• Title, Summary, Keyword: 자원량

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A Comparative Analysis of Maximum Entropy and Analytical Models for Assessing Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) Stock in Lake Kariba (카리브호수 카펜타 자원량 추정을 위한 최대엔트피모델과 분석적 모델의 비교분석)

  • Tendaupenyu, Itai Hilary;Pyo, Hee-Dong
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.613-639
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    • 2017
  • A Maximum Entropy (ME) Model and an Analytical Model are analyzed in assessing Kapenta stock in Lake Kariba. The ME model estimates a Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) of 25,372 tons and a corresponding effort of 109,731 fishing nights suggesting overcapacity in the lake at current effort level. The model estimates a declining stock from 1988 to 2009. The Analytical Model estimates an Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) annually and a corresponding fishing mortality (F) of 1.210/year which is higher than the prevailing fishing mortality of 0.927/year. The ME and Analytical Models estimate a similar biomass in the reference year 1982 confirming that both models are applicable to the stock. The ME model estimates annual biomass which has been gradually declining until less than one third of maximum biomass (156,047 tons) in 1988. It implies that the stock has been overexploited due to yieldings over the level of ABC compared to variations in annual catch, even if the recent prevailing catch levels were not up to the level of MSY. In comparison, the Analytical Model provides a more conservative value of ABC compared to the MSY value estimated by the ME model. Conservative management policies should be taken to reduce the aggregate amount of annual catch employing the total allowable catch system and effort reduction program.

Chemical/Electro-Chemical Method for Swine Wastewater Treatment (화학적/전기화학적 방법을 이용한 돈사폐수 처리)

  • Yoon, S.J.;Jo, W.S.;Kim, C.H.;Park, J.I.;Shin, J.S.;Ra, C.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.641-648
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    • 2003
  • In a batch mode treatment process, which electrolyzes the wastewater after derivation of N-P crystal formation and recovery, the characteristics of pollutant removal induced with the changes of loading rate and hydraulic retention time were studied. $MgCl_2$ was used as Mg source for the formation of struvite and the molar ratio of $MgCl_2$ to $PO_4^{3-}$ in influent was 1.3. When analyzing the average treatment efficiencies and removal characteristics obtained from four separate operations (Run I, II, III, IV), removal efficiencies of PO43- was not function of its loading rate. Under a condition of sufficient aeration and Mg source provided, over 88% of $PO_4^{3-}$ was eliminated by the formation of MAP without any pH adjustment, in spite of loading rate variation. An optimum-loading rate of NH4-N to achieve high removal efficiency was approximately $100g/m^3/d$. Below that loading rate, the removal of NH4-N was proportional to the loading rate into the system, and hence stable and high removal efficiency, over 90%, was achieved. However, when the loading rate increased over that rate, removal efficiency began to drop and fluctuate. Removal efficiency of TOCs was dependant upon the hydraulic retention time ($r^2$=0.97), not upon the loading rate. Stable and high color removal (94%) was obtained with 2 days of HRT in electrolysis reactor.

Spray Control System Development of Two-Flow Nozzle to Control Spraying Rate and Droplet Size Independently (분무량과 분무입경의 독립적 제어를 위한 이류체노즐 제어시스템 개발)

  • 안형철;이중용;정창주;이종인
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 1999
  • 최근 정밀농업기술의 중요성이 인식되면서 점살포, 직접살포, 또는 방제목표물의 크기에 따른 분무량 조절 등의 기술이 개발되고 있으나 모든 기술이 분무량 조절에만 치중되어 있다. 일반적인 수압식 노즐의 경우에 분무압을 이용하여 분무량을 제어하면 분무입자의 크기가 적정 이외의 크기로 살포되어 효율적인 방제효과를 얻기가 어렵다. 하나의 제어인자 즉 분무압만을 이용하여 두 가지의 특성 즉 분무량과 분무입자의 크기를 조절하는 것은 이론적으로 불가능하다 정밀방제에 있어 분무입경과 분무량을 독립적으로 조절할 수 있으려면 두 가지 제어인자를 가진 노즐을 이용해야만 가능하며 이러한 범주에 속하는 노즐로는 원심노즐과 이류체노즐, 정전화노즐 등이 있다. (중략)

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Estimation of Potentially mineralizable nitrogen of organic materials (유기자원의 무기화량에 의한 질소 공급량 추정)

