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Growth Performance of Pinus densiflora Introduced from Six Provenances of Japan at Chungju, Korea (충주에 식재한 일본 6개 산지 소나무의 생장)

  • Kwon, Yong-Rak;Ryu, Keun-Ok;Kim, In-Sik;Lee, Kap Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.3
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    • pp.250-255
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    • 2006
  • Pinus densiflora is a dominant conifer species in Korea and also distributed in regions of Japan and eastern China. Success in the establishment and productivity of forest tree plantation is largely determined by selection of species and seed source. The provenance tests of Pinus densiflora in Korea are underway. However, the information of the growth performance of Japanese and Chinese provenances are insufficient. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Pinus densiflora Japanese provenances. Data were collected from a provenance trial including established by Korea Forest Research Institude at Chungju in 1970. Six Japanese provenances ($31^{\circ}90^{\prime}{\sim}40^{\circ} 27^{\prime}$ in latitude and $128^{\circ}47^{\prime}{\sim}141^{\circ}80^{\prime}$ in longitude) were included in this trial. Pyeongchang provenance at Kangwon province in Korea was used for reference provenance. At nursery stage, the height and diameter at root collar of six Japanese provenances were smaller than those of Pyeongchang provenance. Among Japanese provenances, Kasahara provenance showed higher growth performance than those of others. The provenance rankings of growth performance were fluctuated until age 11. However, the growth performance of Japanese provenances showed higher than those of reference provenance after age 17. Kirishima-yama provenance showed best growth performance. Simple correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the geographic factors affecting growth performance. The height growth showed negative corelation with latitude of seed origin. Generally, Japanese provenences of Pinus densiflora were well adapted and grown in Chungju. However, it was suggested that further studies on other sites need to generalize the results of this study.

Dynamic Traffic Assignment Using Genetic Algorithm (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 동적통행배정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kyung-Chul;Park, Chang-Ho;Chon, Kyung-Soo;Rhee, Sung-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Geospatial Information Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 2000
  • Dynamic traffic assignment(DTA) has been a topic of substantial research during the past decade. While DTA is gradually maturing, many aspects of DTA still need improvement, especially regarding its formulation and solution algerian Recently, with its promise for In(Intelligent Transportation System) and GIS(Geographic Information System) applications, DTA have received increasing attention. This potential also implies higher requirement for DTA modeling, especially regarding its solution efficiency for real-time implementation. But DTA have many mathematical difficulties in searching process due to the complexity of spatial and temporal variables. Although many solution algorithms have been studied, conventional methods cannot iud the solution in case that objective function or constraints is not convex. In this paper, the genetic algorithm to find the solution of DTA is applied and the Merchant-Nemhauser model is used as DTA model because it has a nonconvex constraint set. To handle the nonconvex constraint set the GENOCOP III system which is a kind of the genetic algorithm is used in this study. Results for the sample network have been compared with the results of conventional method.

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A study on the Standardization of Design Guidelines for Geographic Information Databases (지리정보 DB 설계 지침의 표준화 연구)

  • Lim, Duk-Sung;Moon, Sang-Ho;Si, Jong-Ik;Hong, Bong-Hee
    • Journal of Korea Spatial Information System Society
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2003
  • Recently, two international standard organizations, ISO and OGC, have done the work of standardization for GIS. Current standardization work for providing interoperability among GIS DB focuses on the design of open interfaces. But, this work has not considered procedures and methods for designing GIS DB. Eventually, GIS DB has its own model. When we share the data by open interface among heterogeneous GIS DB, differences between models result in the loss of information. Our aim in this paper is to revise the design guidelines for geographic information databases in order to make consistent spatial data models, logical structures, and semantic structure of populated geographical databases. In details, we propose standard guidelines which convert ISO abstract schema into relation model, object-relation model, object-centered model, and geometry-centered model. Furthermore, we provide sample models for applying these guidelines in commercial GIS S/Ws. Building GIS DB based on design guidelines proposed in the paper has the following advantages: the interoperability among databases, the standardization of schema definitions, and the catalogue of GIS databases through.

