• Title/Summary/Keyword: 염색체이상

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무미 양서류의 치사종간 핵치환 개체의 염색체 이상과 발생 능력에 관한 연구

  • 이자경;정해문
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1990
  • 포배단계의 북미산 표범개구리 Rana pipiens의 핵을 국내종 북방산개구리 Rana dybowskii의 무핵난에 이식하여 형성되는 nucleocytoplasmic hybrid 개체는 초기 낭배시기를 전후하여 치사하는 조합임이 핵치환 실험에 의하여 밝혀졌다. 이들의 치사원인이 이질세포질의 존재에 의한 일시적 현상인지 또는 발생도중 핵내에 일어난 영구적 변화에 의한 것인지를 조사하기 위한 노력의 일환으로 치사직전 개체의 염색체를 분석한 결과, 염색체의 수와 염색체의 일부분에 구조적 이상이 다양하게 관찰되었다. 따라서 이질세포질에서 DNA의 이상복제가 진행되었음을 나타내고 있으며 그 결과 비정상적 염색체를 가진 할구의 형성과 부분 난할등이 유발되어 결국 치사하는 것으로 사료된다. 또한 nuclocytoplasmic 개체의 lethality 는 정상개체와의 접촉에 의해 교정되지 않는 조직의 내적 특성임이 hybrid의 조직을 정상 embryo로 이식시킨 실험을 통해 명확히 밝혀졌다.

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Study on the Analysis of Chromosome Abnormality by Flow Cytometric and Cytogenetic Methods (유식세포분리기와 세포유전학적 방법에 의한 염색체이상 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Baik, C.S.;Kim, M.K.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, J.H.;Baik, Y.K.;Lee, H.T.;Chung, K.S.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 1996
  • 골수나 유산물질에 대한 세포유전학적 검사에 있어 통상적인 염색체검사는 검사에 적합한 중기핵상을 얻기 어려워 실패하는 경우가 많다. 이러한 경우에 진단이나 치료에 도움을 줄 수 있는 방법으로 유식세포분리기를 사용하여 단일 세포내 DNA량에 따른 aneuploidy를 추적할 수 있는 가를 확인하기 위해 본 실험을 실시하였다. 79 (혈액 30, 골수 37, 유산물 12)예에서 염색체 검사와 유식세포 분리검사를 동시에 실시하여 각각의 결과를 비교한 결과 79.7% (63/79)의 일치율을 얻었다. 그러나 염색체의 손실이 없는 전좌와 역위의 경우는 물론 작은 조각의 염색체 부분이 늘어나거나 줄어든 경우에 있어서는 유식세포분리방법에 의해서 추적되지 못하였지만, 염색체 검사의 결과를 얻는데 실패한 경우에는 유식세포분리방법이 DNA량의 변화에 대한 정보를 얻을 수 있다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 따라서 본 연구결과는 세포유전학적 검사에서 유식세포분리방법이 염색체 검사보다 신속하며 염색체검사가 불가능한 시료에서도 DNA양에 따른 aneuploidy의 추적이 가능하다는 것을 시사한다.

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Effect of Brown Rice Extract on Mitomycin C-Induced Chromosome Aberration in Cultured CHL Cells (현미 추출물이 Mitomycin C로 유발된 CHL 세포의 염색체 이상에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun, Hyang-Sook;Kim, In-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1003-1007
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    • 1995
  • The effect of brown rice extract on mitomycin C(MMC)-induced chromosome aberration was examined in cultured Chinese hamster lung(CHL) cells, after induction of chromosome aberration and mitotic index in CHL cells cultured with MMC were observed. There were no significant differences between mitotic indices of CHL cells treated with DMSO, and MMC and brown rice extract. The frequency of chromosome aberration showed dose-dependent relationship in CHL cells treated with $0.2{\sim}3.0\;{\mu}g$/assay of MMC. But chromosome aberrations could not be assayed Our to cytotoxicity of MMC when its concentrations were above $3.0\;{\mu}g$/assay. Chromatid type, especially gap and break, of chromosome aberration were most frequently observed. When CHL cells treated with $2.0\;{\mu}g$/assay of MMC and brown rice extracts of concentration ranging $0.75{\sim}10.0\;{\mu}g$/assay were incubated, frequencies of chromosome aberration induced by MMC were significantly decreased at above concentrations(p<0.01, p<0.05). As concentration of brown rice extract was increased, frequencies of chromosome aberration was decreased $7{\sim}30%$, in some irregularity.

