• Title/Summary/Keyword: 양액재배

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Development of "Miscanthus" the Promising Bioenergy Crop (유망 바이오에너지작물 "억새" 개발)

  • Moon, Youn-Ho;Koo, Bon-Cheol;Choi, Yoyng-Hwan;Ahn, Seung-Hyun;Bark, Surn-Teh;Cha, Young-Lok;An, Gi-Hong;Kim, Jung-Kon;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.330-339
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    • 2010
  • In order to suggest correct direction of researches on Miscanthus spp. which are promising bioenergy crop, authors had reviewed and summarized various literature about botanical taxonomy, morphology and present condition of breeding, cultivation and utilization of miscanthus. Among the genus of Miscanthus which are known 17 species, the most important species are M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus which origin are East Asia including Korea, and M. x giganteus which is inter-specific hybrid of tetraploid M. sacchariflorus and diploid M. sinensis. Miscanthus is superior to other energy crops in resistance to poor environments including cold, saline and damp soil, nitrogen utilization efficiency, budget of input energy and carbon which are required for producing biomass and output which are stored in biomass. The major species for production of energy and industrial products including construction material in Europe, USA and Canada is M. x giganteus which was introduced from Japan in 1930s. In present, many breeding programs are conducted to supplement demerits of present varieties and to develop "Miscanes" which is hybrid of miscanthus and sugar cane. In Korea, the researches on breeding and cultivation of miscanthus were initiated in 2007 by collecting germplasms, and developed "Goedae-Uksae 1" which is high biomass yield and "mass propagation method of miscanthus" which can improve propagation efficiency in 2009. In order to develop "Korean miscanthus industry" in future, the superior varieties available not only domestic but also foreign market should be developed by new breeding method including molecular markers. Researches on production process of cellulosic bio-ethanol including pre-treatment and saccharification of miscanthus biomass also should be strengthen.

Development of Optimal Nutrient Solution for Tomato Substrate Culture in Closed System (토마토의 순환식 고형배지재배에 적합한 배양액 개발)

  • 최은영;이용범;김재영
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted to develop optimal nutrient solution for tomato plants, according to the plant growth stages in closed system. Perlite substrate was supplied with 1/2 and 1 strength of the solution of National Horticultural Research Station in Japan. Plants grew better and the nutrient_contents in the leaves were also proper in 1 strength. Based on these results, optimal nutrient solution in perlite was composed by n/w of 1 strength according to the plant growth rates : N 13.5, P 3.3, K 7.0, Ca 7.0, Mg 3.5 me.L$^{-1}$ in seedling stage, N 14.2, P 3.3, K 8.0, Ca 7.5, Mg 4.0 me.L$^{-1}$ in vegetative stage and N 10.0, P 3.0, K 7.0, Ca 6.0, Mg 3.0 me.L$^{-1}$ in reproductive stage. To examine the suitability of the nutrient solution developed in this experiment, tomato plants were grown in rockwool and supplied with two different composition and concentration of nutrient solution composed by n/w of 1 strength in perlite (SCUT) and by Research Station for Greenhouse Vegetable and Floriculture on the Netherlands (PBG). PH and EC in SCUT were changed little in 1 strength but a significant change of PH was shown in 1/2 strength. Later, drained solutions in rockwool were also analyzed according to the Plant growth stages. Low concentrations of N and P in root zone were shown in early growth stage but N was increased in reproductive stage, while, K, Ca, Mg concentration was consistent through the whole growth stage. Considering these results, we found that the rebalance of N and P was needed, that is, reduction of N concentration in reproductive stage and increasing of P concentration in vegetative stage.