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An Investigation of Reliability and Safety Factors in RC Flexural Members Designed by Current WSD Standard Code (현행(現行) 허용응력설계법(許容應力設計法)으로 설계(設計)되는 RC 휨부재(部材)의 신뢰성(信賴性)과 안전율(安全率) 고찰(考察))

  • Shin, Hyun Mook;Cho, Hyo Nam;Chung, Hwan Ho
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 1981
  • Current standard code for R.C. design consists of two conventional design parts, so called WSD and USD, which are based on ACI 318-63 and 318-71 code provisions. The safety factors of our WSD and USD design criteria which are taken primarily from ACI 318-63 code are considered to be not appropriate compared to out country's design and construction practices. Furthermore, even the ACI safety factors are not determined from probabilistic study but merely from experiences and practices. This study investigates the safety level of R.C. flexural members designed by the current WSD safety provisions based on Second Moment Reliability theory, and proposes a rational but efficient way of determining the nominal safety factors and the associated flexural allowable stresses of steel bars and concretes in order to provide a consistent level of target reliability. Cornell's Mean First-Order Second Moment Method formulae by a log normal transformation of resistance and load output variables are adopted as the reliability analysis method for this study. The compressive allowable stress formulae are derived by a unique approach in which the balanced steel ratios of the resulting design are chosen to be the corresponding under-reinforced sections designed by strength design method with an optimum reinforcing ratio. The target reliability index for the safety provisions are considered to be ${\beta}=4$ that is well suited for our level of construction and design practices. From a series of numerical applications to investigate the safety and reliability of R.C. flexural members designed by current WSD code, it has been found that the design based on WSD provision results in uneconomical design because of unusual and inconsistent reliability. A rational set of reliability based safety factors and allowable stress of steel bars and concrete for flexural members is proposed by providing the appropriate target reliability ${\beta}=4$.

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Acquisition of High Resolution Images and its Application using Synchrotron Radiation Imaging System (방사광 X-선을 이용한 고해상도 영상획득과 응용)

  • 홍순일;김희중;정해조;홍진오;정하규;김동욱;제정호;김보라;유형식
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2001
  • Synchrotron radiation (SR) has several advantages over convetional x-rays, including its phase, collimation, and high flux. A synchrotron radiation beamline 5C1 at Pohang Light Source (PLS) was recently built for imaging applications. We have shown that a SR imaging system is useful in imaging microscopic structures. SR with broad-band energy spectrum were adjusted to an object by Si wafers and their energy were approximately ranging from 6 keV to 30 keV. SR were passed through an object and finally transformed into visible lights by CdWO$_4$ scintillator screen. The visible lights which were reflected at an angle of 90 degrees by gold plated mirror were detected by a CCD camera and the image data were acquired using image acquisition system. A high-resolution phantom, capacitor, adult tooth, child tooth, cancerous breast tissue, and mouse lumbar vertebra were imaged with SR imaging system. The Objects were rotated within the field of view of the CCD detector, and their projection image data were obtained at 250 steps over 180 degrees rotation. Image reconstructions were carried out in a PC by using IDLTM(Research systems, Inc., US) program. The spatial resolution of the images acquired by the SR imaging system was measured with a high-resolution chart manufactured for several micrometer resolution. The specimens were also imaged with conventional x-ray radiography system to compare the image quality of radiography obtained with the SR imaging system. The results showed more structural details and high contrast images with SR imaging system than conventional x-ray radiography system. The SR imaging system may have a potential for imaging in biological researches, material applications, and clinical radiography.

