• Title, Summary, Keyword: 수치해석

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Nutritional Properties, as Food Resources for Menu Development, of Cubed Snailfish, Shaggy Sea Raven, and Two Kinds of Wild Vegetables that are Staple Products in Samcheok (삼척지역 특산물인 곰치, 풍덕구이, 곰취, 곤드레의 향토식품 소재화를 위한 영양적 특성 연구)

  • Surh, Jeong-Hee;Kim, Jong-Ok;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Choel;Yang, Hee-Wan;Lee, Byung-Yong;Kim, Mi-Young;Yun, Sun-Ju;Jeong, Hye-Ryeon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.690-702
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    • 2009
  • Liparis tessellatus(cubed snailfish), Hemitripterus villosus(shaggy sea raven), Ligularia fischeri, and Cirsiu setidens, which are staple products in Samcheok, were studied as food resources for the development of a representative local menu. Thus, their nutritional compositions were analyzed, and the resulting values were used to assess the nutritional characteristics of the newly-developed menu. In Liparis tessellatus and Hemitripterus villosus, the organic components including protein and fat tended to be lower than the corresponding values referred to as the 'Seventh Revision Food Composition Table' (2006), which was presumably linked to the spawning period of the fish. The contents of Zn, Cu, and Mg, which are nutritionally important even though the consumption of these minerals by Koreans is not sufficient, were determined to 0.5, 0.2, and 34.3 mg/100 g for Ligularia fischeri, and 26.2, 1.1, and 147.7 mg/100 g for dried Cirsiu setidens. Cirsiu setidens cultivated in Samcheok contained noticeably higher amounts of calcium, zinc, and iron, and its calcium level was more than an order of magnitude higher than that provided by the Food Composition Table. This might be associated with the fact of that Samcheok is abundant in lime which consists of calcium-containing inorganic materials. n-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) accounted for 21% and 13% of the total fatty acids, for Liparis tessellatus and Hemitripterus villosus, respectively, and the major amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, and alanine for both fish. One of the newly developed menus, Cirsiu setidens hae-jang-gook, was nutritionally superior to the corresponding menu that used dried radish leaves, a typical ingredient in hae-jang-gook, in terms of the protein, iron, and zinc contents. Rice pottage cooked with Liparis tessellatus instead of abalone was high in protein, calcium, iron and zinc, where one serving provided 29.1, 15.4, 31.0, and 27.8% of their Reference Intake (RI)s, respectively.

A Study of Feasibility of Dipole-dipole Electric Method to Metallic Ore-deposit Exploration in Korea (국내 금속광 탐사를 위한 쌍극자-쌍극자 전기탐사의 적용성 연구)

  • Min, Dong-Joo;Jung, Hyun-Key;Park, Sam-Gyu;Chon, Hyo-Taek;Kwak, Na-Eun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.250-262
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    • 2008
  • In order to assess the feasibility of the dipole-dipole electric method to the investigation of metallic ore deposit, both field data simulation and inversion are carried out for several simplified ore deposit models. Our interest is in a vein-type model, because most of the ore deposits (more than 70%) exist in a vein type in Korea. Based on the fact that the width of the vein-type ore deposits ranges from tens of centimeters to 2m, we change the width and the material property of the vein, and we use 40m-electrode spacing for our test. For the vein-type model with too small width, the low resistivity zone is not detected, even though the resistivity of the vein amounts to 1/300 of that of the surrounding rock. Considering a wide electrode interval and cell size used in the inversion, it is natural that the size of the low resistivity zone is overestimated. We also perform field data simulation and inversion for a vein-type model with surrounding hydrothermal alteration zones, which is a typical structure in an epithermal ore deposits. In the model, the material properties are assumed on the basis of resistivity values directly observed in a mine originated from an epithermal ore deposits. From this simulation, we can also note that the high resistivity value of the vein does not affect the results when the width of the vein is narrow. This indicates that our main target should be surrounding hydrothermal alteration zones rather than veins in field survey. From these results, we can summarize that when the vein is placed at the deep part and the difference of resistivity values between the vein and the surrounding rock is not large enough, we cannot detect low resistivity zone and interpret the subsurface structures incorrectly using the electric method performed at the surface. Although this work is a little simple, it can be used as references for field survey design and field data Interpretation. If we perform field data simulation and inversion for a number of models and provide some references, they will be helpful in real field survey and interpretation.