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Shin, J.H.;Lee, Y.;Yun, H.B.;Jung, M.C.;Oh, J.S.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, K.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.299-299
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    • 2009
  • 유기농업에서 유기자원을 이용하여 적정량의 양분을 공급하기 위해서는 먼저 유기자원의 무기화특성을 고려하여야 한다. 토성, 기온, 재배형태 등 다양한 요인을 고려하면서 무기화모델을 이용하여 유기농업에서 많이 사용되고 있는 유기질비료와 작물잔사 등을 대상으로 잠재 무기화가능 질소량(PMN, Potentially mineralizabe nitrogen)을 추정하였다. 실험은 실내에서 항온 배양하여 유기자원별 질소 무기화 양상을 분석함으로서 대상 유기자원의 PMN 및 무기화 속도를 도출하였다. 실험재료는 팜박, 피마자박, 팽화왕겨, 토마토, 수박, 감자, 마늘 등 7종을 대상으로 $20^{\circ}C,\;25^{\circ}C,\;30^{\circ}C$ 조건에서 하였으며, 최대수분보유량의 60% 수준으로 하여 사양토 및 식양토 조건에서 실험하였다. 유기자원은 토양 100g에 질소 30kg/10a 해당량을 시용하여 112일까지 항온하였다. 토성별 무기화량은 식양토 보다 사양토에서 다소 높은 경향을 보였다. 또한 항온온도가 높을수록 무기화량이 증가하였다. 유기자원별로는 피마자박에서 높았고, 팽화왕겨는 낮은 경향이었다. 유기자원이 처리된 것에서 토양 자체의 무기화량을 뺀 순무기화량은 피마자박, 토마토잔사, 감자잔사가 항온초기부터 무기화가 진행되었으며, 수박잔사, 마늘잔사는 항온 초기에 음의 값을 가지는 유기화 과정을 거친 후 항온 60일에서 80일 사이에서 무기화가 진행되었고 팽화왕겨의 경우 항온 11일까지 유기화가 계속되었다. PMN 및 무기화속도를 추정하기 위하여 반응속도식을 이용하였으며, 모델의 적합도를 높이기 위하여 이중지수모형을 이용하여 매개변수를 결정하고 무기화경향을 예측한 결과 PMN은 피마자박>마늘잔사=팜박>수박잔사=토마토잔사>감자잔사의 순이었다. 또한 유기자원의 무기화량과 C/N율과는 부의 상관관계($r^2$=0.8653)를 나타내었다. 요소의 PMN(135.6mg/kg)에 대한 유기자원별 PMN의 상대적 비율은 피마자박이 100%, 팜박과 마늘잔사가 81%, 토마토, 수박 및 감자잔사가 28~65% 수준이었다.

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A Study on the Stock Assessment and Management Implications of the Hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus Linne in Korean Waters 2. Variations in Population Biomass of the Hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus Linne in Korean Waters (한국 연근해 갈치의 자원평가 및 관리방안 연구 2. 한국 연근해 갈치의 자원량 변동)

  • ZHANG Chang Ik;SOHN Myoung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.620-626
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    • 1997
  • Annual biomasses of the hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus, were estimated from the biomass-based cohort analysis (Zhang, 1987), using data of annual catch in weight at age during $1970\~1988$ in Korean waters. Annual biomass of the hairtail was peaked at about 240,000 mt in 1975, and thereafter declined with a slight fluctuation. Adult biomass showed a peak in 1978 with about 55,000 mt. However, it has continuously decreased untill 1980 to the level of 9,000 mt and remained at this level till 1988. Age compositions of the hairtail in the 1980s differed greatly from those in the 1970s. The proportions of older hairtail (>4 years) were very low in the 1980s and even the biomasses of young hairtail $(1\~3\;years)$ were at a low evel in the 1980s compared with the level in 1970s. The 1973 and 1974 year classes appeared to be relatively dominant. The mean value of instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F) in the 1980s was significantly different from that of the 1910s (P<0.05). Recruitment of the hairtail exhibited a similar trend with stock biomass until 1974, indicating the density-dependent Ricker curve.

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3D Modeling Approaches in Estimation of Resource and Production of Musan Iron Mine, North Korea (3차원 모델링을 활용한 북한 무산광산일대의 자원량 및 생산량 추정)

  • Bae, Sungji;Yu, Jaehyung;Koh, Sang-Mo;Heo, Chul-Ho
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.391-400
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    • 2015
  • Korea is a global steel producer and a major consumer while iron ore producing is very low compared to the demand. On the other hand, North Korea holds tremendous amount of iron reserves and, however, its producing rate is limited. Moreover, the data regarding mineral resources of North Korea is very limited and uncertain because of political isolation. This study estimated the amount of iron ore resource and production amount for the Musan Iron mine, the world-known open-pit mine of North Korea, using satellite imagery(Landsat MSS, ASTER) and digital maps between 1976 to 2007. As a result, the mining area of Musan mine was increased by $6.1km^2$ during the 30 years and the mining sector was estimated as $4.9km^2$. We estimated the iron resources and production amount of 0.7 and 0.2 billion metric tons, respectively based on 3D modeling and average iron ore density of Anshan formation in China. This amount indicates 8.1 million tons of annual average production and it coincides well with previous reports. We expect this study would be utilized significantly on inter-Korean exchange programs by providing trustable preliminary data.