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The Study on the Sexual Behavior of Unmarried Female Workers in the Small and Medium Scale Industries (중소규모 산업장 미혼 근로여성의 성행태에 관한 연구)

  • 한성현;박민향
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.175-205
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to find the distribution of the variables on the quality of life and the determinants of the sexual attitude and behavior of the unmarried female workers. This study was surveyed to the 306 unmarried women who worked in the small and medium scale industries in Kyungin area and analyzed the respondent's knowledge of sex, sexual behavior, health behavior, health status, satisfaction of working condition and recognition of working environment. The result of this study could be summarized as follows: The respondent's age are mostly early of twenties and their education level are high school and more. They recognize that their health condition is not so good but they hardly try to improve health condition. They think that their working condition are mostly unsatisfied and they also believe that they expose themselves to the toxic working environment. Although their knowledge of sex are low they have few chances for the education of sex and family planning. Their attitude of premarital sex are conservertive but the rate of approval of living together before marriage are high and the rate of premarital sex is around 15 percent. The premarital sex behavior are positively related with family size, living condition, knowledge of sex and working period but the sex experiences are negatively related with working period and knowledge of sex. As a result we suggest that the sex education and consultative program are necessary for improving the quality of life of the unmarried working women in small and medium scale industries.

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Quaternary Sea Levels Estimated from River Terraces of the Ungcheon River, Midwestern Coast of South Korea (態川川流域의 河成段丘로부터 推定되는 舊汀線高度와 그 意義, 韓國 西海岸의 第四紀 環境變化 究明에 있어서 臨海山岳地域 小河川 河成段丘 硏究의 重要性 考察)

  • Choi, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.613-629
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    • 1996
  • River terraces of glacial and interglacial periods are most developed in the Ungcheon River, midwestern coastal region of south Korea. Among these terraces, interglacial river terraces correspond to the thalassostatic terraces of eastern coastal region of Korea. Thus the former shoreline altitudes of the coastal region around Ungcheon River can be estimated by using relative heights of these interglacial thalassostatic terraces of Ungcheon River The former shoreline altitudes estimated from interglacial thalassostatic terraces of Ungcheon River are 80m, 50${\sim}$60m, 40${\sim}$45m, 30m, 25m(?), 15${\sim}$20m, and 10m. These estimates are almost identical with those of Quaternary sea levels of eastern coastal region. Among the above estimates of Ungcheon River, the former shoreline altituded of 15~20m and 10m correspond to the ancient sea levels of $\pm$18m and $\pm$10m of eastern coastal region which were injudged as the last interglacial culmination period and late warmer period of the last interglacia(5e and 5a substages of oxygen isotope stage), respectively. Therefore there is a possibility that the rest of the above former shoreline altitudes of the coastal region aroune Jngcheon River also correspond to those of eastern coastal region. On the basis of the above possibility it can be proposed that the eastern and western coastal region of Korean Peninsula have undergone tectonic uplift of equall amount since the middle Quaternary Period.

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Health and nutritional status of Korean underweight women in their twenties: Based on the 2010~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20대 저체중 한국여성의 건강 및 영양 상태: 2010~2012년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Jeong, Sa Rang;Kim, Sunghee;Yang, Yoon Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The current study was conducted in order to identify health and nutritional status of Korean underweight women in their twenties by comparing with normal, overweight, and obese women. Methods: Data from the 2010~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in this study. Subjects were 897 women aged 20~29 years. Subjects were classified according to underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese groups based on body mass index. Health status was assessed using data from the health questionnaire and examination. Nutritional status was assessed using data from 24-hour dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Results: The underweight group had higher education and exercised less than the obese group. Means of blood chemistry and blood pressure of the underweight group did not differ from those of the normal weight group. Means of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, blood cell counts, and blood pressure in the underweight group were different from those of the overweight or obese group. Proportions of delivery, breast feeding, and irregular menstruation in the underweight group were lower compared with the other groups. Except retinol intake, means of nutrient intake did not differ among four groups. There were significant differences among four groups in the intakes of cereals and eggs and frequency of consumption of dairy products. Conclusion: The current findings showed that health and nutritional status of underweight women in their twenties did not differ from those of normal weight women. In particular, health status of underweight women in their twenties was better than that of obese women of the same ages. Further study on health and nutritional status of extremely underweight women is necessary.