Imaging Inner Structure of Bukbawi at Mt. Palgong Provincial Park Using Ground Penetrating Radar (지하투과레이더를 활용한 팔공산 도립공원 북바위 내부구조 연구)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Gi;Baek, Seung-Ho;Kim, Seung-Sep;Lee, Na Young;Kwon, Jang-Soon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.487-495
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    • 2017
  • A granite rock body, called 'Bukbawi', located on a mountaineering trail at Mt. Palgong Provincial Park is popular among the public because it resembles a percussion instrument. If someone hits the specific surface area of this rock body, people can hear drum-like sound. Such phenomenon may be geologically associated with exfoliation process of the granite body or miarolitic cavity developed after gasses escaped during formation of granite. To understand better the inner structure causing drum-like sound, we carried out a non-destructive ground-penetrating radar survey. In this study, as our primary target is very close to the surface, we utilized 1 GHz antennas to produce high-resolution near-surface images. In order to construct 3-D internal images, the measurements were conducted along a pre-defined grid. The processed radargrams revealed that the locations associated with 'drum' sound coincide with strong reflections. In addition, both reflection patterns of fracture and cavity were observed. To further quantify the observed reflections, we simulated GPR scans from a synthetic fracture in a granite body, filled with different materials. The simulated results suggest that both exfoliation process and miarolitic cavity may have contributed to the 'drum' phenomena. Furthermore, the radargrams showed a well-developed cavity signature where two major reflection planes were crossed. Thus, our study is an example of non-destructive geophysical studies that can promote Earth Science in the broader community by examining geological structures attracting the public.

The Study on New Radiating Structure with Multi-Layered Two-Dimensional Metallic Disk Array for Shaping flat-Topped Element Pattern (구형 빔 패턴 형성을 위한 다층 이차원 원형 도체 배열을 갖는 새로운 방사 구조에 대한 연구)

  • 엄순영;스코벨레프;전순익;최재익;박한규
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.667-678
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, a new radiating structure with a multi-layered two-dimensional metallic disk array was proposed for shaping the flat-topped element pattern. It is an infinite periodic planar array structure with metallic disks finitely stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures. The theoretical analysis was in detail performed using rigid full-wave analysis, and was based on modal representations for the fields in the partial regions of the array structure and for the currents on the metallic disks. The final system of linear algebraic equations was derived using the orthogonal property of vector wave functions, mode-matching method, boundary conditions and Galerkin's method, and also their unknown modal coefficients needed for calculation of the array characteristics were determined by Gauss elimination method. The application of the algorithm was demonstrated in an array design for shaping the flat-topped element patterns of $\pm$20$^{\circ}$ beam width in Ka-band. The optimal design parameters normalized by a wavelength for general applications are presented, which are obtained through optimization process on the basis of simulation and design experience. A Ka-band experimental breadboard with symmetric nineteen elements was fabricated to compare simulation results with experimental results. The metallic disks array structure stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures was realized using ion-beam deposition method on thin polymer films. It was shown that the calculated and measured element patterns of the breadboard were in very close agreement within the beam scanning range. The result analysis for side lobe and grating lobe was done, and also a blindness phenomenon was discussed, which may cause by multi-layered metallic disk structure at the broadside. Input VSWR of the breadboard was less than 1.14, and its gains measured at 29.0 GHz. 29.5 GHz and 30 GHz were 10.2 dB, 10.0 dB and 10.7 dB, respectively. The experimental and simulation results showed that the proposed multi-layered metallic disk array structure could shape the efficient flat-topped element pattern.

Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions of Stream Waters in the Han River Basin (한강 수계 분지내 하천수의 산소, 수소 안정동위원소 조성)

  • 김규한;이세희
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2002
  • Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of stream water in the Han river basin are expressed by the equation of $\delta$D=6.6$\delta$$^{18}$ O-7.4, which is not satisfy the meteoric water line ($\delta$D=8$\delta$$^{18}$ O+10). It might be depended on the local climatic condition and the evaporation effect in the Han river basin. The $\delta$$^{18}$ O and $\delta$D values of stream water in the Han river basin range from -8.2 to -10$\textperthousand$ (avg. -9.1$\textperthousand$) and -60 to -96$\textperthousand$ (avg. -69$\textperthousand$), respectively. The stream water from the South Han river (8$\delta$$^{18}$ O= -8.9~ -10$\textperthousand$, avg.-9.3$\textperthousand$ $\delta$D: -66~ -96$\textperthousand$, avg.-69$\textperthousand$) is slightly more depleted in $^{18}$ O and D than those of North Han river ($\textperthousand$$^{18}$ O= -8.4~ -9.7$\textperthousand$, avg. -9.2$\textperthousand$, $\delta$D= -64~ -95$\textperthousand$, avg. -69$\textperthousand$). It reflects more altitude effect than the effect of latitude and Inflow of the $^{18}$ O eniched S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and HC $O_3$- from the carbonate rock and sulfide minerals in the Taebagsan and Hwanggangri mineralized zone. The Main stream water of the Han river having $\delta$D: -60~ -76$\textperthousand$ (avg.-68$\textperthousand$) and $\textperthousand$$^{18}$ O= -8.2~-10$\textperthousand$ (avg.9.0$\textperthousand$) is enriched in $^{18}$ O compared to the South and North Han river waters, which is caused by the evaporation effect. Binary simple mixing ratio of the Main Han river water between South and North Han river waters was obtained to be 6 : 4 by the isotopic data, suggesting a strong influence of South Han river water to the Main Han river water.

