• Title, Summary, Keyword: 연구 동향

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Application, Utilization and Management of Ozone Water in Food Manufacturing (식품 가공 공정에서의 오존수 관리 동향, 사용 실태 및 활용 방안)

  • Kim, Yong-Soo;Park, In-Sook;Kim, Ae-Young;Jeon, Kyoung-Min;Seo, Yu-Mi;Choi, Sung-Hee;Lee, Young-Ja;Choi, Hyoun-Chul;Jeon, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Hyoung-Il;Ha, Sang-Do
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2008
  • The ozone has the oxidizing power which is powerful the fluorine and the antimicrobial spectrum of wide scope. Researches were carried out to use the merits that ozone has in various fields including the food industry, and many studies are also conducted nowadays for more efficient use of ozone. The ozone was permitted legally as a food additive and was practically used in the United States, Australia, Japanese etc. In November 2007, ozone water was permitted as a food additive in Korea and the interest in the use of ozone water has been on the rise in the Korea's food industry. As a olisinfectant method, ozone has many advantages. The maintenance and management expenses of ozone are lower than the installation cost at early stages and no by-products are generated after use it compared to others. Recently the demand of ozone as a olisinfectant method is increasing drastically. Although ozone water is popularly used to sterilize raw foods like fruits, vegetables and meats, the cases are still limited and were verified by the survey results. However, the use of ozone water is gradually being increased and is focused on food services. Ozone water refers to a state where ozone is dissolved into water to more conveniently use ozone. Accordingly, ozone water should be managed in regards with the amount and time of water-dissolved ozone, and the control of discharged ozone concentration is required for safe use of ozone water. The items to control mentioned above are directly related to the performance of the devices, and therefore, it is required to newly establish the performance criteria of ozone water manufacturing devices.

Current status and prospects of citrus genomics (감귤 유전체 연구 동향 및 전망)

  • Kim, Ho Bang;Lim, Sanghyun;Kim, Jae Joon;Park, Young Cheol;Yun, Su-Hyun;Song, Kwan Jeong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.326-335
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    • 2015
  • Citrus is an economically important fruit tree with the largest amount of fruit production in the world. It provides important nutrition such as vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds including its unique flavonoids for human health. However, it is classified into the most difficult crops to develop new cultivars through conventional breeding approaches due to its long juvenility and some unique reproductive biological features such as gamete sterility, nucellar embryony, and high level of heterozygosity. Due to global warming and changes in consumer trends, establishing a systematic and efficient breeding programs is highly required for sustainable production of high quality fruits and diversification of cultivars. Recently, reference genome sequences of sweet orange and clementine mandarin have been released. Based on the reference whole-genome sequences, comparative genomics, reference-guided resequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing for various citrus cultivars and crosses could be performed for the advance of functional genomics and development of traits-related molecular markers. In addition, a full understanding of gene function and gene co-expression networks can be provided through combined analysis of various transcriptome data. Analytic information on whole-genome and transcriptome will provide massive data on polymorphic molecular markers such as SNP, INDEL, and SSR, suggesting that it is possible to construct integrated maps and high-density genetic maps as well as physical maps. In the near future, integrated maps will be useful for map-based precise cloning of genes that are specific to citrus with major agronomic traits to facilitate rapid and efficient marker-assisted selection.

Can We Hear the Shape of a Noise Source\ulcorner (소음원의 모양을 들어서 상상할 수 있을까\ulcorner)

  • Kim, Yang-Hann
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.586-603
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    • 2004
  • One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is “the invisibility of noise or sound.” The visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical or numerical means to visualize the sound field have been attempted and as a result, a great deal of progress has been accomplished, for example in the field of visualization of turbulent noise. However, most of the numerical methods are not quite ready to be applied practically to noise control issues. In the meantime, fast progress has made it possible instrumentally by using multiple microphones and fast signal processing systems, although these systems are not perfect but are useful. The state of the art system is recently available but still has many problematic issues : for example, how we can implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial shape of noise, as highlighted in the title. The first part of this paper introduces a brief history, which is associated with “sound visualization,” from Leonardo da Vinci's famous drawing on vortex street (Fig. 1) to modern acoustic holography and what has been accomplished by a line or surface array. The second part introduces the difficulties and the recent studies. These include de-Dopplerization and do-reverberation methods. The former is essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as cars or trains. The latter relates to what produces noise in a room or closed space. Another mar issue associated this sound/noise visualization is whether or not Ivecan distinguish mutual dependence of noise in space : for example, we are asked to answer the question, “Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?"

