myoung-Suk;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yang, Jae-E;Kim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Gi-In;Kim, Gwon-Rae;Jung, Goo-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Agricultural soils are vulnerable from contamination of heavy metal derived from industrial waste. Monitoring on heavy metals on agricultural soils around industrial complexes and evaluation on distributional state on the concentrations of heavy metals in soil have been carried out for problem assessment on soil condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: Soil samples of 1,200, were collected from sixty site of industrial complexes located Gyounggi, Chungbuk, Cheonbuk, and Gyoungnam provinces. Total concentration of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and As were analyzed. Heavy metal concentrations in most soil samples were below warning criteria, except 1 site of Pb, Ni, and As, separately. The comparison of mean values of heavy metal concentrations between soils around industrial complexes and paddy soils, showed similar levels of heavy metals, except Pb. The concentrations of lots of heavy metals were distributed between from warning criteria to one fifth level of warning criteria. However, in the case of Cu and Pb, more than 30% were distributed below one twenties level of warning criteria. These results were very similar with the distribution state of heavy metals in upland soils. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface soil and subsoil were similar among the heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes. CONCLUSION: The concentrations of heavy metals in soils around industrial complexes were distributed close to warning criteria. Long term and continous monitoring and evaluation on heavy metals in agricultural soils are required for food safety and sustainable soil management.

[Retraction] Characteristics and Optimization of Platycodon grandiflorum Root Concentrate Stick Products with Fermented Platycodon grandiflorum Root Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria ([논문 철회] 반응표면분석법을 이용한 젖산발효 도라지 추출물이 첨가된 도라지 농축액 제품의 최적화 연구)

  • Lee, Ka Soon;Seong, Bong Jae;Kim, Sun Ick;Jee, Moo Geun;Park, Shin Young;Mun, Jung Sik;Kil, Mi Ja;Doh, Eun Soo;Kim, Hyun Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.11
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    • pp.1386-1396
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum Platycodon grandiflorum root concentrate (PGRC, $65^{\circ}Brix$), fermented P. grandiflorum root extract by Lactobacillus plantarum (FPGRE, $2^{\circ}Brix$), and cactus Chounnyouncho extract (Cactus-E, $2^{\circ}Brix$) for preparation of PGRC stick product with FPGRE using response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental conditions were designed according to a central composite design with 20 experimental points, including three replicates for three independent variables such as amount of PGRC (8~12 g), FPGRE (0~20 g), and Cactus-E (0~20 g). The experimental data for the sensory evaluation and functional properties based on antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were fitted with the quadratic model, and accuracy of equations was analyzed by ANOVA. For the responses, sensory and functional properties showed significant correlation with contents of three independent variables. The results indicate that addition of PGRC contributed to increased bitterness and acridity based on the sensory test and antimicrobial activity, addition of FPGRE contributed to increased antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity, and addition of Cactus-E contributed to increased fluidity based on the sensory test, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the results of RSM, the optimum formulation of PGRC stick product was calculated as PGRC 8.456 g, FPGRE 20.00 g, and Cactus-Ex 20.00 g with minimal bitterness and acridity, as well as optimized fluidity, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity.

Safety of Various Types of Cheese manufactured from Unpasteurized Raw Milk: A Review (비살균 원유로 만든 다양한 치즈의 안전성에 관한 연구: 총설)

  • Kim, Hong-Seok;Chon, Jung-Whan;Lim, Jong-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Soo-Ki;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2015
  • Before the advent of pasteurization and other microbiological controls in the dairy industry, milk product-borne diseases such as scarlet fever, typhoid fever, septic sore throat, and tuberculosis were globally widespread. Pasteurization was invented by Louis Pasteur, and it has been considered as one of the most effective ways to control milk product-borne diseases since the 20th century. Nevertheless, till date, various types of cheese in the EU, the USA, and other countries are made from unpasteurized milk as artisan cheese, following the specific food regulations of each nation. Furthermore, after the effectiveness of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) negotiations between Korea and many nations, the import of various types of cheese made in different conditions and influenced by acidity, preservatives, temperature, competing flora, water activity, and salt concentration increased yearly. Hence, the objective of this review was to describe (1) the 60-day aging rule of cheese, (2) characteristics of the outbreaks linked to cheese manufactured from unpasteurized milk since 1998 to 2011 in USA, and (3) serious health risks from unpasteurized milk, to ensure food protection and safety and to use this basic information for risk assessment.

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Development of New Functional Dairy Products Containing Probiotics for Improving Human Health: A Review (Probiotics를 이용한 새로운 건강 증진 기능성 유제품 개발에 관한 연구: 총설)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Soo-Ki;Jeong, Dong-Gwan;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2015
  • Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of a value-added food category containing probiotics so as to improve human health and prevent diseases. Among various foods, the health benefits of milk and dairy products are known to humanity, and could be attributed to the bioactive components present in milk. In fermented milk products, the health benefits could be due to suitable modulation activities produced by the action of probiotic bacteria. Besides the modification of various milk components, probiotics might also act directly as preventive and therapeutic agents against some severe diseases. Probiotics promote health via their positive effects on the immune response, stimulation of natural immunity, and modulation of the production of antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and so on. Whey proteins, a byproduct of cheese production could also have anticarcinogenic, immunostimulatory, antimicrobial, and health-promoting activities such as improving insulin sensitivity and reducing fat deposition. Therefore, milk and dairy products containing probiotics could provide various opportunities in the field of functional foods. Additionally, these functional foods may be important in the human diet and may help improve human health and prevent diseases.