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Chromosomal Aberration in Fractionated Radiotherapy (전골반 방사선 분할 조사시 방사선량에 따른 염색체이상 빈도의 변화 양상)

  • Yun, Hyong-Geun;Ha, Sung-Sung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : This study was tried to evaluate the effect of the partial body fractionated irradiation on the frequency of chromosomal aberration. Materials and Methods : In three patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed during fractionated external beam radiotherapy Radiation field included whole pelvis and total dose was 5040 cGy in 28 fractions. Results : The values of the frequency of dicentrics and rings (Ydr) in pre-irradiated peripheral lymphocytes in three patients were 0.0060, 0.0000, and 0.0029, respectively. The frequency of dicentrics and rings, estimated during the course of radiotherapy, increased with radiation dose and best fitted to the linear equation, $Ydr=7.31{\times}10^{-5}D(cGy)+1.45{\times}10^{-2}$. The frequency of dicentrics and rings among the cells with dicentric and/or ring(Qdr) also showed increasing tendency and best fitted to the linear equation, $Qdr=1.01{\times}10^{-4}D(cGy)+1.04$. Conclusion : Ydr increased linearly with radiation dose in the dose range of our study, and Qdr showed increasing tendency with dose.

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Chromosome Aberration in Peripheral Lymphocyte of Radiation Workers in Hospital (병원내 방사선작업종사자들의 염색체이상빈도)

  • Yi, Chun-Ja;Ha, Sung-Whan;Jung, Hae-Won
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 1997
  • Cytogenetic studies were performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from hospital workers occupationally exposed to low doses of radiation (0.30 - 40.07mSv). The workers were divided into three groups according to their job area : 18 diagnostic radiology, 17 therapeutic radiology, and 16 nuclear medicine. The control group consisted of 49 non-radiation workers with no history of exposure to radiation. A higher percentage of cells with aberration(1.275%) was observed in the workers compared to the controls(0.677%) and the difference was statistically significant(p<0.001). The frequency of chromosomal aberration was $0.706{\times}10^{-2}$/cell in the exposed and $0.344{\times}10^{-2}$/cell in the control(p<0.05). Chromosomal exchange frequency was $0.083{\times}10^{-2}$/cell in the control vs $0.245{\times}10^{-2}$/cell in the workers. There was no evidence of significant increase of chromosome aberration related to age or to the duration of employment. The frequency of chromosomal exchange in workers of nuclear medicine was $0.313{\times}10^{-2}$/cell, which was significantly higher than in the control($0.083{\times}10^{-2}$/cell) or other working groups: therapeutic radiology($0.265{\times}10^{-2}$/cell), and diagnostic radiology($0.167{\times}10^{-2}$/cell). No dose-effect relation was found between chromosome aberration and total cumulative doses, recent 5 yr, recent 2 yr cumulative dose. But in case of last 1 yr cumulative dose, dose-dependant increase was observed when controls were considered(p<0.05). The radiation dose which workers have received was much lower than the maximum permissible dose, but there was a significant difference in the frequency of chromosome aberration between occupationally exposed workers and control. So, it is clear that chromosome aberration is a quite sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and it can be detected at very low dose level of occupational exposure.

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간장질환 치료제 G009의 개발 - 급성 및 유전독성 연구

  • 문병우;하광원;이송득;조순현;이승목
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.203-203
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    • 1994
  • 3) 결과 및 고찰 : 급성독성시험 : 대조군 및 G009투여군(최저 312.5mg/kg, 최고 5000mg/kg) 5용량에서 모두 사망예가 관찰되지 않았다 체중변화에 있어서도 대조군과 투여군 사이에 유의성 있는 차이는 없었다. 육안적 소견은 생존동물 모두에 약물에 기인한 내부장기의 이상이 관찰되지 않았다. 유전독성시험 : 마우스 골수세포를 이용한 소핵시험에서 약물 투여에 의한 어떠한 독성의 징후도 관찰되지 않았다. 포유류 배양세포를 이용한 염색체이상 시험에서 모든 농도에서 염색체 이상을 가진 세포의 출현빈도가 3% 이하로서 G009는 CHL세포에 대하여 염색체 이상유발성이 없었다. 살모넬라균을 이용한 복귀돌연변이 시험에서 투여군은 음성대조와 같은 정도 또는 그 이하의 복귀변이 집락수를 나타내었다.

