• Title, Summary, Keyword: 외곽선

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Probabilistic Analysis of Blasting Loads and Blast-Induced Rock Mass Responses in Tunnel Excavation (터널발파로 인한 굴착선주변 암반거동의 확률론적 연구)

  • 이인모;박봉기;박채우
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.89-102
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    • 2004
  • The generated blasting pressure wave initiated under decoupled-charge condition is a function of peak blasting pressure, rise time, and wave-shape function. The peak blasting pressure and the rise time are also the function of explosive and rock properties. The probabilistic distributions of explosive and rock properties are derived from the results of their property tests. Since the probabilistic distributions of explosive and rock properties displayed a normal distribution, the peak blasting pressure and the rise time can also be regarded as a normal distribution. Parameter analysis and uncertainty analysis were performed to identify the most influential parameter that affects the peak blasting pressure and the rise time. Even though the explosive properties were found to be the most influential parameters on the peak blasting pressure and the rise time from the parameter analyses, the result of uncertainty analysis showed that rock properties constituted major uncertainties in estimating the peak blasting pressure and the rise time rather than explosive properties. Damage and overbreak of the remaining rock around the excavation line induced by blasting were evaluated by dynamic numerical analysis. A user-subroutine to estimate the rock damage was coded based on the continuum damage mechanics. This subroutine was linked to a commercial program called 'ABAQUS/Explicit'. The results of dynamic numerical analysis showed that the rock damages generated by the initiation of stopping hole were larger than those from the initiation of contour hole. Several methods to minimize those damages were proposed such as relocation of stopping hole, detailed subdivision of rock classification, and so on. It was found that fracture probability criteria and fractured zones could be distinctively identified by applying fuzzy-random probability.

Equity implications of Subway use in Seoul, Korea (서울시 지하철 이용에 따른 형평성 분석)

  • Noh, Shi Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.352-363
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    • 1995
  • This study explores horizontal equity problems in the Seoul Subway System by using costs per passenger kilometer as a comparison index. In general, subway users in the central area, except Line 1, are subsidizing users in fringe areas. Spatial differentiation of user cross subsidies in the area is due mainly to interactions between factors such as vehicle kilometers traveled, number of passengers, and length of segments. In order to decrease levels of user cross subsidies among the users and so relieve honzontal equity problems associated with subway use, it is necessary to develop a user fare system in which portions of marginal costs of subway use can be distributed properly among users. However, two-stage fare structure of the subway system in the study area is based only on trip distance, and so marginal costs associated with subway use are not properly reflected in user fees. Therefore, horizontal equity of the system in the study area is affected because of inappropriate user fees.

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A Comparative Considerations of the Moat at the East and West (동.서양 해자(垓字)의 비교 고찰)

  • Jung, Yong-Jo;Park, Joo-Sung;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2010
  • A moat is a pond or waterway paved on the outside of a fortress that is one of the facilities to prevent enemy from approaching the fortress wall or classify it as the boundary space, and this study was undertaken to find out the characteristics of the moat that was existed in the East and the West from ancient time to medieval time with the following result. First, the moat in the East was installed of natural moat and artificial moat at the same time while the moat in the West had the fortress built in naturally advantageous site to use natural most substantially more. Second, the moats of Korea were smaller in scale compared to other countries (Japan, China and the Western countries). Third, the fortresses in the East were built to protect towns or royal palace while the West had the fortress to protect the residence of kings, lords, great wealthy persons and the like, and they were used jointly with the natural moat and artificial moat to defend against the infiltration of enemy. Fourth, the Pungsujiri in the Orient is one of the numerous ideologies forming the supplementary ideologic system of Korean people that could not be denied as the perception that influences on Korean people after the Silla Dynasty, and this Pungsujiri was considered when determining the location of the castle. The moat surrounding the castle had the role to keep the good energy in the castle from escaping away. Fifth, the Ha-Ha technique in the west was designed to prevent the external power from infiltration by digging the ditch on the place applicable to the boundary of the garden site, rather than the fence. While walking around along the water-side path without knowing the existence of this ditch, when the road is discovered with the cut off in the ditch, people had the exclamation without actually recognizing such astonishment. It was originally the dike for military purpose during the medieval time that was designed to look into the garden without physical boundary surrounded with the vertical fence in the garden that by having the deep ditch like shape on the boundary line of the garden which was designed to form the farm by preventing various types of cattle from coming inside the garden and bring in the garden element for farms, forestry, agricultural land and the like.