Voluntary Motor Control Change after Gait Training in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (척수신경손상 환자의 보행훈련 전.후의 능동적 근육제어의 변화)

  • 임현균;이동철;이영신;셔우드아더
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2003
  • In this study, muscle activity was measured using surface EMG (sEMG) during a voluntary maneuver (ankle dorsiflexion) in the supine position was compared pre and post gait training. Nine patients with incomplete spinal cord injury participated in a supported treadmill ambulation training (STAT), twenty minutes a day, five days a week for three months. Two tests, a gait speed test and a voluntary maneuver test, were made the same day, or at least the same week, pre and post gait training. Ten healthy subjects' data recorded using the same voluntary maneuvers were used for the reference. sEMG measured from ten lower limb muscles was used to observe the two features of amplitude and motor control distribution pattern, named response vector. The result showed that the average gait speed of patients increased significantly (p〈0.1) from 0.47$\pm$0.35 m/s to 0.68$\pm$0.52 m/s. In sEMG analysis, six out of nine patients showed a tendency to increase the right tibialis anterior activity during right ankle dorsiflexion from 109.7$\pm$148.5 $mutextrm{V}$ to 145.9$\pm$180.7 $mutextrm{V}$ but it was not significant (p〈0.055). In addition, only two patients showed increase of correlation coefficient and total muscle activity in the left fide during left dorsiflexion. Patients' muscle activity changes after gait training varied individually and generally depended on their muscle control abilities of the pre-STAT status. Response vector being introduced for quantitative analysis showed good Possibility to anticipate. evaluate, and/or guide patients with SCI, before and after gait training.

Development of Empirical Fragility Function for High-speed Railway System Using 2004 Niigata Earthquake Case History (2004 니가타 지진 사례 분석을 통한 고속철도 시스템의 지진 취약도 곡선 개발)

  • Yang, Seunghoon;Kwak, Dongyoup
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2019
  • The high-speed railway system is mainly composed of tunnel, bridge, and viaduct to meet the straightness needed for keeping the high speed up to 400 km/s. Seismic fragility for the high-speed railway infrastructure can be assessed as two ways: one way is studying each element of infrastructure analytically or numerically, but it requires lots of research efforts due to wide range of railway system. On the other hand, empirical method can be used to access the fragility of an entire system efficiently, which requires case history data. In this study, we collect the 2004 MW 6.6 Niigata earthquake case history data to develop empirical seismic fragility function for a railway system. Five types of intensity measures (IMs) and damage levels are assigned to all segments of target system for which the unit length is 200 m. From statistical analysis, probability of exceedance for a certain damage level (DL) is calculated as a function of IM. For those probability data points, log-normal CDF is fitted using MLE method, which forms fragility function for each damage level of exceedance. Evaluating fragility functions calculated, we observe that T=3.0 spectral acceleration (SAT3.0) is superior to other IMs, which has lower standard deviation of log-normal CDF and low error of the fit. This indicates that long-period ground motion has more impacts on railway infrastructure system such as tunnel and bridge. It is observed that when SAT3.0 = 0.1 g, P(DL>1) = 2%, and SAT3.0 = 0.2 g, P(DL>1) = 23.9%.

A Study on Load-carrying Capacity Design Criteria of Jack-up Rigs under Environmental Loading Conditions (환경하중을 고려한 Jack-up rig의 내하력 설계 기준에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Joo Shin;Ha, Yeon Chul;Seo, Jung Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2020
  • Jack-up drilling rigs are widely used in the offshore oil and gas exploration industry. Although originally designed for use in shallow waters, trends in the energy industry have led to a growing demand for their use in deep sea and harsh environmental conditions. To extend the operating range of jack-up units, their design must be based on reliable analysis while eliminating excessive conservatism. In current industrial practice, jack-up drilling rigs are designed using the working(or allowable) stress design (WSD) method. Recently, classifications have been developed for specific regulations based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method, which emphasises the reliability of the methods. This statistical method utilises the concept of limit state design and uses factored loads and resistance factors to account for uncertainly in the loads and computed strength of the leg components in a jack-up drilling rig. The key differences between the LRFD method and the WSD method must be identified to enable appropriate use of the LRFD method for designing jack-up rigs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare and quantitatively investigate the differences between actual jack-up lattice leg structures, which are designed by the WSD and LRFD methods, and subject to different environmental load-to-dead-load ratios, thereby delineating the load-to-capacity ratios of rigs designed using theses methods under these different enviromental conditions. The comparative results are significantly advantageous in the leg design of jack-up rigs, and determine that the jack-up rigs designed using the WSD and LRFD methods with UC values differ by approximately 31 % with respect to the API-RP code basis. It can be observed that the LRFD design method is more advantageous to structure optimization compared to the WSD method.