Effects of environmental enrichments on performance and behavior characteristics of sows during gestating period (환경보조물이 임신모돈의 생산성 및 행동특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Yong-Dae;Kim, Doo-Wan;Min, Ye-Jin;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Cho, Eun-Seok;Kim, Young-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.428-434
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    • 2019
  • Many countries have interested animal welfare. Similarly, domestic people have concern for the welfare from companion animals to livestock. Environmental enrichments (EE) are tool to enforce the welfare, however, research with sows is limited. Therefore, this study was investigate to effects of environmental enrichments on performance and behavior properties of gestating sows. A total of 30 pregnant sows (Landrace) were assigned into three treatments that control, T1 (plastic device) and T2 (Rice straw). Period of trial was from Mar. 03. 18. to Mary 19. 18. The EE were allotted to center of experimental pen ($11.6{\times}6.0m$). Body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF) and cortisol were identified at experimental initial or end date. Behavior was recorded during 24 hours on days 91 of gestation, and then analyzed the patterns. BF was reduced (15.73 vs. 16.56 mm; p>0.05) in T1 than control, but Ending BW, total litter size and alive piglets did not differ. Born dead piglets showed lower tendency (1.00 and 0.63 vs. 1.50 heads; p>0.05) in T1 and T2 than control. Similarly, the enrichments declined farrowing mortality (C, 8.68%; T1, 6.86%; T2, 3.40%; p>0.05). Cortisol was not differed among treatments. In the behavior characteristics, eating showed lower (1.81 vs. 9.68 and 6.99%; p<0.05) in T2 than control and T1. Furthermore, playing or digging were only observed (0.33 and 2.10%; p<0.05) in T1 and T2, respectively, whereas rubbing (0.91%, p<0.05) only showed in the control. These results suggest that the provision of EE would be not negatively affected the performance of the gestating sows and could be led to improvement of the livestock welfare.

Multi-Category Sentiment Analysis for Social Opinion Related to Artificial Intelligence on Social Media (소셜 미디어 상에서의 인공지능 관련 사회적 여론에 대한 다 범주 감성 분석)

  • Lee, Sang Won;Choi, Chang Wook;Kim, Dong Sung;Yeo, Woon Young;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.51-66
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    • 2018
  • As AI (Artificial Intelligence) technologies have been swiftly evolved, a lot of products and services are under development in various fields for better users' experience. On this technology advance, negative effects of AI technologies also have been discussed actively while there exists positive expectation on them at the same time. For instance, many social issues such as trolley dilemma and system security issues are being debated, whereas autonomous vehicles based on artificial intelligence have had attention in terms of stability increase. Therefore, it needs to check and analyse major social issues on artificial intelligence for their development and societal acceptance. In this paper, multi-categorical sentiment analysis is conducted over online public opinion on artificial intelligence after identifying the trending topics related to artificial intelligence for two years from January 2016 to December 2017, which include the event, match between Lee Sedol and AlphaGo. Using the largest web portal in South Korea, online news, news headlines and news comments were crawled. Considering the importance of trending topics, online public opinion was analysed into seven multiple sentimental categories comprised of anger, dislike, fear, happiness, neutrality, sadness, and surprise by topics, not only two simple positive or negative sentiment. As a result, it was found that the top sentiment is "happiness" in most events and yet sentiments on each keyword are different. In addition, when the research period was divided into four periods, the first half of 2016, the second half of the year, the first half of 2017, and the second half of the year, it is confirmed that the sentiment of 'anger' decreases as goes by time. Based on the results of this analysis, it is possible to grasp various topics and trends currently discussed on artificial intelligence, and it can be used to prepare countermeasures. We hope that we can improve to measure public opinion more precisely in the future by integrating empathy level of news comments.