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Preventive Effect of Milk Products against Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: A Review (유제품의 제2형 당뇨병 예방 효과: 총설)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Young-Ji;Kang, Il-Byung;Lee, Soo-Kyung;Jeong, Dong-Gwan;Kim, Soo-Ki;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2015
  • Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Recently, much scientific evidence has shown that the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 could be reduced by dairy intake. A significantly strong relationship has been noted between this disease and dairy intake. In particular, from the different types of fat in dairy foods that were reported to have a beneficial impact, low-fat dairy foods have been found to have the best effect with respect to reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, the role of specific components of dairy foods, such as calcium, vitamin D, dairy fat, and trans-palmitoleic acid, which could be responsible for this effect and for the positive effect of dairy foods in obesity and metabolic syndrome, needs to be identified. There is a strong and relatively consistent body of accumulating evidence indicating that dairy foods may significantly reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2, likely in a dose-response manner. Dairy recommendations should be an essential part of public health guidance, and identifying strategies to increase dairy food consumption to optimal levels is of utmost importance. Hence, this review summarizes various positive effects of dairy foods with respect to reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2, based on available evidence, and discusses the need for further research on preventing or decreasing the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.

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Effect of Horse Grazing Intensity on Changes of Sasa quelpaertenis Nakai Vegetation and Physiological Characteristics in Horses (말 방목 강도가 제주조릿대(Sasa quelpaertenis Nakai) 식생과 말의 생리적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Woo, Jae-Hoon;Park, Nam Geon;Kim, Nam-Young;Shin, Sang-Min;Shin, Moon-Cheol;Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Hwang, Won-uk;Yang, Byung-Chul;Kim, Hyun-Cheol
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.216-226
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    • 2019
  • This study was to investigate the effect of the horse grazing intensity on the vegetation of the S. quelpaertensis, and the physiological changes of the horse. This experiment was conducted at the community of the S. quelpaertensis (altitude of 550m) with the grazing intensity of 1.0AU(500kg), 1.5AU(750kg) and 2.0AU(1,000kg) at 30m × 30m for one week, and then the growth characteristics of the S. quelpaertensis, the changes of the vegetation, the damages on trees and the changes in the physiological characteristics of the horses was investigated and compared before and after the horse grazing. As the results, the 2.0AU grazing land showed that the culm number had the inverse correlation (r=-0.902, P<0.01) to the other lands and the species diversity index of lower-level vegetation showed the correlation (r=0.773, P<0.01) as increasing the grazing intensity.

Risk Assessment of Pine Tree Dieback in Sogwang-Ri, Uljin (울진 소광리 금강소나무 고사발생 특성 분석 및 위험지역 평가)

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Lee, Bora;Kim, Jaebeom;Cho, Nanghyun;Lim, Jong-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.3
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    • pp.259-270
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    • 2020
  • Extreme weather events, such as heat and drought, have occurred frequently over the past two decades. This has led to continuous reports of cases of forest damage due to physiological stress, not pest damage. In 2014, pine trees were collectively damaged in the forest genetic resources reserve of Sogwang-ri, Uljin, South Korea. An investigation was launched to determine the causes of the dieback, so that a forest management plan could be prepared to deal with the current dieback, and to prevent future damage. This study aimedto 1) understand the topographic and structural characteristics of the area which experienced pine tree dieback, 2) identify the main causes of the dieback, and 3) predict future risk areas through the use of machine-learning techniques. A model for identifying risk areas was developed using 14 explanatory variables, including location, elevation, slope, and age class. When three machine-learning techniques-Decision Tree, Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to the model, RF and SVM showed higher predictability scores, with accuracies over 93%. Our analysis of the variable set showed that the topographical areas most vulnerable to pine dieback were those with high altitudes, high daily solar radiation, and limited water availability. We also found that, when it came to forest stand characteristics, pine trees with high vertical stand densities (5-15 m high) and higher age classes experienced a higher risk of dieback. The RF and SVM models predicted that 9.5% or 115 ha of the Geumgang Pine Forest are at high risk for pine dieback. Our study suggests the need for further investigation into the vulnerable areas of the Geumgang Pine Forest, and also for climate change adaptive forest management steps to protect those areas which remain undamaged.

The Effect of Feeding TMR with Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai on the Body Weight and Blood Composition of the Horse (제주조릿대(Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai) 첨가 TMR 급여가 말의 체중 및 혈액 성상 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Woo, Jae-Hoon;Park, Nam geon;Shin, Sang-Min;Yoo, Ji Huyn;Shin, Moon-Cheol;Cho, In Cheol;Yang, Byung-Chul;Kim, Nam-Young;Hwang, Won-Uk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2020
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding TMR(Total Mixed Ration) with Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai of Jeju cross-bred horses on the body weight and blood composition. Fourteen herds of Jeju cross-bred horses older than 36 months were selected as experimental animals. The experiment was conducted by dividing the herds into seven herds for feeding TMR with 20% Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai(treatment) and another seven herds for feeding TMR without Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai(control) and water were fed ad libitum. In the 12th week, the MPV(mean platelet volume) was statistically significantly higher with Sasa TMR than with control (p<0.05). However, both MPV levels are within a normal range and there were no health problems. With regard to the levels of cholesterol, there was a statistically significant difference between the 33.8±5.9 mg/㎗ with individual management and 25.4±8.2 mg/㎗ with control group (p<0.05). But It are also within a normal range and there were no health problems. In conclusion, feeding TMR with 20% Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai of Jeju cross-bred horses could be utilized as a feeding method for horse.