Analysis of Trends of Researches in Science Education on Underrepresented Students (소외계층학생을 대상으로 한 과학교육 연구의 동향 분석)

  • Nam, Ilkyun;Rhee, Sang Won;Im, Sungmin
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.921-935
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this research is to investigate trends of science educational researches on underrepresented students by scrutinizing Korean science education research literatures. For this particular purpose, literatures on underrepresented students were extracted from both listed and candidate journals for KCI and theses from 1984 to February 2017, and analyzed criteria such as source, year of publication, design, method, and content of research. A total of 125 papers from journals and 147 theses were extracted. In these researches, 61%, 20%, 6% were about students with disability, underachievers, and North Korean defector students respectively. The ratio of the researches on other underrepresented students such as multicultural, low income families, students who are from rural areas, and other underrepresented students were less than 5%. According to the year of publication, it was found that the number of research papers on underrepresented students increased continuously by a single digit from 1984 by focusing on the students with disability and underachievers. After that, from around 2008, it showed a rapid increase and researches on underrepresented students carried out more than 20 times annually. With regards to research design, there were 58% quantitative, 28% qualitative and 14% hybrid research design. Through analysis of research methods, we found that 30% of experimental research, 22% of interpretive research, 20% of correlation analysis, and 14% of survey research. After going through the characteristics of the research contents by visualizing the relationship between the research groups and the keywords that were extracted, it was found that even though the science education researches on underrepresented students have various contents, there were no keywords that were researched continuously and intensively in this area. The structural relationship between the keywords and each research group on underrepresented students showed that 'academic achievement' is the keyword with the highest degree of mediateness and connectedness.

An Electrical Conductivity Reconstruction for Evaluating Bone Mineral Density : Simulation (골 밀도 평가를 위한 뼈의 전기 전도도 재구성: 시뮬레이션)

  • 최민주;김민찬;강관석;최흥호
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 2004
  • Osteoporosis is a clinical condition in which the amount of bone tissue is reduced and the likelihood of fracture is increased. It is known that the electrical property of the bone is related to its density, and, in particular, the electrical resistance of the bone decreases as the bone loss increases. This implies that the electrical property of bone may be an useful parameter to diagnose osteoporosis, provided that it can be readily measured. The study attempted to evaluate the electrical conductivity of bone using a technique of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It nay not be easy in general to get an EIT for the bone due to the big difference (an order of 2) of electrical properties between the bone and the surrounding soft tissue. In the present study, we took an adaptive mesh regeneration technique originally developed for the detection of two phase boundaries and modified it to be able to reconstruct the electrical conductivity inside the boundary provided that the geometry of the boundary was given. Numerical simulation was carried out for a tibia phantom, circular cylindrical phantom (radius of 40 mm) inside of which there is an ellipsoidal homeogenous tibia bone (short and long radius are 17 mm and 15 mm, respectively) surrounded by the soft tissue. The bone was located in the 15 mm above from the center of the circular cross section of the phantom. The electrical conductivity of the soft tissue was set to be 4 mS/cm and varies from 0.01 to 1 ms/cm for the bone. The simulation considered measurement errors in order to look into its effects. The simulated results showed that, if the measurement error was maintained less than 5 %, the reconstructed electrical conductivity of the bone was within 10 % errors. The accuracy increased with the electrical conductivity of the bone, as expected. This indicates that the present technique provides more accurate information for osteoporotic bones. It should be noted that tile simulation is based on a simple two phase image for the bone and the surrounding soft tissue when its anatomical information is provided. Nevertheless, the study indicates the possibility that the EIT technique may be used as a new means to detect the bone loss leading to osteoporotic fractures.