Improvement Strategy & Current Bidding Situation on Apartment Management of Landscape Architecture (공동주택 조경관리 입찰 실태와 개선방안)

  • Hong, Jong-Hyun;Park, Hyun-Bin;Yoon, Jong-Myeone;Kim, Dong-Pil
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.41-54
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to provide basic data for a transparent and fair bidding system by identifying problems and suggesting improvement measures through an analysis of the bidding status for construction projects and service-related landscaping of multi-family housing. To this end, we used the data from the "Multi-Family Housing Management Information System (K-apt)" that provides the history of apartment maintenance, bidding information, and the electronic bidding system to examine the winning bid status and amount, along with the size and trends of the winning bids by year, and the results of the selection of operators by construction type. As a result, it was found that out of the total number of successful bids (36,831), 4.4% (16,631) were in the landscaping business, and the average winning bid value was found to be about 24 million won. According to the data, 73% of the landscaping cases were valued between 3 million won and 30 million won, and 58.6% of the cases were in the field of "pest prevention and maintenance". 36% of the total number of bids were awarded from February to April, with "general competitive bidding" accounting for 59.8% of the bidding methods. As for the method of selecting the winning bidder, 55% adopted the "lowest bid" and "electronic bidding method," and 45% adopted the "qualification screening system" and "direct bidding method." As an improvement to the problems derived from the bidding status data, the following are recommended: First, the exception clause to the current 'electronic bidding method' application regulations must be minimized to activate the electronic bidding method so that a fair bidding system can be operated. Second, landscaping management standards for green area environmental quality of multi-family housing must be prepared. Third, the provisions for preparing design books, such as detailed statements and drawings before the bidding announcement, and calculating the basic amount shall be prepared so that fair bidding can be made by specifying the details of the project concretely and objectively must be made. Fourth, for various bidding conditions in the 'business operator selection guidelines', detailed guidelines for each condition, not the selection, need to be prepared to maintain fairness and consistency. These measures are believed to beuseful in the fair selection of landscaping operators for multi-family housing projects and to prepare objective and reasonable standards for the maintenance of landscaping facilities and a green environment.

Types and Characteristics of Traditional Music Performance of the 1920s - Focused on the mixed performances type in the western-style genre - (1920년대 전통음악공연의 형태와 특징 - 서양식 장르와의 혼성공연형태를 중심으로 -)

  • Keum, Yong-woong
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.35
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    • pp.61-92
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    • 2017
  • During the Japanese colonial era, traditional music performances were gradually diminishing and weakening in the particular condition of colonization. Meanwhile, from the time of enlightenment, Western genre performances were becoming vitalized with the influence of Western civilization that began to be spread steadily throughout the society. In that situation, traditional music performances tended to be mixed performances accompanied by Western ones, not independent performances. Mostly, they were accompanied by Western music, and also, they were performed along with other genres like plays, lectures, movies, dances, or magic, too. Such form of mixed performances accompanied by Western genres became even more vitalized in the 1920's and came to be positioned as a form of traditional music performances. Therefore, research on the forms of mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music is meaningful in examining the forms of traditional music performances that have not been studied in the history of Korean modern music and understanding the trends of traditional music performances which were generally found in the Japanese colonial era. However, such research has hardly been conducted concretely yet. Accordingly, concerning the forms of mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music in the 1920's, this author considered the background of vitalizing mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music mainly with newspaper articles of the time and their formal characteristics. Regarding the background of vitalizing the forms of mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music, from the 1920's, the forms of mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music became more vitalized than before. The causes of that may include the increase of groups hosting or sponsoring such performances from the 1920's and also the dramatic increase of such performances in general. Moreover, the increased performances were conducted in the forms of mixed performances mainly in order to satisfy the people's needs becoming diversified with the distribution of Western civilization. Concerning the formal characteristics of mixed performances between Western genres and traditional music, this researcher classified western genres performed with traditional music and examined what characteristics were found in such mixed performances of tradition music by the types of Western genres respectively. First, in the mixed performances type of western-type genre and traditional music, the number of programs for the western music had significant portion in general, and there were certain ensemble of the western music and traditional musical instrument that was rare at this period of time, and it also had the characteristics of classifying two genres to perform for each title or date. Second, in the mixed performances type of the drama and traditional music, the traditional music is directly participated in the drama with the similar type to the theater, or performed independently from the drama with the role of interlude performance for the stage conversion of the drama to have the characteristics of performing in audience publicity or entertainment. Third, in the mixed performances type of the lecture and traditional music, the traditional music is played before or after the lecture to play the role to set the atmosphere and entertainment for the lecture as displaying the feature to perform for the audience attraction. And, fourth, in the mixed performances type of the movie and traditional music, the traditional music sometimes directly participated in the movie or had the features of independent performance, and there was a characteristic to perform for the entertainment after showing a movie.