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Ruditapes philippinarum (바지락 (Ruditapes philippinarum) 의 중금속 축적에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yong-Seok;Jo, Yong-Hun;Byun, In-Sun;Kang, Se-Won;Cho, Eun-Mi;Han, Yeon-Soo;Choi, Sang-Haeng;Park, Hong-Seog;Kho, Weon-Gyu;Ahn, In-Young;Jeong, Kye-Heon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2006
  • The present study was conducted to confirm that a bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of the heavy metal pollution in the silt of the marine environment. The clams were collected from the silt of Cheonsu-bay, Buheung-ri, and Tan-island of the West Sea, Korea. To observe the normal structures of the target organs (hepatopancreas and gill), they were dissected out for the immunohistochemical study and the electron microscopy with TEM, SEM, and SEM-EDS. The immunohistochemical study showed that the interdiverticular connective tissues of the hepatopancreas, and the outer epithelium of the gill lamellae was strongly reacted to anti-metallothionein (MT), indicating the presence of MT, a metal-binding protein, involved in metal detoxifying process. According to the examinations under the TEM, the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of the clams collected from polluted area (Tan-island) showed certain changes such as swollen rER, swollen nuclear envelope and inclusion bodies in the nulcei. In the SEM-EDS analysis, tissue of the hepatopancreas showed relatively higher concentration of S, Zn, and Cd. These elements are supposed to be concerning with the MT-reaction in the hepatopancreas. Considering that the coastal bivalve R. philippinarum showed immediate subcellular responses to heavy metal pollution in the overall experiments conducted, this species might act as one of efficient biomarkers for the heavy metal contamination in the marine environment.

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A Suggested New Clinical Classification for Pediatric Intussusception (소아 장중첩증의 새로운 임상적 분류의 제안)

  • Park, Moon Ho;Shon, Su Min;Choe, Byung Kyu;Kim, Yeo Hyang;Lee, Hee Jung;Choi, Won Joung;Kim, Ae Suk;Hwang, Jin-Bok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: We proposed a new classification of pediatric intussusception based on clinical and radiologic findings. Methods: Data from 88 consecutive patients with intussusception were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed six factors; patient age, sites of intussusception, symptoms, therapeutic methods, existence of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and ultrasonographic (US) findings from clinical records. Results: 1) There was one neonatal case (1.1%), the others (98.9%) were infants and children. 2) These 87 infant and child cases consisted of 14 cases (16.1%) of small bowel intussusception (SBI) and 73 cases (83.9%) of ileo-colic intussusception (ICI). Of the 14 SBI cases, 12 cases were symptomatic and 2 cases were asymptomatic. The symptomatic group comprised 8 transient cases (66.7%), 3 operative cases (25.0%), and 1 enema-reduction case (8.3%). Two asymptomatic cases were incidentally captured by computed tomography. Of the 73 ICI cases, 19 cases (26.0%) required operation, and 54 (74.0%) enema-reduction. 3) When transient SBI cases were compared with operated SBI cases, enema-reduced and operated ICI cases, the age ($38.0{\pm}22.9$ months) of transient SBI cases were significantly higher than those of the others (p=0.003). Mean mass size ($20.8{\pm}2.7mm$) in transient SBI was significantly smaller than in the others (p=0.0001). 4) No correlation was found between the existence of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and therapeutic method or concomitant illness. 5) Most of the target types observed by US were in transient SBI cases, the remainder were in the enema-reduced ICI cases. In terms of the doughnuts type, all 8 cases (34.8%) with an external hypoechoic rim thickness of >8.9mm were treated surgically. Conclusion: Pediatric intussusception may be classified based on clinical and radiologic findings, which are likely to indicate appropriate therapies.