DC Resistivity method to image the underground structure beneath river or lake bottom (하저 지반특성 규명을 위한 전기비저항 탐사)

  • Kim Jung-Ho;Yi Myeong-Jong;Song Yoonho;Cho Seong-Jun;Lee Seong-Kon;Son Jeongsul
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.139-162
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    • 2002
  • Since weak zones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, weak zones may develop beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. Dc resistivity surveys, however, have seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of case histories, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing at the water bottom, since the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the dc resistivity method can provide the fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio data as well as the high resolving power. The method installing electrodes at the water bottom is suitable to the detailed survey because of much higher resolving power, whereas the method floating them, especially streamer dc resistivity survey, is to the reconnaissance survey owing of very high speed of field work.

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A Study on the Consideration of the Locations of Gyeongju Oksan Gugok and Landscape Interpretation - Focusing on the Arbor of Lee, Jung-Eom's "Oksan Gugok" - (경주 옥산구곡(玉山九曲)의 위치비정과 경관해석 연구 - 이정엄의 「옥산구곡가」를 중심으로 -)

  • Peng, Hong-Xu;Kang, Tai-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to examine the characteristics of landscape through the analysis of location and the landscape of Gugok while also conducting the empirical study through the literature review, field study, and digital analysis of the Okgung Gugok. Oksan Gugok is a set of songs set in Ogsan Creek(玉山川)or Jagyese Creek(紫溪川, 紫玉山), which flows in front of the Oksan Memorial Hall(李彦迪), which is dedicated to the Lee Eong-jeok (李彦迪). We first ascertained the location and configuration of Oksan Gogok. Second, we confirmed the accurate location of Oksan Gogok by utilizing the digital topographic map of Oksan Gogok which was submitted by Google Earth Pro and Geographic Information Center as well as the length of the longitude of the gravel measured by the Trimble Juno SB GPS. Through the study of the literature and the field investigation, The results of the study are as follows. First, Yi Eonjeok was not a direct composer of Oksan Gugok, nor did he produce "Oksan Gugokha(Music)". Lee Ia-sung(李野淳), the ninth Youngest Son of Tweo-Kye, Hwang Lee, visited the "Oksan Gugokha" in the spring of 1823(Sunjo 23), which was the 270th years after the reign of Yi Eonjeok. At this time, receiving the proposal of Ian Sung, Lee Jung-eom(李鼎儼), Lee Jung-gi(李鼎基), and Lee Jung-byeong(李鼎秉), the descendants of Ian Sung set up a song and created Oksan Gugok Music. And the Essay of Oksan Travel Companions writted by Lee Jung-gi turns out being a crucial data to describe the situation when setting up the Ok-San Gugok. Second, In the majority of cases, Gogok Forest is a forest managed by a Confucian Scholar, not run by ordinary people. The creation of "Oksan Bugok Music" can be regarded as an expression of pride that the descendants of Yi Eonjeok and Lee Hwang, and next generation of several Confucian scholars had inherited traditional Neo-Confucian. Third, Lee Jung-eom's "Oksan Donghaengki" contains a detailed description of the "Oksan Gugokha" process and the process of creating a song. Fourth, We examined the location of one to nine Oksan songs again. In particular, eight songs and nine songs were located at irregular intervals, and eight songs were identified as $36^{\circ}01^{\prime}08.60^{{\prime}{\prime}}N$, $129^{\circ}09^{\prime}31.20^{{\prime}{\prime}}E$. Referring to the ancient kingdom of Taojam, the nine-stringed Sainam was unbiased as a lower rock where the two valleys of the East West congregate. The location was estimated at $36^{\circ}01^{\prime}19.79^{{\prime}{\prime}}N$, $129^{\circ}09^{\prime}30.26^{{\prime}{\prime}}E$. Fifth, The landscape elements and landscapes presented in Lee Jung-eom's "Oksan Gugokha" were divided into form, semantic and climatic elements. As a result, Lee Jung-eom's Cho Young-gwan was able to see the ideal of mountain water and the feeling of being idle in nature as well as the sense of freedom. Sixth, After examining the appearance of the elements and the frequency of the appearance of the landscape, 'water' and 'mountain' were the absolute factors that emphasized the original curved environment at the mouth of Lee Jung-eom. Therefore, there was gugokga can gauge the fresh ideas(神仙思想)and retreat ever(隱居思想). This inherent harmony between the landscape as well as through the mulah any ideas that one with nature and meditation, Confucian tube.