Recent Research for the Seismic Activities and Crustal Velocity Structure (국내 지진활동 및 지각구조 연구동향)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyun;Jun, Myung-Soon;Jeon, Jeong-Soo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.369-384
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    • 2006
  • Korean Peninsula, located on the southeastern part of Eurasian plate, belongs to the intraplate region. The characteristics of intraplate earthquake show the low and rare seismicity and the sparse and irregular distribution of epicenters comparing to interplate earthquake. To evaluate the exact seismic activity in intraplate region, long-term seismic data including historical earthquake data should be archived. Fortunately the long-term historical earthquake records about 2,000 years are available in Korea Peninsula. By the analysis of this historical and instrumental earthquake data, seismic activity was very high in 16-18 centuries and is more active at the Yellow sea area than East sea area. Comparing to the high seismic activity of the north-eastern China in 16-18 centuries, it is inferred that seismic activity in two regions shows close relationship. Also general trend of epicenter distribution shows the SE-NW direction. In Korea Peninsula, the first seismic station was installed at Incheon in 1905 and 5 additional seismic stations were installed till 1943. There was no seismic station from 1945 to 1962, but a World Wide Standardized Seismograph was installed at Seoul in 1963. In 1990, Korean Meteorological Adminstration(KMA) had established centralized modem seismic network in real-time, consisted of 12 stations. After that time, many institutes tried to expand their own seismic networks in Korea Peninsula. Now KMA operates 35 velocity-type seismic stations and 75 accelerometers and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources operates 32 and 16 stations, respectively. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety and Korea Electric Power Research Institute operate 4 and 13 stations, consisted of velocity-type and accelerometer. In and around the Korean Peninsula, 27 intraplate earthquake mechanisms since 1936 were analyzed to understand the regional stress orientation and tectonics. These earthquakes are largest ones in this century and may represent the characteristics of earthquake in this region. Focal mechanism of these earthquakes show predominant strike-slip faulting with small amount of thrust components. The average P-axis is almost horizontal ENE-WSW. In north-eastern China, strike-slip faulting is dominant and nearly horizontal average P-axis in ENE-WSW is very similar with the Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, in the eastern part of East Sea, thrust faulting is dominant and average P-axis is horizontal with ESE-WNW. This indicate that not only the subducting Pacific Plate in east but also the indenting Indian Plate controls earthquake mechanism in the far east of the Eurasian Plate. Crustal velocity model is very important to determine the hypocenters of the local earthquakes. But the crust model in and around Korean Peninsula is not clear till now, because the sufficient seismic data could not accumulated. To solve this problem, reflection and refraction seismic survey and seismic wave analysis method were simultaneously applied to two long cross-section traversing the southern Korean Peninsula since 2002. This survey should be continuously conducted.

A Thermal Time-Driven Dormancy Index as a Complementary Criterion for Grape Vine Freeze Risk Evaluation (포도 동해위험 판정기준으로서 온도시간 기반의 휴면심도 이용)

  • Kwon, Eun-Young;Jung, Jea-Eun;Chung, U-Ran;Lee, Seung-Jong;Song, Gi-Cheol;Choi, Dong-Geun;Yun, Jin-I.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2006
  • Regardless of the recent observed warmer winters in Korea, more freeze injuries and associated economic losses are reported in fruit industry than ever before. Existing freeze-frost forecasting systems employ only daily minimum temperature for judging the potential damage on dormant flowering buds but cannot accommodate potential biological responses such as short-term acclimation of plants to severe weather episodes as well as annual variation in climate. We introduce 'dormancy depth', in addition to daily minimum temperature, as a complementary criterion for judging the potential damage of freezing temperatures on dormant flowering buds of grape vines. Dormancy depth can be estimated by a phonology model driven by daily maximum and minimum temperature and is expected to make a reasonable proxy for physiological tolerance of buds to low temperature. Dormancy depth at a selected site was estimated for a climatological normal year by this model, and we found a close similarity in time course change pattern between the estimated dormancy depth and the known cold tolerance of fruit trees. Inter-annual and spatial variation in dormancy depth were identified by this method, showing the feasibility of using dormancy depth as a proxy indicator for tolerance to low temperature during the winter season. The model was applied to 10 vineyards which were recently damaged by a cold spell, and a temperature-dormancy depth-freeze injury relationship was formulated into an exponential-saturation model which can be used for judging freeze risk under a given set of temperature and dormancy depth. Based on this model and the expected lowest temperature with a 10-year recurrence interval, a freeze risk probability map was produced for Hwaseong County, Korea. The results seemed to explain why the vineyards in the warmer part of Hwaseong County have been hit by more freeBe damage than those in the cooler part of the county. A dormancy depth-minimum temperature dual engine freeze warning system was designed for vineyards in major production counties in Korea by combining the site-specific dormancy depth and minimum temperature forecasts with the freeze risk model. In this system, daily accumulation of thermal time since last fall leads to the dormancy state (depth) for today. The regional minimum temperature forecast for tomorrow by the Korea Meteorological Administration is converted to the site specific forecast at a 30m resolution. These data are input to the freeze risk model and the percent damage probability is calculated for each grid cell and mapped for the entire county. Similar approaches may be used to develop freeze warning systems for other deciduous fruit trees.