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Igneous Activity and Geological Structure of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Zone in the Kyemyeongsan area, Chungju, Korea (충주 계명산지역 옥천변성대의 화성활동과 지질구조)

  • 강지훈;류충렬
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.151-165
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    • 1997
  • The Kyemyeongsan area of Chungju in the NE part of the Ogcheon metamorphic zone, Koera, consists mainly of the Ogcheon Supergroup(Taehyangsan Quartzite, Hyangsanri Dolomite and Kyemyeogsan Formation) and the MeSozoic Chungju granite. The Kyemyeongsan Formation is composed mainly of metamorphic rocks of various grades derived from conglomeratic, basic, acidic, pelitic and psammitic rocks. The basic and acidic rocks show alternated or interfingered appearence, indicating that they were derived form bimodal type of magmatism in rift environment. Conglomeratic rocks overlie acidic volcanic rocks in geneal, but are underlain by both acidic plutonic and volcanic rocks. This indicaties that the acidic magmatism before the formation of conglomeratic rocks was different from that during or after the formation of conglomeratic rocks in its occurrence mode. The geological structure of the Ogcheon metamorphic zone in the Kyemyeongsan area, Chungju was formed at least by three phases of deormation. The first phase deformation(D1) formed a regional-scale sheath-type fold(F1) closed into the east. Its axial phane(S1) strikes NNW to NW and dips WSW to SW. The stetching lineation(L1), related to the sheath-type fold, plunges westward. The second phase deformation (D2) formed asymmetric fold(F2) of ESE-to SE-vergence with NNE to NE striking axial plane(S2) and $20~45^{\circ}/210~230^{\circ}$ plunging axis(L2). The F2 fold reoriented the original westward plunging L1 into northwestward plunging L1 in its lower limb(overturned limb). The third phase of deformation(D3) was recognized as chevron-type fold(F3) with $45^{\circ}/265$^{\circ}$ plunging axis. The F3 fold was formed by the compression of N-S direction, resulting in the reorientation of the original $20-45^{\circ}/210~230^{\circ}$ plunging L2 into mainly $35~45^{\circ}/260~280^{\circ}$ and subsidiarily $30~45^{\circ}/135~165^{\circ}$ plunging L2. After this deformation, open fold with NS striking and steeply E or W dipping axial plane is formed by the compression of E-W direction.

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A Study on a Drainage Facility of the Western Shore in Wolji Pond (월지(月池) 서측 호안의 출수시설(出水施設)에 관한 고찰)

  • Oh, Jun-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.72-87
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    • 2018
  • This study highlights a drainage gate and a ditch, which existed around the whole area of the western shore of Wolji Pond(月池) and focuses on a possible connection between the drainage facility on the western shore and the historical drainage system of Wolji Pond. Specifically, it primarily considered locations and the form of a drainage gate, the relationship between northwestern ditch of Wolji Pond and the drainage gate, and the establishment period and the character of the drainage facility on the western shore. The drainage gate found in excavation in 1975 is determined as the same facility as Surakgu(水落口) recorded on an actual measurement drawing, 1922. Therefore, it is highly probable that there were already the drainage facility in the western shore of Wolji Pond before the 1920s. The drainage gate constructed by processing rectangular stones has four drainage holes for controlling water level. The way of the drainage through the drainage holes is the same as that of the northern shore of Wolji Pond. From a cadastral map drawn in 1913, it is found that the ditch existed in northwest of Wolji Pond. The ditch was proximate to the drainage gate and shared the same axes. Hence, the ditch and the drainage gate are determined as a organic facility connected to the drainage system of Wolji Pond. In particular, the ditch existed in northwest of Wolji Pond is the basis for judging that the drainage facility in the western shore were established before the 1910s. Water flowed in through drainage holes of the drainage gate is drained into the northwest of Wolji Pond, through the ditch. The establishment period and the intention of the drainage facility on the western shore can be interpreted in two aspects. First, they might be 'a agricultural irrigation facility in the Joseon era', given that Wolji Pond was recorded as a agricultural reservoir, and that the whole northwestern area of Wolji Pond was used as farm land areas. Second, they might be 'a drainage facility for controlling the water level in creating Wolji Pond', given that the drainage gate was annexed to the lower shore forming the waterline of Wolji Pond, and that the hight of drainage holes on top of the drainage gate was similar to the full water level of Wolji Pond. Considering the related grounds and circumstance, the latter possibility is high.