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Growth Characteristics and Germanium Absorption of Brasica juncea C. with Different Types of Germanium Compounds in Hydroponic Cultivation (게르마늄 종류별 양액재배시 갓의 생육특성 및 게르마늄 흡수)

  • Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kang, Seok-Jin;Lee, Seong-Tae;Sung, Hwan-Hoo;Choi, Ik-Won;Kang, Ui-Gum;Kim, Hyun-Ook;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.465-472
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the effect of inorganic ($GeO_2$) and organic (Ge-132) germanium treatment on Brasica juncea C. plant, growth characteristics and Ge contents were examined with various inorganic or organic germanium treatments (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and $100mg\;L^{-1}$), respectively. Brasica juncea C. growth did not much inhibited until Ge $10mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration under both Ge-132 and $GeO_2$ treatments as compared to control. On the other hand, at Ge concentration higher than $25mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration, Brasica juncea C. growth was inhibited under both Ge-132 and $GeO_2$ treatments. Under treatment of $GeO_2$, length of root and shoot slightly increased until $5mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration and dry weight slightly increased until $10mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration. Under treatment of Ge-132, length of root and shoot slightly increased until $10mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration and dry weight slightly increased until $25mg\;L^{-1}$ concentration. Total Ge contents in Brasica juncea C. early seedlings with $GeO_2$ treatment were a bit higher than those with Ge-132 treatment. Germanium was primarily accumulated in the roots (77%) with organic Ge (Ge-132) treatments, whereas Ge was primarily accumulated in the leaf (70%, respectively) with $GeO_2$ treatments. The Ge uptake rates in inorganic Ge treatments were slightly high than those in organic Ge treatments. Under inorganic Ge treatment with $2.5mg\;L^{-1}$, about 3% of Ge was accumulated into plant and distribution in leaf and root was 84.8% and 15.2%, respectively. Under organic Ge treatment with $2.5mg\;L^{-1}$, about 2.6% of Ge was accumulated into plant and distribution in leaf and root was 66.4% and 33.6%, respectively.

Effects of Environmental Substrate Composition on the Growth and Yield of Hydroponically Grown Tomato (토마토 양액재배시 배지 환경조성이 생육 및 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jaesu;Lee, Hyundong;Lee, Sanggyu;Kwak, Kangsu;Kim, Balgeum;Kim, Taehyun;Baek, Jeonghyun;Rho, Siyoung;Hong, Youngsin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.729-735
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different compositions of environmental substrates on hydroponic tomato cultivation. Three different substrates were used in coir chip:dust (v/v=50:50; CP1), coir chip:dust (v/v=80:20; CP2), and rock wool cube with CP2 (CPR). The amount of irrigation during the cultivation period was 190 mL/(plant time) in all substrates. The pH and EC were 5.8-6.2 and 2.6-2.9 dS/m, respectively. The drainage rate in CP1 was 31%, in CP2 was 36%, and in CPR was 29%. The growth of tomato plants in terms of height was higher in CP1 and CPR. The leaf area was greater in CP2. The fresh and dry weights were greater in CP2 and CPR treatments. The net photosynthesis in CP2 ($19.31{\mu}mol\;CO_2/m^2s$) and root activity in CP2 were higher among all three treatments. The soluble solid content of fruit was not significantly different among treatments. The yield per plant in CP2 and CPR treatments was 17% greater than the yield per plant in CP1. Therefore, the most suitable substrate for hydroponic tomato cultivation is the substrate mixed with coir chip:dust (v:v=80:20; CP2), i.e., CPR.

Control of Several Fungi in the Recirculating Hydroponic System by Modified Slow Sand Filtration (재순환 양액재배시 저속 모래여과기 시스템을 이용한 진균류 제어)

  • Park, K.W.;Lee, G.P.;Kim, M.S.;Lee, S.J.;Seo, M.W.
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.347-349
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    • 1998
  • Slow sand filtration was modified and applied for the determination of eliminating efficacy of various fungi and for recommending an easy approach to growers. After 1,500 liter filtration, Fusarium oxysporum was eliminated by several substrates such as activated charcoal (92.5% elimination), silica (90.8%), vermiculite (90.5%), sand (82.3%), perlite (50.4%), and hydroball (21.2%). Silica was able to eliminate several fungi by maximal ratio, which was corresponded to Fusarium oxysporum 120 cfu/mL. Collectotrichum lagenarium 98 cfu/mL. Phytophthora capsici 82 cfu/mL, Botrytis cinerea 62 cfu/mL, Pythium spp. 42 cfu/mL, and Sclerotinia ssp. 52 cfu/mL. In this case, the change of EC was minor and pH was maintained to about 7. In deep flow culture of 'Ddooksum Cheokchookmyeon' lettuce and 'Seokwang' tomato, silica-, activated charcoal-, and vermiculite-based filtration system successfully eliminated Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici from the nutrient solution. As a result, these plants were not diseased by ten weeks after inoculation. With this system, growers can easily control the root-zone fungi in the recirculating hydroponic system.