A Study on Air Operator Certification and Safety Oversight Audit Program in light of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (시카고협약체계에서의 항공안전평가제도에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Koo-Hee;Park, Won-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.115-157
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    • 2013
  • Some contracting States of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (commonly known as the Chicago Convention) issue FAOC(Foreign AOC and/or Operations Specifications) and conduct various safety audits for the foreign operators. These FAOC and safety audits on the foreign operators are being expanded to other parts of the world. While this trend is the strengthening measure of aviation safety resulting in the reduction of aircraft accident, it is the source of concern from the legal as well as economic perspectives. FAOC of the USA doubly burdens the other contracting States to the Chicago Convention because it is the requirement other than that prescribed by the Chicago Convention of which provisions are faithfully observed by almost all the contracting States. The Chicago Convention in its Article 33 stipulates that each contracting State recognize the validity of the certificates of airworthiness and licenses issued by other contracting States as long as they meet the minimum standards of the ICAO. Consequently, it is submitted that the unilateral action of the USA, China, Mongolia, Australia, and the Philippines issuing the FOAC to the aircraft of other States is against the Convention. It is worry some that this breach of international law is likely to be followed by the European Union which is believed to be in preparation for its own unilateral application. The ICAO established by the Chicago Convention to be in charge of safe and orderly development of the international civil aviation has been in hard work to both upgrade and emphasize the safe operation of aircraft. As the result of these endeavors, it prepared a new Annex 19 to the Chicago Convention with the title of "Safety Management" and with the applicable date 14 November 2013. It is this Annex and other ICAO documents relevant to the safety that the contracting States to the Chicago Convention have to observe. Otherwise, it is the economical burden due to probable delay in issuing the FOAC and bureaucracies combined with many different paperworks and regulations depending on where the aircraft is flown. It is exactly to avoid this type of confusion and waste that the Chicago Convention aimed at when it was adopted in 1944. The State of the operator shall establish a system for both the certification and the continued surveillance of the operator in accordance with ICAO SARPs to ensure that the required standards of operations are maintained. Certainly the operator shall meet and maintain the requirements established by the States in which it operate. The authority of a State stops where the authority of another State intervenes or where the former has yielded its power by an international agreement for the sake of international cooperation. Hence, it is not within the realm of the State to issue FAOC towards foreign operators for the reason that these foreign operators are flying in and out of the State. Furthermore, there are other safety audits such as ICAO USOAP, IATA IOSA, FAA IASA, and EU SAFA that assure the safe operation of the aircraft, but within the limit of their power and in compliance with the ICAO SARPs. If the safety level of any operator is not satisfactory, the operator could be banned to operate in the contracting States with watchful eyes until the ICAO SARPs are met. This time-honoured practice has been applied without any serious problems. Besides, we have the new Annex 19 to strengthen and upgrade with easy reference for contracting States. We don't have no reason to introduce additional burden to the States by unilateral actions of some States. These actions have to be corrected. On the other hand, when it comes to the carriage of the Personal or Pilot Log Book, the Korean regulation requiring it is in contrast with other relevant provisions of USA, USOAP, IOSA, and SAFA. The Chicago Convention requires in its Articles 29 and 34 only the carriage of the Journey Log Book and some other certificates, but do not mention the Personal Log Book at all. Paragraph 5.1.1.1 of Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention even makes it clear that the carriage in the aircraft of the Personal Log Book is not required on international flights. The unique Korean regulation in this regards giving the unnecessary burden to the national flag air carriers has to be lifted at once.

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