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Effect of Maternal Age on Chromosome Aberrations and Telomere Quantity in Chick Embryos (닭의 모체 연령에 따른 생산 배아의 염색체 이상 빈도 및 텔로미어 함량 분석)

  • Lee, Soo-Hee;Subramani, Vinod K.;Sohn, Sea-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2009
  • The rate of fetus with abnormal chromosomes increase with maternal age. Nondisjunction of aging oocyte chromosome is a major reason for the increased rate of abnormalities. Telomeres are the ends of eukaryotic chromosome, which are essential for chromosome stability and are related in cell senescence. This study was carried out to analyze the chromosome aberration rate and amount of telomeric DNA in chick embryo along with maternal age. Fertilized eggs and blood were sampled from White Leghorn layers starting at 20 weeks through to 70 weeks age at 10 weeks interval. Chromosome aberration rate was analyzed by karyotyping. The amounts of telomeric DNA in embryonic cells and lymphocytes were quantified by Quantitative Fluorescence in situ Hybridization method. The chromosome aberration rate in chick embryos significantly differed with maternal age. The chromosome aberration rate increased at early laying period and beyond 70 weeks of maternal age. Therefore, chromosome aberration rate was affected by maternal age due to ovulated oocytes state. However, the amount of telomeric DNA on embryonic cells did not differ significantly with maternal age. Thus, maternal age does not affects telomere quantity in their embryos due to cellular reprograming at early embryonic stage after fertilization.

Development of a Noble Dosimetry Using Metaphase Analysis and Micronuclei Assay of Bone Marrow Cells in Mice (마우스 골수세포의 중기염색체 분석 및 미소핵 검사를 이용한 피폭선량 평가법의 개발)

  • Min, Jung-Jun;Bom, Hee-Seung;Kim, Young-Ho;Yoon, Hyun-Joong;Kim, Ji-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop in vivo dosimetries using both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in mice to assess biological effects of radiations. Materials and Methods: Five each mice were irradiated with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 Gy of Cs-137 gamma-rays. We scored numbers of chromosomal aberrations in metaphase spreads and numbers of micronuclei in bone marrow smears under light microscope, and obtained the dose-response relationships. We also examined the relationship between the two dose-response curves. Results: The frequency of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei increased with dose, in a linear-quadratic manner The delta, beta, and alpha coefficients were 0.0176, 0.0324, and 0.0567 for metaphase analysis (r=1.0, p<0.001) and 0.0019, 0.0073, and 0.0506 for micronuclei assay (r=1.0, p<0.001). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in different radiation doses was significantly correlated (r=0.99, p<0.01). Conclusion: In vivo dosimetry using either metaphase analysis or micronucleus assay was feasible in mice. These methods could be useful to evaluate biological effects of radiation.

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Chromosome and Spindle Configuration of Mouse Oocytes after Vitrification at the Mature Stage (마우스 성숙난자의 유리화 동결법에 따른 동결 융해 후의 염색체와 방추사의 분석)

  • ;;;;Gary B. Anderson
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2001
  • Selection of oocyte cryopreseivation method is a prerequisite factor for developing an effective bank system. To develop an effective vitrification method, we examined whether damages in spindle and chromosome morphology induced by vitrification. Intact cumulus-enclosed oocytes were vitrified with DPBS with 5.5 M ethylene glycol and 1.0 M sucrose, and loaded onto eletron microscopic copper grid for storing in liquid nitrogen. Intact vitrified and thawed oocytes were immunostaining for tubulin and karyotying for chromosome. Vitrfied and thawed oocytes had a higher rate of chromosome (32.8% vs. 19.6%) and spindle (32.3% vs. 20.2%) abnormalities compared with fresh oocytes. Mouse oocytes after vitrification at the mature stage showed increased incidence of chromosomal and spindle abnormalities.

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Enhancement of Chromosome Aberrations in Lymphocytes of Mice after in Vivo Exposure to Chemicals and in Vitro Challenge with Bleomycin (MNNG 또는 Benzo(a)pyrene 유도 염색체 이상에 미치는 Bleomycin의 효과)

  • Heo, M.Y.;Grady, J.J.;Au, W.W.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 1998
  • Exposure to environmental toxicants can cause cellular problems including the interference of DNA repair processes which may lead to the development of cancer. The existence of toxicant-induced DNA repair abnormality was investigated using mice exposed in vivo to genotoxic chemicals and then challenging their exposed lymphocytes in vitro with bleomycin. The repair of bleomycin-induced DNA damage as estimated by the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined. Our data indicates that the observed aberration frequencies after in vivo exposure to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitnsoguanidine (MNNG) and in vitro challenge with bleomycin are consistently higher than expected. The enhanced response is not due to the induction of chromosome damage by 25 or 50 mg/kg MNNG since the chemical did not cause chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of these mice. The observed response after the combined exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and bleomycin was significantly lower than expected with low in vivo doses of BP (50 mg/kg) and then significantly higher than expected with the high doses (200 mg/kg). We interpret our data to indicate that in vivo exposure to genotoxic agents can cause abnormal DNA repair activities. The response is, however, independent of the clastogenic activities of the inducing chemicals, but dependent upon the inducing agents and on the exposure doses.

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