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Reusing Techniques of Nutrient Solution for Recycling Hydroponic Culture of Lettuce (순환식 상추 양액재배시 양액재활용 기술)

  • 이성재;서명훈;이상우;심상연;이수연
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.172-182
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    • 1999
  • Leaf lettuce(Lacaug sativa L.) was cultivated in deep flow culture to investigate growth and yield in relation to different reusing method of nutrient solution after once cultivation. Five different treatments were allocated to the nutrient solutions - Control(total renewal of solution), NSS(nutrient solution supplement), U control, NSAC(nutrient solution analysis and compensation), NSAC and Humus supply(NSAC with supply of Humus). The pH of solution was kept stable below 7.0 during 4 successive culture in NSAC and NSAC and Humus supply. U was sharply declined in NSS as the number of cultivation was increased. Gmwth and yield of NSAC was similar to those of Control because nutrient elements were kept the balance to the better growth, while the lettuce grown in NSS and EC control was shown lower growth rate. In the nutrient solutions, Content of N $O_3$-N and N $H_4$-N were remarkably decreased after the cultivation in all treatments. Ca and Mg were shown to be accumulated in nutrient solution regardless of culture times and treatments. After the first culture in NSAC and Humus supply, total N and P$_2$ $O_{5}$ content in leaves were lower than any other treatments, but Ca content was higher. Those were not significant as following cultures, and no significant difference of K and Mg content were shown among the treatments.

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Effects of Temperature and EC Concentrations on the Growth and the Sporangial Development of $Phytophthora$ sp. in Paprika Cultivation (온도와 EC 농도가 파프리카 역병 생장과 유주자낭 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Han;Jeong, Sung-Woo;Jo, Dong-Cheon;Bae, Dong-Won;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, it was performed that the influences of temperatures and electrical conductivity on the mycelial growth and formation of zoosporangium of the $Phytophthora$ sp. in paprika nutriculture. We investigated mycelial growth of $Phytophthora$ sp. at different temperatures. Morphological characteristics of the isolated pathogen from paprika were typically similar to those of $Phytophthora$ sp. such as no septa and formation of zoosporangia. Optimum growth temperature of the pathogen was $25^{\circ}C$. At $20^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$ and $15^{\circ}C$, the mycelium growth deceased, respectively. EC level of nutrient solution the mycelial growth was increased EC 0.5 up to $1.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ and reduced 2.0 up to $3.5dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. The formation of sporangia was negatively correlated with EC, and the formation of sporangia were highly inhibited at EC $4dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$.

Increases in the Activities of Microsomal ATPases Prepared from the Roots of Lettuce Cultured in Salt-enhanced Nutrient Solutions (양액내 염류농도 증가에 의한 상추뿌리의 마이크로솜 ATPase 활성증가)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Ja;Kang, Bo-Koo;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2002
  • In order to investigate the mechanism of growth inhibition by salt stress, lettuces were grown hydroponically in three different nutrient solutions, normal and 30 mM or 50 mM $KNO_3$-added nutrient solutions, and the electrical conductivities of these solutions were 1.0, 4.5, and 6.5 dS/m, respectively. The activities of plasma and vacuolar $H^+$-ATPases in the root tissue of lettuce were measured by specific inhibitors, 100 ${\mu}M$ vanadate and 50 mM $NO_3^-$, respectively. Microsomal ATPase activity of lettuce grown in the normal nutrient solution was $356\pm1.5$ nmol/min/mg protein. When lettuces were grown in 30 mM and 50 mM $KNO_3$-added nutrient solutions, total activities of microsomal ATPases were increased by 1.6 and 1.9 times, respectively, and the increases were mainly mediated by vacuolar $H^+$-ATPase. These results show that lettuces adapt themselves to salt-stressed condition by increasing the activities of $H^+$-ATPases. Effects of various heavy metal ions were investigated on the microsomal ATPases and various metal ions at 100 $\mu M$ inhibited the activities by 10$\sim$25%. $Cu^{2+}$ showed the highest inhibitory effect on the vacuolar $H^+$-ATPase. These results suggest that lettuce increases the activities of root ATPases, specially that of vacuolar $H^+$-ATPase, in salt-stressed growth conditions and $Cu^{2+}$ could be a useful tool to control the activity of vacuolar $H^+$-ATPase.

양액 재배하에서 질소시비가 옥수수 ( Zea mays L. ) 생육에 미치는 영향

  • 최정선;김무성
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 1993
  • This experiments were carries out to estimate the optimum final cutting date in autumn and the selection of highly adaptable varieties in mountainous pastures of Taekwalyong area. The evaluations were based on the data of varietal differences of dry weight of lant(DW) and yield components of the 1st cutting as affected by various final cutting dates of last autumn. Nine varieties of fall fescue Barvetia, Fuego, Demeter, Safe Barcel Forager, Johnstone, Enforcer and Stef, were used and 4 final cutting date of autumn were $C_1$, cut on 30 Sept. $C_2$, on 14 Oct. $C_3$, on 28 Oct. and $C_4$ on 11 Nov.. respectively. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Between the dry weight of plant(DM) and yield components of 1st cutting were different by various final cutting dates of autumn. The dry weight of plant(DW) was significantly positive correlated with heading characteristics of the 1st cutting in earlier cuttings$(C_1-C_3)$ of autumn, but there was not significant correlated with heading characteristics of the 1st cutting in the latest cutting$(C_4)$ of autumn. 2. The variety of Forager with heavier weight of heading tiller(HTW) and dry weight of tiller(WT) showed the highest dry weight plant(DW) of the 1st cutting in earlier cuttings$(C_1-C_3)$ of autumn, whereas the variety of Barcel with high number of tillers per plant(NT) showed a high dry weight of plant(DW) of the 1st cutting in the latest cutting$(C_4)$ of autumn. 3. Optimum final cutting date and critical period of mountainous pastures in Taekwalyong area were estimated in late September$(C_1)$ and middle October$(C_2)$, sespectirety. 4. The dry weight of plant(DW) of the 1st cutting was significantly negative correlated with final cutting dates in growth period of autumn.

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Selection of Nutrient Solutions and Substrates for Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) Growth (20일 무(Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus)의 수경재배에 적합한 양액 및 배지의 선발)

  • Park, K. W.;Hong, H. Y.
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.236-247
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    • 1996
  • The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrient solutions, substrates, and nutrient solution concentrations in substrate culture of radish(Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus). Cooper's, Hoagland & Arnon' 5, and Yamazaki's solution were used to determine the most suitable nutrient solution in deep flow culture(DFC). In result, Yamazaki's solution treatment showed better results than Hoagland's and Cooper's solution treatments in leaf length, leaf number, shoot and root fresh weights. Cooper's solution was much worse than others. Root shape index were low as 0.6 in all treatments. The selection of suitable was conducted among 14 kinds of substrates which were used commercially, such as sand, perlite and peatmoss, in substrates culture. Sand was the most proper in radish growth and shortened the growth periods. Sand also showed better results then others in leaf length, leaf number, shoot and root fresh weight. On the contrary, radish growth in peatmoss was the worst. Generally, root shape index was higher in substrate than in DFC. In order to investigate the suitable ionic strength in radish, Yamazaki's solution was treated with EC of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mS/cm. Generally radish growth above 1.0 mS/cm concentration was good, and the best result was shown in 1.5 mS/cm. Vitamin C contents were not significantly different in the roots of radish grown under 1.0 mS/cm or more. The highest vitamin C content was shown in 0.5 mS/cm, and so was thiocyanate content. Anthocyanin contents increased with the increase of the ionic strength in nutrient solution. Mineral nutrient contents had no significant statistical differences between the treatments, but potassium content was remarkably high in 1.5 mS/cm.

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